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Unit 10: Dairy

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Unit 10: Dairy Chapters 27 & 28 & 5 Unit 10: Dairy Unit 10 objectives: Understanding of various breeds of dairy cattle Genetic progress and selection Knowledge of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 10: Dairy


1
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Chapters 27 28 5

2
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Unit 10 objectives
  • Understanding of various breeds of dairy cattle
  • Genetic progress and selection
  • Knowledge of nutritional concerns
  • Understanding of operations, facilities, and
    waste management
  • Disease pressures

3
Unit 10 Dairy
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Breed Milk Fat Protein
Aryshire 15814 3.89 3.16
Brown Swiss 17732 4.06 3.36
Guernsey 14675 4.53 3.37
Holstein 21614 3.66 3.05
Jersey 15540 4.61 3.59
Milking Shorthorn 16454 3.62 3.11
Red White 20011 3.7 3.02
Norwegian red 13059 NA NA
Montebeliarde NA NA NA
14
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Dairy Type
  • Used to evaluate dairy cattle
  • Stature, angularity, long/lean neck, etc.
  • Good dairy type often leads to good milk
    production
  • But, not always
  • Dairy Cow Unified Scorecard Linear
    Classification Scoring System
  • Evaluates cows on basis of type
  • Aids in selection of superior individuals

15
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Cows/bulls are rated in each of the following
    categories
  • General appearance
  • Dairy character
  • Body capacity
  • Mammary system
  • Final score is added up
  • Excellent (EX) 90-100
  • Very Good (VG) 85-89
  • Good Plus (G) 80-84
  • Good (G) 75-79
  • Fair (F) 65-74
  • Poor (P) 50-64

16
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Classification score can be used in calculating
    the Predicted Transmitting Ability for Type
    (PTAT)
  • Aids in the selection process
  • Can be a sales tool
  • Improving Milk Production
  • Milk production has changed greatly through time
  • 1940 23.7m cows avg. 4622lbs./c/yr
  • 2001 9.1m cows avg. 18139lbs./c/yr

17
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Selection of Dairy Cows
  • Avg. productive life is short (3-4 yrs.)
  • Many culled due to
  • Reproductive failure
  • Low milk yield
  • Udder breakdown
  • Poor feet/legs
  • Mastitis
  • Heifers should be chosen from families that are
    superior in these categories

18
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Records are essential
  • National Cooperative Dairy Herd Improvement
    Program
  • Industry-wide production-testing and
    record-keeping program
  • Aka DHI
  • Facilitates the creation of a national production
    database

19
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Options for DHI
  • Supervised test-technician weighs and samples
    milk for all cows in a 24 hr. period
  • Partially supervised-samples are taken
    alternately a.m. or p.m. by a technician and
    another person
  • Owner sampler-production data recorded by someone
    other than a technician
  • Supervised electronic test-data collected
    electronically and certified by a technician

20
Unit 10 Dairy
  • DHI records are standardized to lactation length,
    2x milking, and mature age
  • 305 ME
  • Increases accuracy of comparison
  • Breeding Dairy Cattle
  • Extremely important
  • May be the most challenging aspect of managing
    dairy operations

21
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Visual detection of estrus
  • Restlessness
  • Enlarged vulva
  • Drop in milk production (temporary)
  • Permit other cows to mount
  • Majority of cattle are bred AI
  • High quality semen 25-150/unit
  • Lower quality semen 5-20/unit

22
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Natural service has mostly been unpopular for 3
    reasons
  • Genetic superiority of AI bulls
  • Availability of superior semen through AI
  • Safety
  • Heritabilities for traits are widely varied, but
    highly accurate

23
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Low her. (5-10)
  • Ketosis, mastitis, cystic ovaries, milk fever
  • Medium her. (25-30)
  • Yearly milk, protein, solids-not-fat, fat yield
  • Highly her. (gt30)
  • fat, prot., solids-not-fat

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Inherited abnormalities
  • Short bones, rectal-vaginal constriction, dumps,
    fused teats, flexed pasterns (feet turn back),
    hairlessness, syndactylism (one toe)
  • Very rare
  • Often result in death
  • Genetic advancement has been so rapid because of
    the high use of AI
  • Superior sires may have gt100,000 daughters
  • Data on each sire tends to be quite accurate

25
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Crossbreeding is not common due to no improvement
    in milk production
  • Has been some crossbreeding to improve components
  • Ex. No crossbreeding program can equal the
    Holstein in milk production
  • Sire genetic evaluations are based on data of
    sires daughter compared w/ contemporary herdmates

26
Unit 10 Dairy
  • PTA
  • Measured based on superiority/inferiority of his
    daughters
  • Sire Selection
  • Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP)
  • Method used to calculate PTA
  • Can compare bulls between herds, bulls within
    herds, and bulls with offspring in many herds

27
Unit 10 Dairy
  • PTAs calculated for
  • Milk
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Type
  • Dollars returned
  • Net Merit
  • Can give an economic value to an individual

