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Title: Hany H. Ammar


1
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Cloud Computing Benefits and Challenges A Key
Note Presentation The 20th International
Conference on Computer Theory and Applications
(ICCTA 2010) , Alexandria, Egypt , October 24,
2010
  • Hany H. Ammar
  • LANE Department of Computer Science and
    Electrical EngineeringWest Virginia University,
    Morgantown, West Virginia, USA,

2
OUTLINE
  • What is Cloud Computing ?
  • Examples of Campus clouds
  • Benefits of Cloud Computing,
  • What can we do with Cloud Computing?
  • Challenges of Cloud Computing
  • Making the case for Campus Clouds
  • Conclusions

3
Our Research Team on Cloud Computing
  • Faculty
  • Dr. Matthew Valenti, West Virginia University
  • Dr Abdelkarim Erradi, Qatar University
  • Prof. Fatma Omara, Dr. hesham Hassan, Dr Sherif
    Khattab, Dr Osama Ismael, Cairo University
  • Dr. Walid AbdelMoez, Arab Academy of Science and
    Techology, Alexandria, Egypt
  • Students
  • Mohammed Said Saleh, Markous M. Yassa, Sana
    AbdulJalil, Amr Mahmoud

Cloud
3
4
What is Cloud Computing
5
What is Cloud Computing
  • Resource availability is a key factor to achieve
    prosperity of any society,
  • Particularly important are computing resources
  • To attain their full potential, computing
    resources need to be efficiently utilized
    preferably in an aggregated manner.
  • The demand for computing resources can now be met
    by utility computing, grid computing, and most
    recently cloud computing.

6
What is Cloud ComputingUtility Computing
  • Utility computing providers rent capacity on
    computing resources that they maintain
  • Metered computing analogous to electric power
    (Pay per use)
  • Resources often virtualized and shared by
    multiple tenants
  • Example Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (estimated
    60 USD/Month for one EC2 Instance for
    24hrs/day-7days/week). Pay per use option
  • Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) web
    service provides resizable compute capacity in
    the cloud
  • Designed to make web-scale computing easier for
    developers.

7
What is Cloud Computing Utility versus Cloud
computing
  • Cloud computing not only provides raw computing
    resources, but also hosts the applications that
    use these resources.
  • Applications usually accessed via a web browser.
  • User data typically stored on provider's file
    systems.
  • Underlying computing infrastructure concealed
    from user.
  • Example gmail servers are concealed from users
  • Cloud Computing middleware systems are available
    for building clouds and their applications (e.g.,
    Eucalyptus and Hadoop)

8
What is Cloud Computing Cluster and Grid
Computing
  • A cluster is a collection of tightly coupled
    computing servers.
  • Usually co-located.
  • A computing grid is a distributed collection of
    computing servers.
  • While the servers may be dedicated resources,
    they could be borrowed from idle desktop
    computers.
  • A grid middleware system is needed to support the
    development and assessment of service-oriented
    grid systems and applications (e.g., CROWN-C)
    http//www.wrgrid.org.uk/Resources/Leaflets/WRG_CO
    LAB_Sept2007.pdf

9
OUTLINE
  • What is Cloud Computing ?
  • Examples of Campus clouds
  • Benefits of Cloud Computing,
  • What can we do with Cloud Computing?
  • Challenges of Cloud Computing
  • Making the case for Campus Clouds
  • Conclusions

10
Example University of Florida Campus Grid
11
Example University of California Campus Grid
12
What is Cloud Computing Grid and Community
Computing
  • Community computing projects assemble a grid of
    donated CPU resources using volunteers idle
    cycles
  • Example The BOINC software by UC Berkley is an
    Open-source software for volunteer computing and
    grid computing.
  • BOINC lets you donate your idle computer time to
    science projects like SETI_at_home,
    Climateprediction.net, Rosetta_at_home,
    Folding_at_home, World Community Grid, and many,
    Folding_at_home (http//boinc.berkeley.edu/download.p
    hp)
  • Uses Screensavers (windows) or low-priority
    process (linux)

13
What is Cloud Computing Grid and Cloud Computing
  • Resource Sharing
  • Grid enhances fair sharing of resources across
    organization.
  • Cloud provide resources according to demand so no
    actual sharing of resources due to the isolation
    through virtualization
  • Virtualization
  • Grid virtualization covers both data and
    resources (flat file and database).
  • Cloud adds virtualization for hardware resources
    too
  • Security
  • Grid security is not seriously explored.
  • Cloud Each user has a unique access to the
    virtualized environment

14
What is Cloud Computing Grid and Cloud Computing
  • Usability
  • Clouds are easily usable hiding the deployment
    details from the user.
  • Grid hard to manage
  • Payment model
  • Cloud use pay- per use model.
  • Grid fixed rate per service.
  • Scalability
  • Both Grid and cloud deals with scalability
  • Heterogeneity
  • Both cloud and grid support aggregation of
    heterogonous hardware and software.

