PSAT Grammar - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – PSAT Grammar PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 72ed7e-YTYyM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

PSAT Grammar

Description:

INFINITIVES GERUNDS PARTICIPLES CLAUSES PSAT GRAMMAR Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:153
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 128
Provided by: birdv1
Learn more at: http://www.birdvilleschools.net
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: PSAT Grammar


1
PSAT Grammar
verb tense Subject-verb agreement Pronoun
usage Double negatives Idioms Passive
voice Misplaced/dangling modifiers Parallelism Sen
tence structure Coordination/subordination Punctua
ting with colons Adverbs Adjectives Prepositions A
ppositives Infinitives Gerunds Participles clauses
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

2
VERB TENSE
Consistency of verb tense Past perfect
tense Historical present Writing about literature
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

3
Consistency of Verb Tense
  • The tense of verbs must remain consistent in the
    sentence. If the sentence starts in present
    tense, it should stay in the present tense. If it
    begins in the past, it should remain in the past.
  • EX Because she sang so beautifully, she wins
    the contest.
  • Sang is past tense while wins is present. We
    need to change wins to won.

4
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • The leprechaun walked to school, and on the way
    he drops his pot o gold.

5
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • The concert finally ended, but all the taxis are
    busy.

6
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • The rhino has some good points, but he also had
    some tough skin.

7
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • The man tries to rescue the hamster, but he was
    not successful.

8
Answers
  • The leprechaun walked to school, and on the way
    he dropped his pot o gold.
  • The concert finally ended, but all the taxis were
    busy.
  • The rhino has some good points, but he also has
    some tough skin.
  • The man tries to rescue the hamster, but he is
    not successful.

9
Past Perfect Tense
  • The past perfect tense always uses the helping
    verb had with the main verb. This tense is used
    to indicate a time that precedes another time
    mentioned in the sentence.
  • EXI had seen the movie before I saw Janet at the
    store.
  • The action of seeing the movie occurred before
    the action of seeing Janet. The first action to
    happen requires past perfect tense. The last
    action to happen requires past tense. Using these
    two tenses keeps the time reference clear in
    written English.

10
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • Until last Friday, we thought we lost the unicorn.

11
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • By the time Matilda left, Bruce ate the entire
    cake.

12
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • David probably saw the error long before he
    corrected it.

13
Write the corrected sentences in your notes.
  • After finding her absent, I knew that she went to
    the Beyonce concert with Devlin.

14
Answers
  1. Until last Friday, we had thought we lost the
    book.
  2. By the time Kelly left, Mary had eaten the entire
    cake.
  3. David probably had seen the error long before he
    corrected it.
  4. After finding her absent, I knew that she had
    gone to the concert.

15
Historical Present Tense
  • Part of the sentence may be in the past tense,
    but another part might be in the present if that
    second part is something that is always true.
  • For example, we know as a fact that light travels
    faster than sound. Since this is always true, we
    state the fact in the present tense, regardless
    of what happens in the rest of the sentence.

16
Example of historical present tense
  • Incorrect His research was based on the concept
    that light traveled faster than sound.
  • Correct His research was based on the concept
    that light travels faster than sound.

17
Present Tense When Discussing Literature
  • Another time we consistently use the present
    tense is when discussing literature the accepted
    convention is to discuss the actions in fiction
    in terms of present tense.
  • Incorrect The main character of the story
    disregarded his fathers wishes.
  • Correct The main character of the story
    disregards his fathers wishes.

18
Assessment of what youve learned Write the
corrected sentences in your notes.
  • By the time I left, Baxter ate the entire wheel
    of cheese.

19
Assessment of what youve learned Write the
corrected sentences in your notes.
  • Through experience Janet learned that hot dogs
    and ice cream produced obesity.

20
Assessment of what youve learned Write the
corrected sentences in your notes.
  • In the novel, the hero stressed his love for the
    woman.

21
Assessment of what youve learned Write the
corrected sentences in your notes.
  • Jerry said that Newtons third law of physics
    stated that for every action there was an equal
    and opposite reaction.

