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Title: February%201,%202011


1
February 1, 2011
  • Spring Course Calendar
  • AP Exam May 2, 2011 Afternoon
  • First Semester Grades MONDAY Feb 7
  • Brain Bee

2
Motivation and WorkChapter 12
3
Do Now Think of a time you felt extremely
motivated to complete a task or accomplish a
goal. What was motivating you? Why?
4
http//video.nytimes.com/video/2009/03/31/sports/o
thersports/1194838580097/being-aron-ralston.html
5
Motivation and Work
  • Perspectives on Motivation
  • Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology
  • Drives and Incentives
  • Optimum Arousal
  • A Hierarchy of Motivations

6
Motivation and Work
  • Hunger
  • The Physiology of Hunger
  • The Psychology of Hunger
  • Sexual Motivation
  • The Physiology of Sex
  • The Psychology of Sex
  • Motivation to Belong
  • Motivation to Work

7
Motivation
  • Motivation is a need or desire that energizes
    behavior and directs it towards a goal.
  • What motivates you?

AP Photo/ Rocky Mountain News, Judy Walgren
Aran Ralston
8
1. Instincts Evolutionary PsychologyCan you
think of instincts in humans?
  • Instincts
  • Complex and stereotyped behaviors performed by
    all members of a species
  • Performed automatically
  • Have fixed patterns
  • Are not learned
  • Example imprinting

.
9
1. Instincts Evolutionary Psychology
  • The early view that instincts control behavior
    has been replaced by evolutionary theory, which
    searches for the adaptive functions of behavior.

10
AIM What factors motivate our behavior?
11
Perspectives on Motivation
  • Four perspectives to explain motivation include
    the following
  1. Instinct Theory
  2. Drive-Reduction Theory/ Incentives
  3. Optimum Arousal Theory
  4. Maslows Hierarchy of Motives

12
2. Drive-Reduction Theory
  • A physiological need creates an aroused tension
    state (a drive) that motivates an organism to
    satisfy the need
  • Need physiological deficit
  • Drive psychological state
  • Primary Drives hunger or thirst
  • Secondary Drives money

13
2. Drive Reduction
The physiological aim of drive reduction is
homeostasis, the maintenance of a steady internal
state
Drive Reduction
Food
Empty Stomach (Food Deprived)
Stomach Full
Organism
14
Drive Reduction Incentive
Where our needs push, incentives (positive or
negative stimuli) pull us in reducing our drives.
A food-deprived person who smells baking bread
feels a strong hunger drive.
15
Do Now Theories of Motivation
  • Review Homework Questions in Groups
  • Instinct Drive-reduction theory Homeostasis
    Incentives What is Maslow's hierarchy of
    needs? Describe the four perspectives on
    motivation. Which do you agree with and why?

16
Criticisms of Evolutionary and Drive Reduction?
17
3. Optimum Arousal
  • Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of
    arousal
  • Arousal- alertness and activation
  • The Yerkes-Dodson Law states that we perform best
    at moderate levels of arousal

Harlow Primate Laboratory, University of Wisconsin
Randy Faris/ Corbis
18
Hierarchy of Needs
  • Abraham Maslow (1970) suggested that certain
    needs have priority over others.
  • Physiological needs come before psychological
    needs

(1908-1970)
19
Hierarchy of Needs
Joe Skipper/ Reuters/ Corbis
Mario Tama/ Getty Images
David Portnoy/ Getty Images for Stern
Menahem Kahana/ AFP/ Getty Images
Hurricane Survivors
20
1. Compare the four different theories of
motivations. 2. Provide an example of a
personal motivation or time that you were
motivated that falls in each category. 3.
Which theory do you agree with the most and why?
21
AIM Why do we experience hunger?
22
Hunger
When do we eat?
When we are hungry.
  • When are we hungry?

When there is no food in our stomach.
How do we know when our stomach is empty?
Our stomach growls and contracts. These are also
called hunger pangs.
23
What causes us to feel hunger?
  • Starvation Link

Starvation Link
24
The Physiology of Hunger
  • Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the
    brain making us aware of our hunger.