15
OUTLINE
  • What is Cloud Computing ?
  • Examples of Campus clouds
  • Benefits of Cloud Computing,
  • What can we do with Cloud Computing?
  • Challenges of Cloud Computing
  • Making the case for Campus Clouds
  • Conclusions

16
Benefits of Cloud Computing
  • Cloud computing is a model that supports
    everything as a service (XaaS), e.g, the X
    changes to an I for,
  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

Physical resource set (PRS) is hardware
dependent or vendor dependent Virtual resource
set (VRS) is built on top of PRS to run in
multivendor cloud
17
Infrastructure-as-a-Service Providers
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Benefits of Cloud Computing
  • Platform as a service (PaaS) Java or .NET

19
Platform as a service Providers
20
Benefits of Cloud Computing
  • Software as a service (SaaS) e.g Gmail, Google
    Docs, Matlab,

21
Software-as-a-Service Providers.
22
Benefits of Cloud Computing
  • Human as a service (HaaS) Amazon Mechanical Turk
    (MTurk) is one of the suites of Amazon Web
    Services, a crowdsourcing marketplace that
    enables computer programs to coordinate the use
    of Human Intelligence to perform Tasks (HITs)
    which computers are unable to do
  • Workers can work on-line and make money by
    choosing from thousands of posted HITs.
  • US-based CrowdFlower has introduced a cloud labor
    service that connects organizations searching
    for temporary workers to refugees in Kenya , The
    iPhone app helps a business outsource a basic
    task, such finding a phone number for marketing
    departments
  • at various companies and entering them into a
    spread sheet. Workers in Kinya have completed
    158,000 tasks, individuals earn as much as
    28/week, 8 times what they get from typical jobs
    in a refugee camp

23
Human-as-a-Service Providers
In India Cloud Computing is projected to grow
from a 50 Million industry in 2009 to a 15
Billion Industry in 2013 S. Greengard Cloud
Computing and Developing Nations, Communications
of the ACM, May 2010.
24
Benefits of Cloud ComputingThe Big Picture of
the Cloud Layered Architecture
Fig Cloud Stack
25
Benefits of Cloud Computing
  • The Provided services in the Cloud are the
    following
  • Virtualized physical resources,
  • Virtualized infrastructure,
  • Virtualized middleware platforms
  • Virtualized business applications
  • Cloud computing reduces the need for advanced
    hardware on the clients side
  • Clients can use inexpensive small Net Books and
    virtually have the processing power of an
    expandable Grid computing system
  • No need to buy a set of software or software
    licenses
  • Data is no longer confined to the user's hard
    drive, will be able to access data and
    applications from anywhere at any time. There is
    no more lost data due to hard drive failures
  • Corporations would save money on IT support, and
    No need for space to house expensive hardware and
    software servers.

26
OUTLINE
  • What is Cloud Computing ?
  • Examples of Campus clouds
  • Benefits of Cloud Computing,
  • What can we do with Cloud Computing?
  • Challenges of Cloud Computing
  • Making the case for Campus Clouds
  • Conclusions

27
Challenges of Cloud Computing
  • Providing Support for both Service Users and
    Service Providers

28
Challenges of Cloud Computing
  • Service Providers Development Services, or Build
    and Test Services,
  • Software Engineering Methodologies and tools
  • How to manage clouds for Application Lifecycle
    Management
  • The Cloud manager can limit projects to certain
    clouds, control costs, manage security, or
    supplement resources during peak use
  • Service Users easily usable clouds, hiding the
    deployment details from the user using
    virtualization,
  • Security and privacy are the biggest concerns
  • Cost accounting data , and usage tracking for
    Multiple Clouds. if the utility models were
    adequate, the challenges to cloud
  • Computing could be solved with electricity-like
    solutions, but they can not
  • Brynjolfsson et al, Communications of the ACM,
    May 2010