22
Answers
  1. By the time I left, Baxter had eaten the entire
    wheel of cheese.
  2. Through experience Janet learned that hot dogs
    and ice cream produce obesity.
  3. In the novel, the hero stresses his love for the
    woman.
  4. Jerry said that Newtons third law of physics
    states that for every action there is an equal
    and opposite reaction.

23
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
Subject followed by prepositional phrase Subject
following the expletive there Subject after
verb Compound subjects joined by or or nor
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

24
Subject-Verb Agreement
  • The concept of subject-verb agreement is
    relatively simple the subject and verb of each
    sentence must agree with each other in number
    (singular subject, singular verb, etc.)
  • Common errors occur
  • with a simple subject followed by a prepositional
    phrase
  • with a subject following the expletive there
  • with the subject following the verb
  • with a compound subject whose parts are joined by
    or or nor

25
Subject-Verb Agreement
  • Subject followed by prepositional phrase
  • Singular subject must be followed by singular
    verb (verb ending with s)
  • Plural subject must be followed by plural verb
    (verb with no s)
  • Common prepositions of, with, at, on, for, to,
    between, beneath, below, above, along, against
  • One of the boats are sinking.
  • One of the boats is sinking.

26
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following a prepositional phrase
  • One of the boats are sinking.

27
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following a prepositional phrase
  • The man with two platypi are walking down the
    street.

28
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following a prepositional phrase
  • The two girls in the gym is going to be in my
    class.

29
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following a prepositional phrase
  • The boys in my science class tries daily to blow
    things up.

30
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following a prepositional phrase
  • One of the pictures of the centaur are lost.

31
Subject-Verb Agreement
  • Deciding whether or not the verb agrees with the
    subject is sometimes difficult because of the
    nature and placement of the subject.
  • Incorrect There is always two men on guard at
    this post.
  • Correct There are always two men on guard at
    this post.

32
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following the expletive there
  • There goes the three moose of the mountain.

33
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following the expletive there
  • There were never a harder decision to make.

34
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following the expletive there
  • There was only two pirates at the door to greet
    us.

35
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
following the expletive there
  • There seem to be a strong odor in the room.

36
Subject-Verb Agreement
  • The third type of error deals with the placement
    of the subject after the verb.
  • Example Down the road in a bright red car came
    the two girls.
  • Incorrect Far away from the rest of the crowd
    stands the three men.
  • Correct Far away from the rest of the crowd
    stand the three men.

37
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
after the verb
  • Beneath those pictures on the wall are the
    artists name.

38
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
after the verb
  • Around the corner from my house lives the Lord
    Voledmort.

39
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
after the verb
  • Under the beds in his room were the dragon.

40
Correct these sentences in your notes.Subject
after the verb
  • Without his hat or his coat stand the detective.

41
Subject-Verb Agreement
  • When a compound subject is joined by or or nor,
    we look at the part of the subject that sits
    closest to the verb to determine singular or
    plural.
  • Example Neither the girl nor the two boys want
    to go eat breakfast.

42
Correct these sentences in your notes.Compound
subjects joined by or or nor
  • Either Jane or Sally (seem, seems) to be weirder
    than usual.

43
Correct these sentences in your notes.Compound
subjects joined by or or nor
  • The lantern or the street lights on the road (is,
    are) shining brightly.

44
Correct these sentences in your notes.Compound
subjects joined by or or nor
  • The cyborg on the roof or the cow in the pasture
    (was, were) singing.

45
Correct these sentences in your notes.Compound
subjects joined by or or nor
  • Either Sam or the girls in the green car (ask,
    asks) a lot of questions.