25
Will hunger persist without stomach pains?
Tsang (1938) removed rat stomachs, connected the
esophagus to the small intestines, and the rats
still felt hungry
26
How is hunger regulation achieved?
  • Lipostatic Hypothesis Fat regulates hunger- long
    term
  • Glucostatic Hypothesis Glucose regulates hunger-
    immediate

27
C6H12O6
  • The glucose level in blood is closely maintained.
  • Insulin (released from the pancreas) decreases
    glucose in the blood, making us feel hungry.

28
Glucose the Brain
  • Levels of glucose in the blood are monitored by
    receptors (neurons) in the stomach, liver, and
    intestines.
  • They send signals to the hypothalamus

Rat Hypothalamus
29
Hypothalamic Centers
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) brings on hunger
(stimulation). Destroy the LH, and the animal
has no interest in eating
30
Hypothalamic Centers
The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) depresses
hunger (stimulation). Destroy the VMH, and the
animal eats excessively.
Richard Howard
31
Set-Point Theory
  • Manipulating the hypothalamus alters the bodys
    weight thermostat.
  • Set-point Theory the hypothalamus wants to
    maintain a certain optimum body weight

If weight is lost, food intake increases and
energy expenditure decreases. If weight is
gained, the opposite takes place.
32
Hypothalamus Hormones
Hormone Tissue Response
Orexin increase Hypothalamus Increases hunger
Ghrelin increase Stomach Increases hunger
Insulin increase Pancreas Increases Hunger
Leptin increase Fat cells Decreases Hunger
PPY increase Digestive tract Decreases Hunger
The hypothalamus monitors a number of hormones
that are related to hunger.
33
Regulation of Thirst
  • Why do we feel thirst?
  • Mouth dryness
  • -Osmoreceptors in our cells
  • -Hypothalamus ultimately in control

34
The Psychology of Hunger
  • Memory plays an important role in hunger. Due to
    difficulties with retention, amnesia patients eat
    frequently if given food (Rozin et al., 1998).

35
Taste Preference Biology or Culture?
  • Neophobia- the tendency to dislike foreign or
    unfamiliar foods

Richard Olsenius/ Black Star
Victor Englebert
36
Biology Taste Preferences
  • The preference for sweet and salty foods are
    universal

37
Geographical and Religious Food Preferences
  • United States
    Japan
  • Japan

38
Food Preferences
  • Religious values influence eating behavior
  • Supertasters?
  • Psychological

39
Hot Cultures like Hot Spices
  • Countries with hot climates use more
    bacteria-inhibiting spices in meat dishes.

40
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41
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa A condition in which a
    normal-weight person (usually an adolescent
    woman) continuously loses weight but still feels
    overweight.

Reprinted by permission of The New England
Journal of Medicine, 207, (Oct 5, 1932), 613-617.
Lisa OConnor/ Zuma/ Corbis
42
Eating Disorders
  • Bulimia Nervosa A disorder characterized by
    episodes of binging and purging
  • Characterized by overeating, usually high-calorie
    foods, followed by vomiting, using laxatives,
    fasting, or excessive exercise.

43
Obesity

A disorder characterized by being excessively
overweight.
http//www.cyberdiet.com
44
Reasons for Eating Disorders
  1. Sexual Abuse Childhood sexual abuse does not
    cause eating disorders.
  2. Family Younger generations develop eating
    disorders when raised in families in which
    weight is an excessive concern.
  3. Genetics Twin studies show that eating disorders
    are more likely to occur in identical twins
    rather than fraternal twins.

45
Body Image (Women)
  • Western culture tends to place more emphasis on a
    thin body image in comparison to other cultures.

46
Summary
47
Sexual Motivation
  • Sexual motivation is natures clever way of
    making people procreate, enabling our species to
    survive.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vMT0E72qnjro
48
The Physiology of Sex
  • Masters and Johnson (1966) describe the human
    sexual response to consist of four phases

Phase Physiological Response
Excitement Genitals become engorged with blood. Vagina expands secretes lubricant. Penis enlarges.
Plateau Excitement peaks such as breathing, pulse and blood pressure.
Orgasm Contractions all over the body. Increase in breathing, pulse blood pressure. Sexual release.
Resolution Engorged genital release blood. Male goes through refractory phase. Women resolve slower.
49
Sexual Problems
  • Men premature ejaculation and erectile disorder.
  • Women orgasmic disorders.

