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Title: Biology I EOC Review


1
Biology I EOC Review
2
  • State the 3 tenets of the Cell
  • Theory
  • All organisms are composed of cells.
  • The cell is the basic unit of any organism.
  • Cells come from other cells.

3
  • Compare and contrast prokaryotic
  • and eukaryotic cells
  • Prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles,
    including a nucleus (probefore, karyonucleus)
  • Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles
    (nucleus, mitchondria, ER, vacuoles, etc.)
    (eutrue)
  • All cells have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and
    ribosomes

4
  • Kingdoms Archaea and Bacteria are the only
    prokaryotes
  • All other cells (Kingdoms Protista, Fungi,
    Plantae, and Animalia) are eukaryotes

5
  • Identify basic cell organelles,
  • giving their structure and function
  • Nucleus contains DNA, large, usually found in
    cells center, surrounded by a nuclear membrane

6
  • Mitochondria site of Krebs cycle and electron
    transport of cell respiration bulk of ATP made
    here to supply the cell with energy

7
A Mitochondrion
  • Outer membrane, folded inner membrane (cristae),
    fluid called matrix

8
  • Chloroplast site of photosynthesis contains
    chlorophyll along with accessory pigments that
    absorb the energy from the sun to convert carbon
    dioxide and water into sugar

9
A Chloroplast
  • Outer membrane, inner membrane organized in
    flattened sacs (thylakoids), surrounded by fluid
    called stroma

10
  • Lysosome membrane bound contains digestive
    enzymes for breaking down cells and molecules
  • Vacuoles storage compartments membrane bound
    contain food, water, or waste plant cells have
    large water vacuoles and animals have small ones

11
  • Ribosomes site of protein synthesis very small
    (relatively speaking!) and numerous often found
    on the surface of ER

12
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)- membrane bound tubes
    that transport materials rough if ribosomes are
    attached, smooth without ribosomes

13
  • Golgi membrane bound, flattened, stacked, sacs
    modifies, collects, packages, and distributes
    molecules

14
  • Cilia and Flagella small, hairlike extensions
    on the outside of cells usually used for
    locomotion

15
  • Cell membrane (plasma membrane) cell structure
    that encloses the cell and regulates the passage
    of materials into and out of the cell protects
    and supports the cell

16
  • Cell Wall outside cell membrane provides
    support plants, bacteria, fungi, and some
    protists have cell walls

17
  • Cytoplasm jelly-like material moves large
    particles around in cell

18
Locate and identify the organelles from a drawing
or model of a cell
19
Classify a cell as a plant or an animal cell
  • Plant cells have cell walls, a large water
    vacuole, and chloroplasts
  • Animal cells no cell walls, can have cilia
    and/or flagella

20
Which is the plant and which is the animal cell?
How do you know?
21
Explain cell differentiation as the basis for the
hierarchical organization of multicellular
organisms
  • A fertilized egg (zygote) divides to make
    different kinds of cells with different
    structures and functions
  • As cells divide, certain genes are activated or
    turned on and some are deactivated or turned
    off so the cells become different kinds of cells
    (differentiation)

22
  • Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can
    differentiate embryonic stem cells are found in
    embryos adult stem cells are found in adults,
    such as cells in bone marrow that differentiate
    into different types of blood cells

23
  • A group of like cells make up a tissue
  • Groups of different tissues make up an organ
  • Groups of organs make up an organ system
  • cells?tissues?
  • organs?systems

24
Explain active, passive, and facilitated transport
  • Passive transport materials move from higher to
    lower concentrations using their own energy this
    movement is downhill the membrane must be
    permeable to the particle

25
  • Active transport - materials are moved from
    lower to higher concentrations using the cells
    energy this movement is uphill or against the
    concentration gradient for example, when glucose
    is moved into liver cells even if the
    concentration is higher in the liver cells than
    the surrounding blood the liver cells use their
    own energy (ATP)

26
Active Transport Animation
  • http//www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/bio
    coach/biomembrane1/diffusion.html

27
  • Some particles require proteins (ion channels) to
    diffuse through this is called facilitated
    diffusion