46
PRONOUN USAGE
Pronoun antecedent agreement Pronoun as a
compound element Ambiguous reference Who vs.
which Shift in person
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

47
Pronoun Antecedent Agreement
  • A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun.
    The noun that the pronoun replaces or to which it
    refers is called the antecedent. Look at the
    sentence below.
  • Mary went home because she was not feeling
    well.
  • In the sentence, the pronoun she is a substitute
    for the noun Mary. Mary is the antecedent of she.
    The antecedent of a pronoun is merely the word to
    which to pronoun refers. The pronoun and its
    antecedent must agree in number (singular
    antecedent singular pronoun plural plural)

48
Pronoun Antecedent Agreement
  • Incorrect If someone calls, tell them I left
    early.
  • Correct If someone calls, tell him I left
    early.
  • The word someone is actually singular. Any
    pronoun referring to that word must also be
    singular. The pronoun them is plural so it does
    not agree with the antecedent someone.

49
Correct these sentences in your notes.Pronoun
Antecedent Agreement
  1. We wanted each of the men to do their share of
    the work.
  2. Everyone should bring their books when they come
    to class.
  3. Neither Dorothy nor Janice had washed their face.
  4. Each player must put their own clothes in the
    locker.

50
Pronoun as a Compound Element
  • When pronouns are used as part of a compound
    element, students really get confused.
  • Tom and Sally went to the movies. Tom went to
    the movies. Sally went to the movies.
  • Tom and she went to the movies. Tom went to the
    movies. She went to the movies.
  • He and Sally went to the movies. He went to the
    movies. Sally went to the movies.
  • He and she went to the movies. He went to the
    movies. She went to the movies.
  • If you will break the sentence apart and read it
    twice, once for each word in the compound
    element, you will realize the correct answer.
  • Dad gave Tom and Sally the gifts. Dad gave Tom
    the gifts. Dad gave Sally the gifts.
  • Dad gave him and Sally the gifts. Dad gave him
    the gifts. Dad gave Sally the gifts.
  • Dad gave Tom and her the gifts. Dad gave Tom the
    gifts. Dad gave her the gifts.
  • Dad gave him and her the gifts. Dad gave him the
    gifts. Dad gave her the gifts.

51
Correct these sentences in your notes.Pronoun as
a Compound Element
  1. Betty went to the store for Susan and (I, me).
  2. You and (he, him) can continue reading later.
  3. Janet and (I, me) read the book.
  4. The manager gave the book to Don and (she, her).

52
Lets practice some more togetherPronoun as a
Compound Element
  1. David told Jerry and (I, me) that block printing
    began in China.
  2. If Gerry and (she, her) had waited, the park
    would have opened.
  3. The movie surprised Darlene and (he, him).
  4. The movie surprised Darlene and (I, me).

53
Ambiguous Pronoun Reference
  • The third area of pronoun usage concerns the
    ambiguous reference of pronouns. Earlier we saw
    that all pronouns must have an antecedent. When
    that antecedent is not clear, we have an
    ambiguous reference problem.
  • Incorrect They say in that magazine that
    scores have dropped rapidly.
  • Correct In that magazine, an authority states
    that scores have dropped rapidly.
  • In the incorrect version, the pronoun they is
    vaguely referring to someone, but we have no
    clear picture of who it is. If the antecedent is
    not clear, you cant use the pronoun.

54
Correct these sentences in your notes.Ambiguous
Pronoun Reference
  1. The manager told her secretary that she must pay
    the filing fee.
  2. Bobby bought ice cream for John and his sister.
  3. It surprised me when you came home.

55
Who vs. Which
  • The pronoun who refers to people. Which refers to
    things. Thats all there is to it.
  • Note animals are considered things in written
    English.

56
Correct these sentences in your notes.Who vs.
Which
  1. He sat in a chair (who, which) was painted red.
  2. The students (who, which) ride the bus are too
    noisy.
  3. This is the newspaper (who, which) won the award.
  4. We saw a dog (who, which) looked dangerous.

57
Shift in person
  • The last kind of problem regarding pronoun usage
    is the problem of shifting person in the
    sentence.
  • 1st person I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours
  • 2nd person you, your, yours
  • 3rd person he, him, his, she, her, hers, it,
    its, they, them, their, theirs
  • The rule in standard written English is that you
    may not shift from one person to another within
    the sentence.
  • Incorrect I think I will be fine, but you have
    to be prepared for the unexpected.
  • Correct I think I will be fine, but I have to be
    prepared for the unexpected.