28
Unit 10 Dairy
  • TPI (Type Production Index)
  • Can give one value combining PTAs of milk, type,
    udder composite, and fat
  • Helpful in predicting offspring
  • Good sales tool

29
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Dairy farm demographics
  • Avg. size 100 milking cows, 30 dry cows, 100
    heifers
  • Farm 200-300 ac. Raising most of own forage
  • Market milk through cooperative
  • Sell 2.2m lbs. milk annually
  • Worth 230,000
  • Avg. capital investment 500,000

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Nutrition of Lactating Cows
  • Average 305d lactation production 16,870
  • Many herds avg. gt25,000/c/yr
  • Top producing cows gt40,000 lbs/c/yr
  • Some may avg. gt150 lbs./d
  • gt5 lbs. milk fat
  • gt4.5 lbs. protein

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • World Record Lactation?
  • Lucy LaFoster Dairy Cleveland, NC
  • 365d
  • 75,275lbs.
  • Great need for energy and total lbs. of feed
  • Ex. Cow producing 40lbs. Milk, 1400 lbs. BW needs
    1.25x more energy for lactation than maintenance

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Dairy cow lactation curves
  • Early stages of lactation
  • DMI and energy intake lag behind milk prod.
  • BW is lost
  • Negative energy balance
  • Mid lactation
  • DMI finally catches up to milk prod. needs
  • BW begins to climb
  • Reproductive performance is much better

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Late Lactation
  • DMI stays adequate for daily milk prod.
  • Cows gain BW
  • Should be preg.
  • Body Condition Scoring
  • 1-5 scale
  • Much like the beef scale
  • Critical gauge for cow health and nutritional
    needs

34
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Elements of a successful dairy nutrition program
  • Water
  • High quality feedstuffs
  • Adequate length of fiber
  • Optimal level of grain supplement
  • Monitor cud chewing
  • Sufficient bunk space
  • Consistent, high DMI

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Feed available 24 hrs./d
  • Especially after milking
  • No free-choice ration components
  • This can vary
  • Concentrate on cow comfort
  • Minimize variation in feedstuffs
  • Manage health problems

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Ideal day in the life of a cow
  • 50 lying down
  • 21 eating
  • 13 milking
  • 4 drinking
  • 6 each social and lockups?
  • What should rations be based on?
  • High-quality forages are cheapest, most effective
    source of nutrients

37
Unit 10 Dairy
  • TMR
  • Total mixed ration
  • All feed components are mixed into one
    presentation
  • Rations should closely reflect stage of lactation
  • Number of rations on a farm
  • Depends on size
  • Must match the number of effective rations to
    what is most economical and efficient

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Lets look at a 500 cow dairy
  • What types of rations would we need?
  • What types of rations would match cow needs?
  • Ration components
  • Forages must be tested regularly
  • Supplements should be formulated to match
    production goals based on forage quality
  • Energy
  • Protein
  • Min/vit

39
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Feed cost typically is 50 of farm expenses
  • Adjusting for Heat Stress
  • May decrease milk prod. 8-10lbs./c/d
  • Stress begins at 77F
  • Symptoms of heat stress
  • Temp gt102.5

40
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Excessive panting
  • What else do they lose?
  • Decreased DMI
  • As much as 15
  • Decreased pregnancy rate
  • Can be 20

41
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Nutrition of Dry Cows
  • Feeding and management heavily influences
    production in next lactation
  • Drying a cow off
  • Stop milking
  • Treat for mastitis
  • Dry period is 45-60d
  • Much research is being focused on this area

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Must be separated from milking herd
  • Nutritional differences
  • Not milking
  • Cow comfort
  • Close-up dry cows
  • Last 14-21d of dry period
  • Separate if possible
  • Closely monitor feed intake
  • Can greatly reduce health problems at calving

43
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Nutrition of Replacement Heifers
  • Most can do well on high forage and 2-3 lbs.
    grain
  • Heifers should be large enough to breed at 15
    mos.
  • 800 lbs.
  • Weight is more critical than age
  • Heavier heifers will milk more first lactation
  • Why?

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Recent studies on accelerated heifer growth
  • Reaching breeding wt. at 12-13 mos.
  • What is the economic gain?
  • Calving Operations
  • Must be clean and well-bedded
  • Assistance necessary if cow has not calved after
    4-6 hrs. of labor

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Dip navel in iodine
  • Colostrum feeding
  • Antibodies for disease resistance
  • Should be fed within the first hour
  • 2nd feeding within 6 hrs.
  • Gut closure
  • Nursing is not permitted usually
  • Remove asap

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • First 4-8 wks.
  • Milk replacer
  • Why not whole milk?
  • Water
  • Dry feed
  • Separate from other calves
  • Wean as soon as they are eating 3 lbs./d for 3 d

47
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Milking and Housing Facilities
  • Free stalls
  • Tie/Stanchion stalls
  • Loose housing
  • Pasture
  • Which is the most efficient?
  • Which is the most comfortable?
  • Which is the most popular?