Solution? 1) Behavior therapy drugs such as
Viagra.
50
Hormones and Sexual Behavior
  • Sex hormones affect the development of sexual
    characteristics and (especially in animals)
    activate sexual behavior.

Male Testes Testosterone (Small amounts of estrogen)
Female Ovaries Adrenals Estrogen (Small amounts of testosterone)
51
Testosterone vs. Estrogen
  • Testosterone increases male sex drives.
  • Female animals in heat express peak levels of
    estrogen.

Sex hormones may have milder effects on humans
than on animals.
52
Kinsey Studies
  • Alfred Kinsey- biology professor in the 1940s.
    http//www.youtube.com/watch?vppZwSABxeYE
  • First large study on sexual practices
  • Spectrum of Sexuality
  • Criticisms
  • -Nonrandom Sample
  • -Leading Questions

53
External Stimuli
  • Men become sexually aroused when browsing through
    erotic material.
  • However, women experience similar heightened
    arousal under controlled conditions.

54
Imagined Stimuli
  • Our imagination in our brain can influence sexual
    arousal and desire.

Sotographs/The Gamma-Liaison Network/ Getty Images
55
Adolescent Sexuality
  • When individuals reach adolescence, their sexual
    behavior develops. However, there are cultural
    differences.

Sexual promiscuity in modern Western culture is
much greater than in Arab countries and other
Asian countries.
56
February 8, 2010AP Psychology
57
1. For women, the addition of the hormone
testosterone is used therapeutically in order to
  • A) increase facial hair.
  • B) increase sexual arousal.
  • C) increase aggression.
  • D) nothing, this is a male hormone and not used
    with women.

58
2. Viewing X-rated films effects most people by
  • A) reducing interest in sex with their partners.
  • B) increasing interest in sex with their
    partners.
  • C) encouraging sex outside of their marriage.
  • D) having no significant effect on the
    relationship.

59
3. American teen-age females have less sex than
Europeans, but have greater rates of pregnancy
due to
  • A) lack of sex education.
  • B) greater guilt related to sexual activity.
  • C) TV portrayals of unprotected sex without
    consequences.
  • D) all of the above.

60
How are hunger and sex different motivations?
  • Hunger is in response to a NEED.
  • Sex is in response to a DRIVE

61
Contraception
  1. Ignorance
  2. Guilt Related to Sexual Activity
  3. Minimal Communication
  4. Alcohol Use
  5. Mass Media

62
Sexually Transmitted Infections
Factors that reduce sexual activity in teens.
  1. High Intelligence
  2. Religiosity
  3. Father Presence
  4. Learning Programs

63
Sexual Orientation
  • Sexual orientation refers to a persons
    preference for emotional and sexual relationships
    with individuals of the same sex, the other sex,
    and/or either sex.

Homosexual
Heterosexual
Bisexual
64
Sexual Orientation Statistics
  • In Europe and America, based on many national
    surveys, homosexuality in men is 3-4 and in
    women is 1-2.

As members of a minority, homosexuals often
struggle with their sexual orientation.
65
Origins of Sexual Orientation
  • Biological factors
  • Brain centers
  • Genetics
  • Parental hormone exposure

Cynthia Johnson/ Time magazine
Homosexual parents
66
Theories of Sexual Orientation
  • Fraternal birth-order effect men with older
    brothers are more likely to be gay. Why?
  • Gender segregation

67
Animal Homosexuality
  • A number of animal species are devoted to
    same-sex partners
  • Examples grizzlies, gorillas, monkeys,
    flamingos, owls, penguins, rams

David Hecker/ AFP/ Getty Images
Wendell and Cass
68
The Brain
  • In homosexual men, the size of the anterior
    hypothalamus is smaller (LeVay, 1991) and the
    anterior commissure is larger (Allen Gorski,
    1992).

Anterior Commissure
http//www.msu.edu
Anterior Hypothalamus
69
Is there a gay gene?
70
Genes Sexual Orientation
  • A number of reasons suggest that homosexuality
    may be due to genetic factors.
  1. Family Homosexuality seems to run in families.
  2. Twin studies Homosexuality is more common in
    identical twins than fraternal twins.
  3. Fruit flies Genetic engineers can genetically
    manipulate females to act like males during
    courtship and males to act like females.