58
Correct these sentences in your notes.Shift in
person
  1. If you intend to go to college, one should try to
    do well in high school.
  2. One should be nice to others if you expect
    kindness in return.
  3. I tried to fill the order, but one can only do so
    much.

59
Double negatives
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

60
Double Negatives
  • A double negative is two negative expressions
    applied to the same idea. The following terms are
    negative expressions no, not, nothing, none, no
    one, never, hardly, scarcely, nowhere, nobody,
    neither. These terms should not be used together
    to discuss the same idea.
  • Incorrect I dont want no help.
  • Correct I dont want any help.
  • Incorrect We dont have hardly any.
  • Correct We have hardly any.

61
Lets practice together
  1. He hasnt got none of the answers right.
  2. They dont have scarcely any food to eat.
  3. I dont never want to hear those words again.
  4. I didnt get no sleep last night.

62
idioms
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

63
Idioms
  • An idiom is an expression in which the words have
    developed a special meaning in relation to each
    other. This meaning is destroyed if some part of
    the related group of words is omitted, or if some
    word not commonly a part of the idiom is
    introduced.
  • For instance, we are angry with a personnot
    angry at him.
  • We comply with a request, not comply to a request.

64
Idioms
  • The list below illustrates the usage of
    prepositions in some idiomatic expressions. These
    idioms should be memorized.
  • agree with a person differ from something
  • agree to a proposal differ with someone
  • agree on a plan of action overrun by a tank
  • aim at a target overrun with ants
  • aim for perfection wait for a person
  • part with a thing part from a person

65
Idioms common mistakes/corrections
  • Faulty form Correct form
  • among each other among themselves
  • bank on depend on, rely on, count on
  • could of could have
  • in back of behind
  • leave us go let us go
  • off of, off from off (omit of and from)
  • in contrast to in contrast with
  • concerned in concerned with
  • in regards to in regard to
  • being that since
  • kind of rather
  • different than different from
  • filled up with filled with

66
Passive voice
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

67
Passive/Active Voice
  • In formal, standard written English, the active
    voice is preferred to the passive voice.
  • Active voice occurs when the subject of the
    sentence performs the action.
  • Passive voice occurs when the subject receives
    the action.
  • Active voice Tom hit the ball.
  • Passive voice Tom was hit by the ball.

68
Active or Passive?Change the passive sentences
to active.
  1. Jeremy stood beside the road.
  2. Jeremy was seen beside the road.
  3. Mary cooked a delicious meal.
  4. A delicious meal was served by the waitress.
  5. The man was told not to utter a sound.

69
Misplaced/dangling modifiers
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

70
Misplaced Modifiers
  • Modifying phrases should be placed as near as
    possible to the words they modify. Otherwise,
    they sometimes distort the meaning of the
    sentence and add unintended humor.
  • Incorrect The boy saw the red car looking out
    the window.
  • Correct Looking out the window, the boy saw the
    red car.
  • In the incorrect version, the phrase looking out
    the window modifies car, thereby implying the car
    was looking out the window instead of the boy.
    The phrase must be moved near the word it truly
    modifies.

71
Misplaced Modifiers
  • Remember that the placement of a single modifying
    word changes the meaning of the sentence.
  • Look at the three possibilities when the word
    only is placed in different positions
  • I only saw Janet. (I did not speak to her.)
  • Only I saw Janet. (No one else saw her.)
  • I saw only Janet. (I saw no one else.)

72
Correct the errors in misplaced modifiers.
Underline the modifier and draw an arrow to the
word it modifies.
  1. John stopped and parked the car looking at the
    scenery.
  2. Lying on the desk, Jerry read the letter.
  3. The man saw the log swimming in the lake.
  4. Covered with cream gravy, the waitress served the
    potatoes.