28
  • DIFFUSION IS PASSIVE IF PARTICLES ARE MOVING FROM
    A HIGHER TO LOWER CONCENTRATION (DOWN THE
    CONCENTRATION GRADIENT) EVEN IF IT IS FACILITATED
    DIFFUSION!!!!!
  • FACILITATED DIFFUSION ISNT NECESSARILY
    ACTIVE!!!! (Its only active if particles are
    going uphill or from a lower to higher
    concentration)

29
  • Hypotonic solute concentration is low (water
    concentration is high)
  • Hypertonic solute concentration is high (water
    concentration is low)
  • Isotonic solute concentrations are equal (at
    equilibrium)
  • (TONIC MEANS SOLUTE NOT WATER!!!)

30
  • Water goes Out of hypOtonic areas and entERs
    hypERtonic areas

31
Animation showing cytolysis (bursting) and
plasmolysis (shrinking) of a human red blood cell
32
Cytolysis cells taking in too much water
(plants prevent this by the cell wall)
33
Plasmolysis plants losing too much water
34
Large Particles are Transported by Vesicles
35
Large Amounts of Materials Get Into Cells by
Endocytosis and exit by Exocytosis
36
  • Explain the cell cycle to include
  • cytokinesis and mitosis, G1, S, and
  • G2, and cytokinesis

37
  • G1 cell grows and matures
  • S DNA replicates
  • G2 cell prepares for mitosis by making proteins
    used in the division
  • Mitosis cell divides DNA
  • Cytokinesis cytoplasm and other organelles are
    divided

38
Structure of a double-stranded chromosome
39
  • Prophase nuclear membrane breaks down
    chromatin condenses into chromosomes centrioles
    (in animal cells) move to opposite poles spindle
    forms and attaches to opposite chromatids

40
  • Metaphase chromosomes line up at the cells
    equator (metaphase plate)

41
  • Anaphase spindle pulls sister chromatids apart
    to opposite poles (dividing at the centromere)

42
  • Telophase nuclear membrane reforms around each
    set of DNA chromosomes once again become
    chromatin spindle fibers break down overlaps
    with cytokinesis

43
  • Cytokinesis cell divides into two daughter
    cells in animal cells, cleavage occurs (creates
    a cleavage furrow) when the cell pinches in to
    form 2 cells in plant cells, a cell plate forms
    in the cells center which will later from a new
    cell wall

44
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45
  • Discuss cancer as cell division out
  • of control
  • Tumor cells have lost their ability to control
    their cell division caused by carcinogens
    (environmental factors), mutations, or an unknown
    cause

46
  • Signals from inside the cell (internal signals)
    and from outside the cell (external signals) turn
    cell division off and on
  • Cells divide when they are loosely packed
    together and stop dividing when they are touching
    other cells
  • Checkpoints are places in the cell cycle where
    there is either a STOP signal or a GO signal

47
  • Cells of the immune system can sometimes detect
    cancer cells and destroy them
  • A malignant tumor invades tissues and keeps them
    from performing their function it can also
    spread (metastasize)
  • A benign tumor doesnt impair tissue or organ
    function (usually) and doesnt metastasize

48
  • Explain that enzymes lower activation energy.
  • Enzymes lower activation energy (energy required
    to start a chemical reaction), causing reactions
    to proceed faster
  • Enzymes are catalysts they speed up chemical
    reactions, but arent changed themselves

49
Reaction With and Without an Enzyme
50
A Substrate Fits into the Active Site of an
Enzyme Molecule
51
An Enzyme and its Substrate Fitting into the
Active Site
52
  • Enzymes are affected by pH, temperature,
    substrate concentration, and enzyme concentration

53
Most Enzymes Cant Function if its too Hot or
too Cold
54
Most Enzymes Function in the Neutral Zone (pH of
7)
55
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56
  • Buffers are chemicals that regulate pH to
    maintain homeostasis (keeping the same
    environment)

57
HEREDITYDescribe the basic structure of the
nucleic acids deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • Nucleic acids are composed of nucleotides
  • Nitrogen base sugar phosphate

