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BASIC MICROBIOLOGY

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BASIC MICROBIOLOGY Definition Microbiology is the science that studies living organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye (microorganisms or microbes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BASIC MICROBIOLOGY


1
BASIC MICROBIOLOGY
2
Definition
  • Microbiology is the science that studies living
    organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye
    (microorganisms or microbes)
  • microorganisms are commonly known as germs

3
Nature of Microorganisms
  • Pathogens microorganisms that cause disease
  • most microorganisms are harmless
  • some microorganisms found in the body are
    beneficial to us
  • when a microorganism enters a part of the body
    other than where it is intended to be, it can be
    harmful
  • eg. E. coli from the colon (breaks down
    waste/makes vitamin K) can enter the urinary
    tract and cause an infection

4
Factors that Influence Microbial Growth
  • 5 factors affect the growth of microorganisms
  • temperature
  • pH (only a few live in acidic environments)
  • moisture
  • food
  • oxygen
  • these factors must be favorable if microorganisms
    are to live
  • different microorganisms require different
    conditions for survival
  • eg. aerobic microorganisms grow best with high
    levels of oxygen, while anaerobic microorganisms
    grow best in the absence of oxygen

5
Methods that Destroy Microorganisms
  • 3 common methods destroy microorganisms
  • Antiseptics (eg. alcohol and betadine)
  • used on the skin
  • slow or prevent the growth of pathogens
  • Disinfection (eg. bleach solution zephirin)
  • not used on skin because irritation may result
  • Sterilization
  • autoclaves use steam under pressure to kill ALL
    microorganisms (first two methods are not
    effective against spores)
  • other methods include the use of chemicals,
    radiation, and gas

6
Types of Microorganisms
  • 5 major types are
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa (protists)
  • Parasites (rickettsiae)
  • Viruses

7
Bacteria
  • most familiar of the microbes that infect humans
  • classified by their shape and arrangement

Type Shape Arrangement
Diplococci Round in pairs
Staphylococci Round in groups or clusters
Streptococci Round in chains
Bacilli Rod-shaped in pairs, single, or in chains
Spirilla Cork-screw or spiral single
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