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European Timeline

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Title: Overview Subject: European History Author: Dr Sanderson Last modified by: Jeff Burns Created Date: 12/2/2004 4:37:32 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: European Timeline


1
European Timeline
1450-2000
2
  • Donatello
  • Father of Renaissance sculpture
  • Most famous for the bronze statue David the first
    free-standing nude in Europe since Roman times
  • Brunelleschi
  • First major architect of the Italian Renaissance
  • Designed the church of San Lorenzo

3
  • Lorenzo Valla
  • Wrote On Pleasure
  • Exposed as a forgery the Donation of Constantine
  • Known as the father of modern historical
    criticism
  • Machiavelli
  • Most important political writer during the
    Renaissance
  • Wrote The Prince, which rejected the traditional
    Christian view
  • A ruler must be willing to be ruthless to be
    successful end justifies the mean

4
  • Pico della Mirandola
  • Wrote Oration on the Dignity of Man
  • Castiglione
  • Wrote The Book of the Courtier
  • A gentlemen should be well-rounded, know several
    languages, be athletic, and polite

5
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • First Italian painter to use oil
  • Painted Mona Lisa and Last Supper
  • He dealt with mostly religious themes but in
    secular manner
  • Michelangelo
  • Painter and sculpture
  • Painted the frescoes on the Sistine Chapel for
    Pope Julius II
  • Sculpted Pieta and Moses

6
1450
  • Movable Printing Press
  • Developed by Johannes Gutenberg
  • Spread ideas of Renaissance and humanistic
    literature to the rest of Europe
  • 1456 Gutenberg Bible

7
1453
  • Charles VII revives France and monarchy
  • Organized Frances first standing army
  • By 1453, he had expelled English out of all of
    France except Calais
  • Ottomans capture Constantinople

8
1454
  • Peace of LodiFlorence, Milan, and Venice sign
    alliance to create new order in Northern Italy

9
The Medici
  • Medici Family
  • Held power in Florence Italy
  • Wealth from banking
  • Height of Florence
  • Cosimo, dynasty founder
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent

10
1469
  • Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of
    Castile unites Spain

11
1479
  • Pazzi ConspiracyUnsuccessful attempt in Florence
    to overthrow the Medici in favor of Pope
  • Sixtus IV

12
1461-1483
  • Louis XI ruled France
  • Known as the Spider King
  • Promoted new industry, welcomed foreign
    craftsmen, increased taxes in order to improve
    military

13
1485
  • The end of the War of the Roses
  • English Civil War between York house and the
    Lancaster house
  • York (white) and Lancaster (Red)
  • Henry VII become first Tudor monarch New
    monarch

14
Portuguese Exploration
  • Prince Henry the Navigator
  • Established sailing and navigation school at
    Sagres
  • Responsible for the growth of the Portugal
    colonial empire
  • Bartholomew Diaz - Portuguese sea captain and
    explorer
  • In 1487 became the first European to see Cape of
    Good Hope and to round southern tip of Africa

15
Portuguese Exploration
  • Helped find southeastern water route to Asia
  • 1497-9 Vasco da Gama sailed in India
  • In 1500 Pedro Cabral sent to India but blown off
    course
  • Sighted Brazil and claimed it for Portugal

16
1492
  • Ferdinand of Argon and Isabella of Castile
    married and unified Spain
  • Reconquista
  • Expulsion of Moors and Jews from Spainled to
    economic decline because no middle class
  • Christopher Columbus went out looking for new
    route to India, but instead reached the New
    World or the Americas
  • Financed by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

17
  • Pope Alexander VI
  • Corrupt Spanish Pope
  • Aided militarily by his son, Cesare Borgia
  • Successfully recovered papal authority in the
    papal lands

18
  • In Florence the Dominican friar Girolamo
    Savonarola
  • Attacked paganism and moral vice of Florence
    under Medici rule
  • Attacked undemocratic government and corruption
    of Pope Alexander VI