58
  • Nucleotides bond in long chains to form RNA
    and DNA

59
  • State the 3 structural differences between
  • RNA and DNA
  • RNA contains ribose DNA contains deoxyribose
  • DNA contains adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine
    (G), and cytosine (C) RNA contains A, G, C, and
    uracil (U)
  • DNA is double stranded (double helix) RNA is
    single stranded (single helix)

60
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61
Summarize the relationship between DNA, genes,
and chromosomes
  • Chromosome structure in the nucleus consisting
    of one long thread of DNA that is tightly coiled
    around special proteins called histones
  • DNA molecule composed of nucleotides, providing
    the blueprint for the making of proteins

62
  • Gene segment of DNA with the genetic code for
    making one protein
  • Chromosomes are made of DNA (and protein), in
    which small segments code for the amino acid
    sequence of a protein

63
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64
  • Summarize DNA Replication

65
  • Enzyme unwinds DNA
  • Enzymes breaks hydrogen bonds holding pairs bases
    together
  • Another enzyme bonds new DNA nucleotides to each
    strand
  • Each identical DNA molecule has ½ the original
    strand and ½ of a new strand

66
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67
  • Summarize transcription
  • Transcription is the synthesis of RNA
  • Transcription occurs in the nucleus

68
Transcription
69
  • The two complementary strands of DNA separate by
    breaking the hydrogen bonds between paired bases
  • An enzyme bonds RNA nucleotides to one DNA strand
  • T bonds to G and A (on DNA) bonds to U (on RNA)

70
Summarize the steps of translation
  • Translation the making of protein
  • Proteins are made by forming peptide bonds
    between amino acids in long chains

71
Amino acids bond by making peptide bonds

72
The Genetic Code
73
  • Translation begins with mRNA attaching to a
    ribosome
  • The first codon on mRNA is read (usually AUG) and
    the tRNA with the codons corresponding anticodon
    brings an amino acid to the ribosome
  • The codon on mRNA is complementary to the
    anticodon on tRNA bond

74
  • A second codon is read and a second tRNA, also
    carrying the corresponding amino acid, attaches
    to the codon
  • The two amino acids bond together
  • The first tRNA breaks away from the mRNA and the
    mRNA slides down to read the next codon

75
  • This continues until one of the stop codons is
    reached
  • The long chain of amino acids is a polypeptide
  • Once the polypeptide folds up on itself and is
    processed by the Golgi, the protein is complete

76
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77

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79

80
  • Explain how our study of heredity is used in
    modern genetics
  • Genetic engineering putting genes from one
    organism into another can create drought
    resistant plants, higher crop yields, medicine
    like human insulin, pest-resistant plants

81
  • The Human Genome Projects goal was to sequence
    human DNA instead of finding genes one at a time
    project completed in 2003

82
  • Gene maps show where genes are located on
    chromosomes

83
  • Clones are genetic copies it may occur naturally
    (identical twins) or by human intervention
    cloning could produce organs for transplant or
    save endangered species
  • Gene mutations could be cured through gene
    therapy, in which corrected versions of genes are
    inserted (sickle cell, Tay-Sacs, cystic fibrosis)

84
  • Stem cells are undifferentiated cells research
    could lead to cures for diseases or ways to
    replaced damaged body parts stem cells can be
    adult or embryonic
  • Selective breeding is artificially selecting
    organisms to breed for traits we want all
    domesticated plants and animals were created by
    selective breeding the disadvantage is the
    descendants come from a few ancestors that may
    have had undesirable genes (for ex deafness is
    common in dalmatians)

85
  • Hybridization is another type of selective
    breeding in which two closely related species are
    bred the offspring can often have the best
    traits of both donkeys and horses mate to have
    mules

86
  • Summarize the steps of meiosis
  • Meiosis is very similar to mitosis exceptions
    in meiosis, the daughter cells divide twice
    instead of once, crossing over occurs during
    prophase I (mixes up genes), chromatids dont
    separate until anaphase II, all 4 daughter cells
    are genetically different, cells are haploid (1
    chromosome per pair)