71
Hormones Sexual Orientation
  • Prenatal hormones affect sexual orientation
    during critical periods of fetal development.
  1. Animals Exposure of a fetus to testosterone
    results in females (sheep) exhibiting homosexual
    behavior.
  2. Humans Exposure of a male or female fetus to
    female hormones results in an attraction to males.

Homosexual
Heterosexual male
Heterosexual female
72
Sexual Orientation Biology
73
(No Transcript)
74
Changing Attitudes
75
The Need to Belong
  • Man is a social animal, (Aristotle).
    Separation from others increases our need to
    belong.
  • Affiliation motive- need to be with others

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vPJvosb4UCLsfeature
related
20th Century Fox/ Dreamworks/ The Kobal Collection
76
Aiding Survival
Social bonds boosted our ancestors survival
rates by
  1. Protecting against predators,
  2. Procuring food
  3. Reproducing the next offspring.

77
What motivates belongingness?
  • 1. Wanting to Belong
  • 2. Social Acceptance
  • 3. Maintaining Relationships
  • 4. Ostracism
  • 5. Fortifying Health

78
Motivation at Work
The healthy life, said Sigmund Freud, is filled
by love and work.
Culver Pictures
79
Attitudes Towards Work
People have different attitudes toward work
  1. Job Necessary way to make money.
  2. Career Opportunity to advance from one position
    to another.
  3. Calling Fulfilling a socially useful activity.

Flow marks immersion into ones work.
80
Work and Satisfaction
  • In industrialized countries work and satisfaction
    go hand-in-hand.

81
Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology
  • Applies psychological principles to the
    workplace.
  1. Personnel Psychology Studies the principles of
    selecting and evaluating workers.
  2. Organizational Psychology Studies how work
    environments and management styles influence
    worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity.

82
The Interviewer Illusion
Interviewers are confident in their ability to
predict long-term job performance. However,
informal interviews are less informative than
standardized tests.
  1. Intention vs. Habits Intensions matter, but
    long- lasting habits matter even more.
  2. Successful Employees Interviewers are more
    likely to talk about those employees that turned
    out successful.
  3. Presumptions about Candidates Interviewers
    presume (wrongly) that what we see (candidate) is
    what we get.
  4. Preconceptions An interviewers prior knowledge
    about the candidate may affect her judgment.

83
Self-discipline outdoes talent
  • Self-discipline has been a better predictor of
    school performance, attendance, and graduation
    honors than intelligence scores

84
Managing Well
Every leader dreams of managing in ways that
enhance peoples satisfaction, engagement, and
productivity in his or her organization.
Ezra Shaw/ Getty Images
Larry Brown offers 4-5 positive comments for
every negative comment.
85
Leadership Style
Different organizational demands need different
kinds of leaders.
  1. Task Leadership Involves setting standards,
    organizing work, and focusing on goals.
  2. Social Leadership Involves mediating conflicts
    and building high achieving teams.

86
Organizational Psychology Motivating Achievement
  • Achievement motivation is defined as a desire for
    significant accomplishment.

Ken Heyman/ Woodfin Camp Associates
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a measure of
achievement motivation
87
Activity Write down three important reasons you
have for going to college
  • Intrinsic Motivation- internal rewards for
    accomplishment (satisfaction, enjoyment)
  • Extrinsic Motivation- outside rewards for
    accomplishments- (money, grades) leads to
    overjustification effect

88
Social Conflict Situations
  • Conflict being torn in different directions
    by opposing motives that block us from attaining
    a goal

89
Types of Conflict
  • approach-approach conflict- 2 desirable choices
  • ex having ice cream or a candy bar for dessert
  • avoidance-avoidance conflict- 2 undesirable
    choices
  • ex cleaning the bathroom or cleaning the
    kitchen
  • approach-avoidance conflict- one event have both
    desirable and undesirable features
  • ex pepperoni pizza tastes good, but it gives me
    indigestion
  • multiple approach avoidance conflict- 2 or more
    choices each with a good feature and bad feature
  • ex college A gave you a scholarship, but it
    doesnt have the major you want. college B is
    close to your boyfriend, but it has a lousy
    campus
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