73
Dangling Modifiers
  • A dangling modifier is a phrase or clause that
    does not clearly modify any word in the sentence.
    This kind of error makes the meaning of a
    sentence absurd.
  • Incorrect Listening closely, no sound could be
    heard.
  • Correct Listening closely, he could hear no
    sound.
  • In the incorrect sentence, we have no idea who
    was listening. Because the phrase sits next to
    the word sound, it should modify sound,
    theoretically, but that is absurd. Sound cannot
    listen.

74
Dangling Modifiers
  • Before we practice correcting these errors, lets
    look at three more examples
  • Digging in the garden, an old rag doll was
    discovered. (The sentence implies that the rag
    doll was digging in the dirt.)
  • Solving the case, one important clue was
    overlooked. (Who solved the casethe clue?)
  • Climbing the tree, a birds nest was found. (Did
    the nest climb the tree?)

75
Correct the dangling modifiers. You must add
words to make these sentences correct.
  1. To unlock the door, a key must be used.
  2. Before going outside, your overshoes must be put
    on.
  3. While talking to the officer, a dog ran between
    his legs.
  4. After eating all those pears, dinner was served.

76
parallelism
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

77
Parallelism
  • Maintaining parallel structure in sentences is
    very important. Parallelism is about consistency.
    If a sentence begins with one construction and
    suddenly shifts to another, it is lacking in
    parallel structure.
  • Incorrect He likes hiking, boating, and to run.
  • Correct He likes hiking, boating, and running.
  • Correct He likes to hike, to boat, and to run.

78
Rewrite the sentences, correcting the underlined
portions so that the sentences are parallel.
  1. Tell me his name and where he lives.
  2. He is tall, red-headed, and has freckles.
  3. I decided to go home, to get my gear, and later I
    went fishing.
  4. We danced all night, laughed all day, and during
    the morning all we did was cry.

79
Sentence structure
Fragments Run-ons
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

80
Fragments
  • A fragment is part of a sentence that does not
    express a complete thought. It can be a thought
    cut off from another sentence to which it
    belongs, it can be a subordinate clause written
    as a sentence, it can be a verbal phrase written
    as a sentence, it can be an appositive phrase
    written as a sentence, or it can be any number of
    other things that are parts of sentences but
    which do not constitute a complete thought in
    themselves.

81
Fragment Examples
  • The mailman rang the doorbell and set something
    on the porch. Probably a package. (cut off from
    preceding sentence)
  • I opened the door and saw the package. Which had
    been left by the postman. (a subordinate clause
    cut off from preceding sentence)
  • Having been left sitting on the porch by the
    postman. (a verbal phrase trying to stand alone)
  • I was introduced to his uncle. The man who left
    the package sitting on my front porch. (an
    appositive phrase separated from the preceding
    sentence)

82
Correct the following sentence fragments by
rewriting them as complete sentences.
  1. Before you get into your car to come to my house.
  2. Never knowing what the young man would say to the
    girl about marrying her.
  3. Being almost six feet tall and enabling him to
    play basketball.
  4. After changing the tire on the car and resuming
    our trip.
  5. The man in the gray suit smiling broadly under
    that elm tree in the park.

83
Run-on Sentences
  • A run-on sentence is actually two separate
    sentences that fail to be separated by the proper
    punctuation. A run-on can be created by putting a
    comma between the two sentences or by having no
    punctuation at all between the two sentences.
  • A run-on can be corrected in several ways. A
    period or a semicolon can separate the two
    sentences, or one sentence can be reduced to
    modifiers and incorporated into the other
    sentence.

84
Run-on Examples
  • Incorrect I saw the man in the store he was very
    handsome.
  • Incorrect I saw the man in the store, he was
    very handsome.
  • Correct I saw the man in the store. He was very
    handsome.
  • Correct I saw the man in the store he was very
    handsome.
  • Correct I saw the very handsome man in the store.

85
Rewrite the following sentences below so that the
run-on sentence is eliminated. Use each of the
three methodsnot the same way for each sentence.
  1. Last year I saw the Grand Canyon, this year I
    will see Niagara Falls.
  2. My dog is my best friend, he has been with me for
    ten years.
  3. The man in the store is my uncle, he will drive
    us home.
  4. John plans to mow the lawn this morning, he will
    go to the movies later.