87
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91
Summarize Mendels Genetics Principles
  • Principle of Dominance and Recessiveness some
    genes can hide or mask others
  • Law of Segregation Mendels genetics principle
    that states that genes in pairs separate during
    gamete formation and gene pairs are reformed
    during fertilization
  • Law of Independent Assortment genes are
    inherited separately and that creates a variety
    in a population

92
  • Work problems using Punnett squares to
    illustrate the following inheritance patterns
    monohybrids, dihybrids, sex-linked, multiple
    alleles, polygenic traits, codominance, and
    incomplete dominance
  • Monohybrid crosses Punnett squares showing one
    trait at a time

93
Monohybrid Cross

94
  • Dihybrid Crosses Punnett squares showing 2
    traits 16 square Punnett squares

95
  • On a dihybrid cross, if both parents are doubly
    heterozygous, the ratio in the offspring is
    9331

96
  • Sex-linked genes found on the sex chromosomes
    in humans, females have 2 X chromsomes (2 genes)
    and males have 1 X chromosome and 2 Y (they have
    1 gene)
  • Example hemophilia and Duchenne muscular
    dystrophy

97
  • Multiple Alleles more than 2 alleles (forms of
    a gene)
  • Example blood types in humans there are 3
    alleles instead of 2 A gene, B gene, and O gene

98
  • Codominance 2 different alleles that are both
    dominant, so in a heterozygous gene pair, both
    traits show up
  • Example A and B genes in human blood type
    if a person is AB genotype, they make both A and
    B proteins and have blood type AB

99
  • Incomplete Dominance heterozygous genotype
    gives a different phenotype
  • Example red and white genes in Japanese four
    oclocks a red gene paired with a white gene
    makes a pink flower

100
  • Polygenic Traits traits controlled by more than
    one pair of genes example human skin color and
    human height

101
  • Explain gene linkage
  • Discovered after Mendel states that if genes are
    on the same chromosome and located close
    together, they are often inherited together
  • Example red hair and freckles in people
  • Seems to violate Mendels independent principle,
    but as long as genes are on different chromosomes
    or found far apart on the same chromosome, his
    principle holds true

102
  • Give examples of both chromosomal and gene
    mutations
  • Chromosomal mutations affect a large part of a
    chromosome and therefore all of the genes on that
    section of the chromosome
  • Gene mutations only affect one gene and
    therefore, one protein

103
  • Deletion mutations deletion of a section of
    chromosome or one small section of a gene
  • Example cystic fibrosis is a deletion
    mutation in which 3 bases are deleted from a gene
    for a transport protein for Cl-

104
  • Substitution mutations one base gets
    substituted for another one
  • Example in sickle cell, one base substitution
    in the gene for hemoglobin causes abnormally
    shaped red blood cells

105
  • Nondisjunction mutations chromatids or homologs
    fail to separate during meiosis example Downs
    syndrome is caused from an extra 21st chromosome

106
  • Discuss possible causes of mutations to include
    natural (random) and environmentally induced.
  • Mutations can occur naturally during DNA
    replication, cell division, or caused by
    naturally occurring substances in the environment
    (radon from the ground, UV radiation from the
    sun, for example).

107
  • Mutations can also be caused by manmade or
    synthetic substances, such as Agent Orange,
    biological warfare chemicals, pesticides, and
    radiation.

108
  • Explain the difference between a mutation in a
    somatic cell and one in a sex cell.
  • Somatic mutations take place in cells of the body
    (skin, muscle, etc.) and are not passed on to
    offspring
  • Germ cell mutations occur in sex cells and are
    passed from parent to offspring

109
  • Identify some common mutations
  • Sickle cell anemia mutation in gene for
    hemoglobin causes abnormally shaped red blood
    cells autosomal (not found on sex chromosomes)
    recessive

110

111
  • Tay-Sachs mutation in a gene for an enzyme that
    functions in the breakdown of a protein in
    neurons autosomal recessive
  • Cystic fibrosis mutation in a Cl- transport
    protein autosomal recessive
  • Hemophilia mutation in gene for blood clotting
    sex-linked