29
Challenges of Cloud Computing Build and Test
Workflow, Challenges at all three levels
30
Challenges of Cloud Computing Build and Test
Tasks Require complex environments
31
Challenges of Cloud ComputingModel-Driven Design
Interdisciplinary Development teams End-to-End
Collaboration Change Management Konstantinou
et al propose an approach and architecture for
composition and deployment of virtual software
services in cloud environments. VTDC09, June 15,
2009, Barcelona, Spain., ACM 978-1-60558-580-2/09/
06
32
Challenges of Cloud ComputingCloud Management
and Control
33
Challenges of Cloud Computing Examples of
Current Support for IaaS
  • Apache Hadoop A Java software framework that
    supports data-intensive distributed applications
    and enables applications to work with thousands
    of nodes and large amounts of data.
    http//hadoop.apache.org/
  • Nimbus is an open-source toolkit that, once
    installed on a cluster, provides an
    infrastructure as a Service cloud to its client
    via WSRF-based or Amazon EC2 WSDL web service
    APIs, http//www.nimbusproject.org/

34
Challenges of Cloud Computing Examples of
Current Support AbiCloud Supports SaaS
http//abicloud.org/display/abiCloud/Home
35
Challenges of Cloud Computing Examples of
Current Support enStratus Supports SaaS,
ReliaCloud Supports IaaS
  • enStratus is a SaaS-based system for managing
    cloud infrastructures across multiple providers
  • http//www.enstratus.com/
  • enStratus focuses on the deployment and ongoing
    management of transactional database applications
    in clouds like Amazon Web Services and
    ReliaCloud.
  • The main features of enStratus include cloud
    security and availability management.
  • ReliaCloud provides virtual Servers deployed
    within a virtualization environment that is
    architected to maximize uptime and performance.
    http//www.reliacloud.com/

36
Challenges of Cloud Computing Examples of
Current Support for PaaS and IaaS
  • Sun Cloud is an on-demand Cloud computing service
    operated by Sun Microsystems. The Sun Cloud
    Compute Utility provides access to a substantial
    computing resource over the Internet for US1 per
    CPU-hour.
  • The Rackspace Cloud is a web application
    hosting/cloud platform provider ("Cloud Sites")
    that bills on a utility computing basis. It has
    branched out into cloud storage ("Cloud Files")
    and cloud infrastructure ("Cloud Servers"),
    http//www.rackspacecloud.com/
  • Kaavo provides solutions for deploying and
    managing on-demand applications and workloads in
    the cloud.
  • http//www.kaavo.com/home

37
OUTLINE
  • What is Cloud Computing ?
  • Examples of Campus Clouds
  • Benefits of Cloud Computing,
  • What can we do with Cloud Computing?
  • Challenges of Cloud Computing
  • Making the case for Campus Clouds
  • Conclusions

38
Making the case for Campus Clouds
  • College Campuses maintain significant
    Infrastructure of computing resources in
    computing Labs
  • This infrastructure is under utilized (many
    students use laptops and Net Books)
  • Service Providers and Users are in need for
    inexpensive computing resources

39
Making the case for Campus Clouds
  • Developing IaaS Campus cloud project aggregating
    the computing resources of multiple college
    campuses would provide the following benefits
  • Providing extra Revenue to colleges from service
    providers and businesses
  • Providing students with an environment for
    learning the concepts of cloud computing
  • Providing college systems maintenance team
    (professionals and students) with the experience
    of dealing with Cloud service providers and Cloud
    users
  • Provides stronger ties between academia and
    industry
  • Motivates the Industry to invest in academic
    computing resources
  • Academic research will benefit from Campus clouds

40
Conclusions
  • Cloud computing has emerged to provide
    inexpensive on-demand pay per use computing
    resources
  • Cloud computing is closely related to grid
    computing and utility computing.
  • Software Engineering Methodologies and tools are
    needed for cloud developers (Cloud-based
    Service-Oriented Engineering)
  • Security and privacy are the biggest concerns of
    cloud computing users and developers
  • Campus Clouds can bring revenue for computing
    resources, enhance student learning, strengthen
    ties with Industry, and enhance academic
    research.

41
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