86
Using Semicolons
  • You must understand how to use semicolons
    correctly. In the example below we use a
    semicolon with a conjunctive adverb and a comma
    to join two separate sentences. If a comma
    precedes the conjunctive adverb instead of a
    semicolon, a run-on sentence is created.
  • Incorrect I tried to finish the exam before the
    bell, however, I couldnt do it.
  • Correct I tried to finish the exam before the
    bell however, I couldnt do it.

87
Semicolons
  • Some conjunctive adverbs that commonly appear
    with semicolons are however, consequently,
    moreover, therefore, nevertheless, otherwise, for
    example, that is, and furthermore.
  • Note These words must be preceded by a semicolon
    and followed by a comma.
  • Margaret wanted to travel abroad however, she
    could not afford the trip.
  • I intend to study consequently, you must leave
    me alone.

88
COORDINATION AND SUBORDINATION
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

89
Coordination
  • Coordination has to do with joining ideas of
    equal rank in sentences. Generally we use the
    coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, for, nor,
    and yet to join these ideas. Below are two
    sentences whose ideas are equal in emphasis.

90
Coordination
  • Notice how we can join the two sentences with
    different conjunctions and get a variety of
    meanings.
  • I spoke to Jim. He spoke to me.
  • I spoke to Jim, and he spoke to me.
  • I spoke to Jim, but he did not speak to me.
  • I spoke to Jim, or he spoke to me.
  • I spoke to Jim therefore, he spoke to me.

91
Coordination
  • and indicates addition
  • but indicates contrast
  • or indicates choice
  • therefore indicates result
  • The problem we face with coordination is making
    sure that the relationship between the two ideas
    is accurately expressed. The solution rests on
    which conjunction we use.

92
Coordination
  • Food is adequate in the summer, and in the winter
    a good supply is not available.
  • The conjunction and is not the right word to use
    for this sentence. We need a word that expresses
    contrast. Look at the two suggestions below.
  • Food is adequate now, but in the winter a good
    supply will not be available.
  • Food is adequate now however, in the winter a
    good supply will not be available.

93
Read the sentences below and provide a
conjunction which will provide a conjunction
which will properly join the clauses making the
relationship between the two parts absolutely
clear.
  1. This recording studio produces the best sound in
    recordings, _____ it is a financial failure and
    is losing money.
  2. My teacher was evaluating me on neatness _____,
    I put forth extra effort to avoid being messy.
  3. James played the flute, _____ Tommy played bass
    in the orchestra.
  4. The heater had not been turned off _____, the
    house was cold the next morning.

94
Subordination
  • If two unequal ideas are joined as though they
    should have equal emphasis, we have a problem
    with coordination. Here is an example
  • John Blair was a native of Texas, and he was the
    guest speaker for the morning.
  • Since these two ideas are not really related and
    are certainly not of equal importance, they
    should not be joined with a coordinate
    conjunction that suggests that they are equal.

95
Subordination
  • One way to correct this problem is through
    subordination. That is, we take the sentence of
    lesser importance and make it into a subordinate
    clause. Subordinate clauses begin with a
    subordinate conjunction. A few of them are after,
    as, before, since, until, when, while, because,
    that, in order that, so that, although, if,
    unless, and even though. Relative pronouns who
    whose, whom, which, and that may also begin
    subordinate clauses.

96
Subordination Examples
  • John Blair, who was a native of Texas, was the
    guest speaker for the meeting.
  • The problem could also be corrected by making the
    clause of lesser importance into an appositive.
  • John Blair, a native of Texas, was the guest
    speaker for the meeting.

97
Correct the sentences below which have faulty
coordination by using subordinate clauses,
appositives, or modifying phrases.
  1. Sue cannot pay her credit card bill, and she
    still charges merchandise to her account.
  2. Mary Van was a doctor as well as a mathematician,
    and she discovered a new virus.
  3. Many teachers love to travel to Europe, and they
    do it during the summer months.
  4. Our visitor was a world renowned poet, and he had
    a strong background in law.