112
  • Huntingtons progressive nervous deterioration
    symptoms dont occur until middle age inherited
    as an autosomal dominant gene

113
  • Albinism mutated gene for pigments white hair
    white skin usually pink eyes

114
Mutations caused by nondisjunction
  • Downs extra 21st chromosome
  • Klinefelters extra X chromosome males XXY
  • Turners missing X chromosome females XO

115
Interpret pedigrees to determine how a trait is
inherited in a family
116
How is this trait inherited?
117
How is this trait inherited?
118
EVOLUTION
  • Define evolution
  • Changes that have transformed life on Earth
    from the earliest beginnings to the diversity of
    organisms in the world today

119
  • Explain factors that increase genetic
    variability in a population
  • Sexual reproduction causes an increase in genetic
    variability by recombining genes from two
    different parents
  • Mutations increase genetic variability to
    creating new DNA base sequences

120
  • Crossing over increases genetic variability by
    causing a wider diversity in gametes
  • Genetic drift random change in a population
  • Gene flow movement of genes into or out of the
    population

121
Summarize the Hardy-Weinberg Principle
  • Evolution can be measured by determining gene
    frequency (how often does a gene appear in a
    population) if it changes, evolution has taken
    place.
  • If there is no change in the gene frequency of a
    population, it is in genetic equilibrium

122
  • To maintain genetic equilibrium, a population
    must meet 5 conditions
  • (1) Population is large.
  • (2) No movement into or out of the
  • population
  • (3) random mating
  • (4) no mutations
  • (5) no natural selection (all genotypes
  • have equal chance of survival)

123
Explain the process of speciation
  • Speciation is the process of forming a new
    species
  • New species form when organisms in the population
    are isolated so that the new population is
    prevented from reproducing with the original
    population

124
  • Isolation can be
  • temporal species cant interbreed (might
  • breed during different times)
  • behavioral courtship behaviors keep
  • species separated
  • geographic islands, bodies of water,
  • mountain ranges, etc. separate species

125
Summarize patterns of evolution
  • Gradualism species change over long periods of
    time, such as a gradual trend toward a larger
    beak or color of fur
  • Punctuated equilibrium period of abrupt changes
    after long periods of time with little change

126
  • Adaptive radiation (divergent evolution) a
    number of different species branch or split off a
    common ancestor
  • Convergent evolution evolution among different
    groups of organisms living in similar
    environments produce species that are similar in
    behavior or appearance
  • Coevolution two or more species living in close
    proximity change in response to each other

127
  • Extinction elimination of a species when they
    cannot adapt to a change in the environment
  • Extinction can be
  • (1) gradual decline in numbers over
  • long periods of time
  • (2) mass extinction caused by a
  • catastrophic event (such as volcanic
  • eruption, fire, or a meteor hitting the
  • earth)

128
  • Define carrying capacity
  • The largest number of individuals in a population
    that the environment can hold theres enough
    food, space, shelter, water, nutrients, etc. to
    allow that many individuals to survive
  • Causes a competition among organisms

129
Graph showing carrying capacity
130
  • Distinguish between microevolution and
    macroevolution.
  • Microevolution is small changes in a population
    that take place quickly example change in
    color of peppered moths
  • Macroevolution is the accumulation of small
    changes over a long period of time that can cause
    speciation

131
  • Compare and contrast analogous, homologous,
    and vestigial structures and their role in
    determining evolutionary relationships.
  • Analogous structures structures with the same
    function, but not of common descent examples
    bird wings and insect wings

132
  • Homologous structures similarity in structure
    due to common ancestry example forelimbs of
    human, alligator, bat, and gorilla

133
  • Vestigial structures parts of an organism with
    no apparent function today
  • Example appendix in humans pelvic bones in
    whales eyes in blind fish that live in dark caves

134
  • Explain how fossils provide evidence of change
    over time.
  • Some organisms leave traces (imprints of skin or
    leaves, bones, etc.) which provide information
    about what they looked like, etc. when they lived

135
  • Describe how DNA base sequence and amino acid
    sequences provide evidence of common ancestry and
    change over time.
  • The number of DNA base sequences and amino acid
    sequences two organisms have in common
    demonstrate how closely related they are

136
  • For example, humans and dogs have more DNA
    sequences in common than humans and ferns.
  • The hemoglobin of humans and gorillas have more
    amino acids in common than humans and frogs.