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Milking Center/parlor
  • Manure must be done at least daily, usually 2-3x
  • Unless on bedded pack
  • Waste Management
  • Many local, state, and federal regulations
  • Must now have a nutrient management plan
  • Certified Livestock Manager

49
Unit 10 Dairy
  • SC study
  • gt75 of dairies overfeeding P
  • New NRC has decreased the recommended P feeding
    rate
  • Nutrient Management Plan
  • Site information
  • Name, contact info., emergency info.
  • Production data
  • No. animals, amount of waste

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Permit information
  • Manure application records
  • Date, amount, no. acres, method, applicator, wind
    speed/direction, temp, soil conditions, sky
    conditions
  • Test results
  • Soil tests
  • Nutrient tests
  • Dead stock disposal plan

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Milking Operations
  • Concrete platform raised 30
  • Speeds milking, reduces labor, easier to operate
  • Milking procedure
  • Clean
  • Forestrip
  • Attach unit within 1 min.

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Dip in iodine solution
  • Manual removal of unit, or by automatic takeoff
  • Automatic takeoffs are stimulated due to milk
    flow rate
  • Prolonged exposure to vacuum will damage the teat
    end
  • Equipment must be sanitary
  • High milk quality
  • Prevent disease problems

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Regular milking schedule
  • 2X
  • 3X
  • 4X
  • combinations

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Controlling diseases
  • Similar diseases in dairy and beef cattle
  • More stringent specifications for milk though
  • Bangs Disease (Brucellosis)
  • Reduces fertility
  • Transmitted sexually, so risk is not high anymore

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Mastitis
  • Inflammation of the mammary gland
  • Costs the dairy industry gt1.5b/yr.
  • 200/cow/yr.
  • Can be hard to detect early
  • Somatic Cell Count
  • CMT
  • Clinical mastitis is easily detected
  • White chunks
  • Watery/bloody milk

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Under can be swollen, red, and hard
  • Cow may be febrile
  • Two types of mastitis
  • Contagious
  • Can be passed from cow to cow
  • Organisms must live in milk
  • Prevention by clean milking systems, clean hands,
    gloves, proper milking procedure
  • Not easily eradicated
  • Environmental
  • Organisms are picked up from the environment
  • Caused by unsanitary conditions
  • Readily responds to treatment

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Cows w/ mastitis have a high cull rate
  • 10 more days to first service, .5 more
    services/conception, 25 more days open
  • Various treatment options
  • Milk must be withheld according to label
  • Costs and Returns
  • Large farms not necessarily better
  • Economics of scale dont always work out

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Performance should be compared against industry
    benchmarks
  • 4.5 turns/hr in the milking parlor
  • Labor cost/cwt milk
  • DIM
  • Heat detection rate
  • SCC
  • Etc.

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Milk production
  • Dairy cows produce gt90 of worlds milk supply
  • Goats, buffalo, sheep, yaks, camel
  • U.S. by far the leading producer
  • One cow at an avg. of 18,000 lbs. can provide
    enough milk for 40 people for a year
  • If you include the amount of milk used for other
    products

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Milk Composition
  • 88 water
  • 8.6 Solids-not-fat
  • Protein, lactose, minerals
  • 3-4 milk fat
  • Milk not legally salable until the 11th milking
  • Also need to test for antibiotics

64
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Milk is very dense in nutrients, while not being
    extremely high in calories
  • Milk fat
  • Taste component of milk
  • Cheese yield
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lactose (4.8)
  • gt1/2 of SNF

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Proteins
  • 3.3 protein
  • 38 of SNF
  • Casein and Whey are the two main milk proteins
  • Vitamins
  • A, B, C, and D are available in milk
  • Minerals
  • Good sources of Ca, P, and Zn

66
Unit 10 Dairy
  • Milk Products in the U.S.
  • Fluid milk
  • gt92 of milk sold is Grade A milk
  • Homogenized to prevent separation of milk fat
  • lt4 milk fat
  • Pasteurization kills disease-causing pathogens
  • Cream
  • gt18 milk fat
  • Coffee creamer, whipping cream

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Butter
  • gt80 milk fat
  • Is one of the oldest forms of preserving milk
  • Cheese
  • gt400 different kinds of cheese
  • Soft, semisoft, hard, very hard
  • Based on moisture content
  • Cottage cheese (80) to Romano (32)
  • Made by coagulation and curdling

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • 100 lbs. milk will produce 8-16 lbs. of cheese
  • Ice Cream
  • Many different forms
  • Ice cream, custard, French ice cream, Ice milk,
    frozen yogurt, sherbet
  • Custards have egg yolks gt1.4 by wt. added
  • Ice milk-less fat, more sugar (soft serves)
  • Yogurt-less fat, less sugar, more acid
  • Sherbet-low in milk fat and solids, higher sugar

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Unit 10 Dairy
  • Eggnog
  • Contains egg yolks, egg whites
  • gt6 milk fat, 8.25 SNF
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