98
VERBALSGERUNDSPARTICIPLESINFINITIVES
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

99
Gerunds
  • A gerund is a verb form ending
  • in ing that is used as a noun.

100
Gerunds
  • A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and
    functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates
    that a gerund, like the other two kinds of
    verbals, is based on a verb and therefore
    expresses action or a state of being. However,
    since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies
    some positions in a sentence that a noun
    ordinarily would, for example subject, direct
    object, subject complement, and object of
    preposition.

101
Gerunds
  • Gerund as subject Traveling might satisfy your
    desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the
    gerund.)
  • The study abroad program might satisfy your
    desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been
    removed.)
  • Gerund as direct object They do not appreciate
    my singing. (The gerund is singing.)
  • They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund
    has been removed)

102
Gerunds
  • Gerund as subject complement My cat's favorite
    activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)
  • My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has
    been removed.)
  • Gerund as object of preposition The police
    arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is
    speeding.)
  • The police arrested him for criminal activity.
    (The gerund has been removed.)

103
Gerund Phrase
  • A gerund phrase is a group of words consisting of
    a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s)
    or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct
    object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s)
    of the action or state expressed in the gerund,
    such as
  • The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the
    sentence
  • Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier
    than what we're trying to do.
  • Finding (gerund)a needle (direct object of
    action expressed in gerund)in a haystack
    (prepositional phrase as adverb)

104
Gerund Phrase
  • The gerund phrase functions as the direct object
    of the verb appreciate.
  • I hope that you appreciate my offering you this
    opportunity.
  • my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying
    the gerund)offering (gerund)you (indirect
    object of action expressed in gerund)this
    opportunity (direct object of action expressed in
    gerund)

105
Gerund Phrase
  • The gerund phrase functions as the subject
    complement.
  • Newt's favorite tactic has been lying to his
    constituents.
  • lying to (gerund)his constituents (direct
    object of action expressed in gerund)
  • The gerund phrase functions as the object of the
    preposition for.
  • You might get in trouble for faking an illness
    to avoid work.
  • faking (gerund)an illness (direct object of
    action expressed in gerund)to avoid work
    (infinitive phrase as adverb)

106
Gerund Phrase
  • The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the
    sentence.
  • Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.
  • Being (gerund)the boss (subject complement for
    Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund)

107
Gerunds
  • Points to remember
  • A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used
    as a noun.
  • A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus
    modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s).
  • Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never
    require punctuation.

108
Participles
  • A participle is a verb form that is used as an
    adjective. The participle can end in ing, -ed,
    -n, or t.

109
Participles
  • The participle is a verb form that is used as an
    adjective. The participle can end in ing, -ed,
    -n, or t.
  • How to find it Look for an adjective that is
    built from a verb, or look for a verb form that
    is used as an adjective.

110
Participles
  • Jane tried to calm the trembling dog. (trembling
    is the participle.)
  • He tried to open the locked door. (The participle
    is locked.)
  • The hidden road was not obvious to the visitors.
    (The participle is hidden.)

111
Participial Phrases
  • A participial phrase consists of a participle and
    any modifiers or complements it may have. The
    entire phrase functions as an adjective.
  • Example The man talking to the woman in the red
    dress is the president of the association.
  • The participial phrase talking to the woman in
    the red dress functions as an adjective,
    modifying the noun man. If you take the phrase
    out of the sentence, since it is just an
    adjective, you still have the basic sentence
  • The man is the president of the association..

112
Participial Phrases
  • How to find it Look for a phrase that begins
    with a word that is a verb form (it usually ends
    in ing but it can also end in ed, -n, or t).
    You might say that the purpose of a participial
    phrase is to point out which noun were talking
    about. The participial phrase will point it out.
    It tells which one. The participial phrase
    usually sits next to the noun it modifies.
    Remember that it functions as and adjective and
    can therefore be removed from the sentence and
    the sentence will still make sense.