137
  • Discuss how examination of embryological
    features can provide evidence of common ancestry
    and change over time.
  • Animal embryos can be examined to identify common
    structures.

138
25 week old human embryo
139
  • Explain that natural selection is the process
    responsible for evolution.
  • Organisms produce many more offspring than can
    survive. Because there is a variety in the
    population, those more adapted survive and pass
    those favorable traits to their offspring.
  • Survival of the fittest

140
  • Explain why traits that do not confer
    advantage may or may not disappear over time.
  • Recessive genes are always present in a
    population example people with Tay-Sachs die
    before reaching elementary school age, so they
    never reproduce Tay-Sachs children continue to
    be born because of heterozygous parents (they are
    carriers and have the recessive gene)

141
  • Describe the process by which fossils are
    formed.
  • Remains are covered by soil that forms into
    sedimentary rock insects get trapped in tree sap
    to make amber organisms are frozen imprints are
    made in wet soil that harden into rock

142
  • Discuss the significance of The Origin of
    Species.
  • Charles Darwin made an excellent argument for
    evolution caused by natural selection based on
    the evidence he collected from the Galapagos
    Islands and it changed the study of evolution.

143
  • Name the 6 kingdoms most commonly used for
    classification and give the basic characteristics
    of each.
  • Archaea prokaryotes that live in harsh
    environments unicellular
  • Bacteria prokaryotes unicellular
  • Protista mostly unicellular eukaryotes
  • Fungi mostly multicellular eukaryotes
    heterotrophs nonmobile cell walls

144
  • Plantae all multicellular eukaryotes immobile
    autotrophs cell walls
  • Animalia all multicellular eukaryotes mobile
    heterotrophs most have nerve cells

145
  • Create a phylogenetic tree

146
  • ECOLOGY
  • Describe what occurs during the carbon cycle to
    include the relationships between producers,
    consumers, decomposers, photosynthesis, and
    cellular respiration.

147
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148
  • Describe what occurs during the nitrogen cycle
    to include nitrification, ammonification,
    assimilation, and denitrification.

149
  • Describe the role of nitrogen fixing organisms
    in the nitrogen cycle.
  • Bacteria in the soil take nitrogen from the air
    and fix it they combine it with other elements
    to make nitrates or ammonia that plants that use.

150
  • Describe what occurs during the water cycle to
    include the role of plants and photosynthesis.

151
  • Determine that the sun is the ultimate source
    of energy on Earth.
  • All living things get energy from food
    heterotrophs get energy from autotrophs that get
    their energy from the sun during photosynthesis.

152
  • Explain the role of producers and consumers in
    the ecosystem.
  • Producers undergo photosynthesis and make food
    for all other organisms.
  • Consumers eat plants or other consumers.
  • This creates food chains and food webs.

153
A Food Web
154
  • Relate the trophic levels in the ecosystem to
    pyramids of energy, numbers, and biomass.

155
Pyramids of biomass and energy
156
  • Explain the flow of energy within a food chain
    and why energy transfer is not 100.
  • Some energy in food is wasted as heat.
  • Not all producers get eaten.
  • Not all of an organism is eaten or digested.

157
  • Tell why there are limits to the numbers of
    consumers in a food chain.
  • As consumers get energy from other consumers, the
    energy gets less and less, until there isnt
    enough energy for survival.

158
  • Explain why the producer level contains more
    biomass/unit area than consumers and why this is
    necessary.
  • Consumers get energy from producers, so there
    must be more total mass of producers than any
    other organisms in a food chain.

159
  • Describe how birth and death rates affect
    population growth.
  • If birth and death rates remain equal, there is
    zero population growth.
  • If birth rates are high and death rates are low,
    the population will increase.

