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Influenza of 1918

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Influenza of 1918 Danielle Albin Dane van Loon Matthew Litch History General Characteristics How the Virus is Transmitted Symptoms Possible Complications from the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Influenza of 1918


1
Influenza of 1918
Danielle Albin Dane van Loon Matthew Litch
2
History
The Influenza virus was first known as the
Spanish Influenza due to a major outbreak of
the disease in Spain in May and June 1918. It has
been said that the virus may have originated in
Kansas with about 500 men were infected, with a
listed 48 people died of pneumonia. Over one
and one-half million U.S. soldiers that were
infected were sent to Europe to fight in World
War One. No one knows of its true origin, but by
September 1918 the virus spread to the civilian
population of America.
Refer to Saved File (map.GIF)
3
General Characteristics
There are two basic types of Influenza, Influenza
A and Influenza B. The Influenza type A causes
moderate to severe illness within all age groups
of humans and animals. Where as Influenza type B
causes a more milder disease and only affects
humans, especially children. The subtypes of the
Influenza type A virus are identified by two
antigens (proteins involved in the immune
reaction) on the surface of the virus. These
antigens can change, or mutate, over time. When a
"shift, a major change, or a "drift" a minor
change occurs, a new influenza virus is born and
an epidemic is likely among the unprotected
population.
4
How the Virus is Transmitted
The virus is transmitted through the air from the
respiratory tract of an infected human being. The
virus can also be transmitted by direct contact
with respiratory droplets.
5
Symptoms
The incubation period of the Influenza virus can
span up to two days and has the possibilities of
spanning one to five days. The typical symptoms
are an abrupt onset of fever, aching muscles,
sore throat, and a non-productive cough. The
additional symptoms may include a runny nose,
headache, a burning sensation in the chest, eye
pain, and sensitivity to light. The Influenza
virus is less likely to infect those who have had
a previous encounter with a small strain of the
Influenza virus.
6
Possible Complications from the Virus
The most frequent complication of influenza is
bacterial pneumonia. Viral pneumonia is less
common but has a high fatality rate. Reye's
syndrome is a complication that occurs almost
exclusively in childrenpatients suffer from
severe vomiting and confusion, which may progress
to coma because of swelling of the brain. To
decrease the chance of developing Reye's
syndrome, infants, children, and teenagers should
not be given aspirin for fever reduction or pain
relief. Other complications include inflammation
of the heart and worsening of such pulmonary
diseases as bronchitis.
7
Alternative Vaccination to Prevention of
Influenza?
There are four antiviral agents approved for
preventing or treating influenza in selected
patients. Only two, oseltamivir and zanamivir,
will offer protection against both A and B
viruses the other two, amantadine and
rimantadine, protect only against the A viruses.
Their use is generally limited to situations
where an outbreak is underway and immediate
protection of vulnerable, unvaccinated persons is
critical (e.g., nursing home residents) or in
persons who are expected to have an inadequate
antibody response to the vaccine (e.g., persons
infected with HIV) or who could not otherwise be
vaccinated (e.g., persons with severe egg
allergies). Antiviral agents are not a substitute
for vaccination.
8
Length of Contagiousness
A person is most likely to pass on the virus
during the period beginning one to two days
before the onset of symptoms and ending four to
five days after the onset.
9
How Serious is Influenza?
Annual deaths from influenza in the United States
are currently estimated to be over 36,000. More
than 90 of deaths attributed to influenza are
among persons 65 years of age or
older. Approximately 114,000 hospitalizations per
year are related to influenza. In nursing homes,
up to 60 of residents may be infected, with a
30 fatality rate. Children two years of age and
younger have hospitalization rates second only to
people 65 years and older. The cost of a severe
epidemic has been estimated at 12
billion. Occasionally, major epidemics occur on
an international scale. The first recording of
such an event was in 1580, and at least seven
international epidemics have occurred in the
nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The "Spanish
flu" epidemic of 1918-1919 caused an estimated 21
million deaths worldwide, including 500,000
Americans.
10
How the Virus Spreads (The Lytic Cycle)
  • Definition The general life cycle of a lytic
    virus, from infection of the host cell, hijacking
    of the host cell's mechanisms, use of the host
    cell's mechanisms to produce viral components,
    and assembly of the components into progeny
    viruses, to the destruction of the host cell by
    rupturing its plasma membrane (lysis) and the
    release of the progeny viruses so that they can
    spread and infect other cells.

11
Sources of Information
http//www.vaccineinformation.org http//www.pbs.o
rg/wgbh/amex/influenza http//www.stanford.edu/gro
up/virus/uda http//www.roangelo.net/schlectweg/in
fluenz.html http//www.hyperdictionary.com/diction
ary/lyticcycle
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