113
Participial Phrase
  • I have read that book lying on the table.
  • The dog chasing his tail is mine.
  • The girl singing that song is one of my students.
  • Checking his notes for the last time, the student
    walked toward the podium. (all introductory
    participial phrases must be followed by a comma)

114
Infinitives
  • An infinitive is the word to followed by the
    present tense of a verb. It can function as a
    noun, an adjective, or an adverb.

115
Infinitives
  • An infinitive is the word to followed by the
    present tense of a verb.
  • Example to run to sing to
    dance
  • I like to run. He wanted to sing. We tried to
    dance.
  • The infinitive can be used in many ways. It can
    function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
  • Noun To sing is my dream.
  • Adjective He is the man to see.
  • Adverb He was quick to speak.

116
Infinitive Phrases
  • The infinitive phrase includes the infinitive and
    any modifiers or complements it may have.
  • Example He wants to go to the store.
  • Sam is the man to see about the job.
  • He has gone to visit the famous monument.
  • How to find it Look for the word to immediately
    followed by a verb. Include all words that are
    necessary to complete the idea established by the
    infinitive. Example to sing (infinitive) to sing
    a song (infinitive phrase)

117
Infinitive Phrases
  • I tried to see the production.
  • Sometimes it is necessary to speak ones
    thoughts.
  • The dress to wear to the party is the cute black
    one.
  • To run for public office requires courage.

118
AdjectivesAdverbs
  • Mrs. Nichols
  • English II Pre-AP

119
Adjectives
  • An adjective describes a noun. It tells which
    one, what kind, what color, and how many. An
    adjective adds descriptive information about the
    noun.
  • Example I own a dog.
  • Which one? I own that dog.
  • What kind? I own that large dog.
  • What color? I own that large, brown dog.
  • How many? I own that one slobbering, large, brown
    dog.

120
Adjectives
  • The adjective usually comes before the noun it
    describes.
  • Example I saw the big, yellow cat.
  • I saw the tired and exhausted man.
  • However, adjectives can sometimes come
    immediately after the nouns they modify.
  • Example I saw the man, tired and exhausted.
  • Adjectives can also come at the opposite end of
    the sentence. They are called predicate
    nominatives (or predicate adjectives) in this
    position.
  • Example The woman wearing that ridiculous hat
    with the flower on top is very pretty.

121
Underline the adjective(s) in each of the
following sentences.
  1. Have you seen the red dress?
  2. The tired, old woman walked along the beaten
    trail.

122
Beginning sentences with adjectives
  • Example The young man, wise and analytical,
    knew how to handle the problem.
  • Wise and analytical, the young man knew how to
    handle the problem.
  • The young student, aware of his mistakes, made an
    effort to rewrite the paper properly.
  • The woman, hesitant to accept the gift, blushed
    with embarrassment.

123
Adverbs
  • An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an
    adjective, or another adverb. It answers the
    questions when, where, how, and to what extent.
  • Most adverbs are made by simply adding ly to an
    adjective. Some will have slight alterations in
    spelling when the ly is added.
  • Adjective Adverb
  • quick quickly
  • beautiful beautifully
  • awful awfully
  • true truly

124
Adverbs
  • Many other adverbs do not end in ly. They still
    answer the questions when, where, how, and to
    what extent.
  • When Where How To What Extent
  • tomorrow here well not
  • before there so
  • then nowhere very
  • never everywhere too

125
Underline the adverb in each of the following
sentences.
  1. Have you ever seen that movie?
  2. I have always wanted to go to France.
  3. We saw the dog yesterday in the park.
  4. The child tried to run away.

126
Beginning sentences with adverbs
  • Example I began to listen to him eventually.
  • Eventually I began to listen to him.
  • I will address that issue later.
  • She danced across the floor gracefully.

127
Adverbs followed by verbsRewrite the sentences
so that each sentence begins with an adverb
immediately followed by the verb.
  • Example I have never known anyone so smart.
  • Never have I known anyone so smart.
  • We have often met with approval.
  • I have never seen such dignity.
About PowerShow.com