160
  • If birth rates are low and death rates are high,
    the population will decrease.

161
Describe the ways in which human population
growth has affected the environment
  • Food shortages
  • Pollution of the environment
  • Spread of diseases
  • Decrease in available clean water
  • Decrease in amount of fertile soil
  • Increase in earths temperatures

162
  • Reduction of nonrenewable resources (such as oil
    and coal)
  • Over-consumption of renewable resources

163
  • Explain the difference between abiotic and
    biotic factors.
  • Biotic factors are the living parts of an
    ecosystem plants, fungi, bacteria, animals, etc.
  • Abiotic factors are the nonliving parts
    nutrients in soil, sunlight, temperature, pH,
    wind, etc.

164
  • Define and describe different types of
    symbiosis
  • Parasitism an organisms lives in or on another
    (the host) ticks feed on dogs, mistletoe feeds
    on a tree
  • Commensalism two organisms live together one
    is benefited, while the other is neither helped
    nor harmed fish live within sea anemones
    tentacles

165
  • Mutualism two organisms live together and they
    both receive benefit from the relationship E.
    coli in the human intestine (human provides water
    and nourishment for the bacteria and the bacteria
    produce vitamin K for the human)

166
  • Define succession and give explanations for
    each step in the process

167
  • pioneer species the first plants and animals to
    grow
  • climax community the ecosystem present at the
    end of succession could be a desert, forest,
    etc.

168
  • primary succession occurs where no soil exists,
    such as on volcanic islands, where glaciers melt,
    etc.
  • secondary succession succession that occurs
    when land is disrupted land that is cleared for
    farming and abandoned, for example

169
  • Explain how human use of fossil fuels has
    contributed to global warming.

170
  • As fossil fuels, such as gasoline, oil, and coal
    are burned, they produce carbon dioxide that
    accumulates in the atmosphere, which prevents
    heat from escaping into space. This is
    increasing the temperature of the earth.

171
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172
  • Explain the effect of CFCs on the destruction
    of the ozone layer.
  • Chloroflurocarbons destroy the ozone layer that
    protect the earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV)
    radiation from the sun

173
  • Define acid rain in terms of pH and give
    sources of acid rain.
  • The pH scale ranges from 0-14, with 7 being
    neutral. pH values below 7 are acidic, while
    values above 7 are alkaline or basic.
  • When fossil fuels are burned, sulfur is given off
    and combines with oxygen to become sulfur
    dioxide, which is acidic.

174
  • ENERGY
  • Define energy.
  • Energy is the ability to do work.

175
Write the overall equation for photosynthesis and
show where each reactant ends up on the product
side.
176
  • Describe what happens to the excited chlorophyll
    electrons as they cycle through the
    photosynthetic process.
  • electrons in chlorophyll a molecules take in
    energy from light and become excited
  • these electrons jump out of chlorophyll a

177
  • some of the energy in these excited electrons are
    used to produce ATP
  • some of the energy is bonded to NADP to make
    NADPH these energized hydrogen electrons are
    used to make glucose during Calvin cycle (the
    dark reactions)

178
  • Summarize the events of the light and dark
    reactions.

179
  • the dark reactions occur in the stroma of the
    chloroplast
  • carbon dioxide is taken in
  • ATP from light reactions is used, along with the
    hydrogen atoms from NADH
  • glucose is produced

180
  • Explain why the dark reactions are dependent
    upon the light reactions
  • In order for glucose to be made during the dark
    reactions, energy from ATP is required along with
    energized hydrogen electrons from NADH ATP and
    NADH are both produced during the light reactions

181
  • State the role of chlorophyll and the
    chloroplast in the photosynthetic process
  • chlorophyll is necessary to absorb the energy
    from the sun
  • photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast
    light reactions occur in thylakoids dark
    reactions occur in the stroma

182
  • Explain the significance of the splitting of
    water during photosynthesis
  • as electrons get excited and jump out of
    chlorophyll a, they are replaced by splitting
    water and getting hydrogen electrons
  • oxygen is given off as a waste product

