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13-2 Defining Leadership


13-2 Defining Leadership The ability to influence through communication the activities of others, individually or as a group, toward the accomplishment of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 13-2 Defining Leadership

13-2 Defining Leadership
  • The ability to influence through communication
    the activities of others, individually or as a
    group, toward the accomplishment of worthwhile,
    meaningful, and challenging goals.
  • It is a general concept that applies in many
    different social contexts.
  • The traits and behaviors that are necessary for
    leaders of large organizations are different from
    those that are required for leaders of
    entrepreneurial ventures.

Alternate Definitions Of Leadership
  • The act of providing direction, energizing
    others, and obtaining their voluntary commitment
    to the leaders vision.
  • The process of influencing a group toward the
    achievement of goals

13-1 Introduction (cont.)
  • Research has determined that many entrepreneurs
    are effective in creating and running a company
    on their own.
  • However growth requires additional employees,
    when the entrepreneur hasnt the necessary skills
    to motivate and inspire followers.
  • Efforts to analyze effective entrepreneurial
    leadership have focused on three general areas
  • The personal traits of leaders
  • The behavior of leaders
  • The situations in which leadership develops
  • There is agreement that traits and behaviors
    necessary for being an effective leader vary
    depending on situation.

13-2a The Core of Leadership Influence
  • Leaders use influence as their primary tool to
    move the venture toward its goals.
  • Seven influence strategies proposed as vital for
    entrepreneurial leadership roles
  • Reason
  • Friendliness
  • Coalition
  • Bargaining
  • Assertiveness
  • Higher authority
  • Sanctions
  • Research indicates that employees demonstrate
    higher levels of motivation if theyre allowed to
    influence the way the organization works.

Exhibit 13-2 The Management-Leadership Continuum
13-3 Foundations Of Entrepreneurial Leadership
  • The three main approaches at the center of the
    debate surrounding the foundations of leadership
  • Trait theory
  • Behavioral theory
  • Contingency theory
  • Over the years, each of these approaches has been
    refined and various dimensions have been added.

13-3a The Trait Theory of Leadership (cont.)
  • Although the trait theory has identified a number
    of personality characteristics that have been
    linked to leadership, none have been determined
    to be essential in all places and under all
  • Studies have produced a lengthy list of possible
    traits essential to leadership, which are grouped
    into six categories
  • Physical traits
  • Background characteristics
  • Intelligence
  • Personality
  • Task-related characteristics
  • Social characteristics

13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.)
  • Task-oriented leadership
  • Techniques emphasize the need for leaders to plan
    each workers job tasks and job outcomes.
  • Leaders try to ensure that each task is performed
    according to the business plan.
  • Terms used to refer to task-oriented leadership
    behaviors include directive, production-oriented,
    autocratic, and initiating structure.
  • Many modern leaders still believe that
    task-oriented behavior is the most effective for
    obtaining performance.

13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.)
  • Person-oriented leadership
  • This perspective holds that the way leaders get
    things done through others has implications for
    the long-term health and prosperity of a venture.
  • Another way of understanding the distinction
    between task-oriented and person-oriented
    leadership is through two leadership theories.
  • Theory X assumptions
  • Theory Y assumptions

Exhibit 13-3 Behaviors of Effective Leaders
McGregors Assumptions (about employees)
  • Theory X Employees
  • Irresponsible
  • Lack ambition
  • Dislike work
  • Avoid responsibility
  • Are motivated by extrinsic rewards/punishments
  • Theory Y Employees
  • Goal seeking
  • Creative
  • Like work
  • Accept responsibility
  • Are motivated by intrinsic rewards

13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.)
  • Combining Task-Oriented and Person-Oriented
  • Contrasting perspectives make it appear that
    entrepreneurial leaders must choose one or the
    other, but not both.
  • If so, then aspiring leaders need only develop a
    narrow range of skills that are either task- or
  • If the most effective leaders are task-oriented,
    then leaders need skills only in the technical
    aspects of planning and organizing the work of
  • If the most effective leaders are
    person-oriented, then human relations and
    interpersonal skills are required.

13-3b The Behavioral Theory of Leadership (cont.)
  • The idea that effective leadership requires a
    balance between task- and person-oriented
    behaviors has considerable appeal.
  • Two approaches to this idea have become well
    known in the theory and practice of leadership
  • Two-dimensional theory
  • Managerial grid theory

13-3c The Contingency Theory of Leadership
  • Current popular idea is that effective leadership
    behavior is contingent on the situation in which
    leaders finds themselves.
  • The theory is considerably more complex than
    either the trait or the behavioral approach.
  • Effective leadership depends on the interaction
  • The leaders personal characteristics
  • The leaders behavior
  • Factors in the leadership situation
  • A recurring theme is the concept of participation
    by subordinates in organizational decision
  • At the extremes of this continuum are
    boss-centered leadership and subordinate-centered

13-3c The Contingency Theory of Leadership
  • Whether a leader should make the decision and
    announce it or share the problem with
    subordinates and seek group consensus depends on
    the interaction of factors related to the problem
    and to the subordinates.
  • Factors related to the problem are
  • Likelihood that one solution to the problem is
    more effective than another
  • Extent to which the leader has sufficient
    information to make a high-quality decision
  • Extent to which alternative solutions are known
    with some certainty

13-3c The Contingency Theory of Leadership
  • Factors related to subordinates are
  • Likelihood that effective implementation of the
    solution depends on subordinates accepting it as
  • Likelihood that if the leader makes the decision,
    the subordinates will accept it
  • Extent to which subordinates recognize and accept
    the organizational objectives to be attained by
    the solution
  • Likelihood that conflict among subordinates will
    result if the preferred solution is adopted
  • Combining these seven factors creates different
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