183
  • Write the overall equation for cellular
    respiration, identifying the reactants and
    products.
  • C6H12O6 6O2 ?6CO2 6H2O
  • reactants products

184
  • Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic
    respiration, and state the conditions under which
    each occurs.
  • aerobic respiration requires oxygen
  • anaerobic respiration does not

185
  • glycolysis, Krebs, and electron transport occur
    during aerobic respiration
  • only glycolysis occurs during anaerobic
    respiration
  • the net ATP yield of anaerobic is 2ATP molecules
    the net yield of aerobic is 38 ATPs

186
  • Describe the role of the mitchondria during in
    aerobic respiration.
  • Krebs cycle and electron transport take place in
    the mitochondria

187
  • Define glycolysis and tell why it occurs in
    all organisms.
  • glycolysis is the break down of glucose into two
    pyruvic acid molecules
  • it occurs in the cytoplasm
  • since glycolysis occurs in both aerobic and
    anaerobic respiration, it occurs in all organisms

188
Glycolysis
189
  • Differentiate alcohol and lactic acid
    fermentation.
  • both types of anaerobic respiration
  • pyruvic acid is converted into ethyl alcohol or
    lactic acid
  • alcohol fermentation occurs in some organisms
  • lactic acid fermentation occurs in aerobes with
    small amounts of oxygen

190
  • Describe the overall process of the Krebs
    cycle
  • all the original glucose is oxidized during
    Krebs
  • CO2 is produced
  • Excited H electrons bond to NAD to form NADH

191
  • Describe what happens during the electron
    transport chain and chemiosmosis

192
  • NADH and FADH2 molecules give up their energized
    H electrons
  • the electrons travel down an electron transport
    chain located in the inner membrane (cristae)

193
  • The energy from the H electrons is used to carry
    hydrogen protons to the other side of the
    membrane the protons diffuse back across through
    ATP synthase which bonds phosphates to ADP to
    produce ATP
  • The H atoms bond to oxygen to produce water

194
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195
  • Explain how the structures of organic molecules
    are related to their caloric values
  • carbohydrates (sugars) and protein contain about
    4 calories per gram (energy found in the H-O
    bonds)
  • fats contain about 9 calories per gram (more
    calories due to the H-O bonds present)

196
  • Proteins have the same calories as carbohydrates,
    but are often not used as an energy source they
    are digested into amino acids to be used in
    protein synthesis

197
  • Carbohydrates are used as an energy source by the
    human body first, then lipids
  • Carbohydrates are simple sugars (monosaccharides)
    or complex sugars (polysaccharides)
  • Carbohydrates are digested and carried through
    the blood to be used during respiration to make
    ATP
  • Some carbohydrates cant be digested (fiber) and
    stimulate the digestive system

198
  • Lipids (fats, oils, and waxes) are composed of
    glycerol and fatty acids
  • Lipids are used as energy AFTER carbohydrates
    also used to make new cell membranes
  • Blood carries the glycerol and fatty acids after
    digestion

199
  • Proteins are composed of amino acids
  • Amino acids contain C, H, O, N, and sometimes S
    atoms
  • There are 20 different amino acids that bond in a
    particular sequence to make a protein
  • Proteins make up most of the dry weight of an
    organism

200
  • Proteins can be structural, such as proteins like
    keratin that make up hair and nails
  • Proteins can transport molecules, such as
    hemoglobin that carries oxygen
  • Most hormones are proteins, such as insulin that
    regulates glucose levels in the blood
  • Contractile proteins control movement, such as
    proteins in muscles
  • Enzymes are proteins

201
  • Identify the 3 parts of ATP

202
  • The high energy bonds are formed between the
    phosphate groups

203
  • Show how ATP is recycled
  • ADP phosphate group ? ATP
  • ?
  • When a phosphate group breaks off, energy is
    released.
  • Energy has to be input to reattach the phosphate
    group to the adenosine diphosphate (ADP).

204
  • The
  • End!
  • RFM 2003, revised 2012
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