19
1494
  • Treaty of Tordesillas
  • The new world, or the Americas, was divided by
    the line of demarcation between Spain and
    Portugal
  • Decided by Pope Leo VI
  • Invasion of Italy by King Charles VIII of France
  • Medici driven from power
  • French welcomed by Savonarola

20
1496
  • John Cabot
  • Italian navigator
  • Explored off the coast of New England, Nova
    Scotia,
  • and Newfoundland
  • Gave England claim to North America

21
1498
  • Savonarola hanged and burned at the stake in
    Florence
  • (known for his prophecies of civic glory and
    calls for Christian renewal, led call for
    establishment of republic when Medicis
    temporarily overthrown, denounced clerical
    corruption, despotic rule and the exploitation of
    the poor called for bonfire of the vanities)

22
  • 1500s known as the cinquecentro
  • 1500-1527 High Renaissance
  • 1503-1513 Julius II is pope Julius II was
    responsible for much of the artwork accumulated
    by the Roman Catholic Church in the Vatican and
    elsewhere. He commissioned Michelangelo to paint
    the Sistine Chapel
  • 1506 Julius II begins work on Saint Peters
    Basilica
  • 1509 Erasmus publishes Praise of Folly a plea
    for Christian morality
  • 1509 Henry VIII becomes King of England

23
1512
  • 1512 Lateran Council meets to reform the
    Church Start of the Reformation
  • 1512- Medici overthrow the Republic in Florence

24
1513
  • 1513 Balboa discovers the Pacific
  • 1513 The Prince written by Machiavelli
  • 1513-1521 Pope Leo X is pope

25
  • 1516 Thomas More publishes Utopia
  • 1516- Concordat of BolognaEstablished royal
    control over church appointments
  • 1517 Luther posts 95 theses on Wittenberg
    Castle
  • 1519-1522 Charles V commissioned Magellans
    crew circumnavigates the earth
  • 1519 Leonardo da Vinci dies
  • 1519 Charles V universal monarch becomes Holy
    Roman Emperor
  • 1520 Luther publishes Appeal to the Christian
    Nobility of the German Nation
  • 1520- Luther is excommunicated by Pope Leo X

26
1521
  • Edict of Worms declared Luther a heretic
  • Henry VIII writes the Defense of the Seven
    Sacraments, attacking Luther
  • Start of the Hapsburg Valois wars
  • Diet of Worms called by Charles V, puts Luther on
    trial Here I stand, I cannot do otherwise

27
  • 1524-1525 Peasants revolt in Germany
  • 1526- Turks defeat the Hungarians at the Battle
    of Mohács

28
1527
  • Machiavelli dies
  • Charles V sacks RomeHenry VIII is thus unable to
    get Pope Clement VII to give him a divorce from
    Catherine of Aragon a relative of Charles V
  • End of Renaissance in Italy

29
  • 1528 Castiglione publishes The Book of the
    Courtier
  • 1529 Colloquy of Marburg summoned to unite
    Protestant opinion failed

30
  • 1529 The Turks besieged Vienna
  • 1529- Diet of Speyer Charles V makes Anabaptism
    punishable by drowning
  • 1530- Augsburg Confessions doctrinal basis for
    Lutheranism
  • 1531- Formation of the Schmalkaldic Leaguea
    defensive alliance by the Protestant German
    princes
  • 1531- Battle of Kappel Zwingli killed
  • 1533 Henry VIII issues the Act in Restraint of
    Appeals King sovereign in England forbade
    judicial appeals to the papacy

31
1534
  • Henry VIII issues Act of Submission of the Clergy
    required churchmen to submit to the king
  • Henry VIII issues Act of Supremacy king supreme
    head of the Church of England
  • Henry VIII issues Act of Succession all
    subjects must swear oath of loyalty to the king
  • Rabelais published Gargantua and Pantagruel

32
  • 1535- Thomas More executed
  • 1536 Pilgrimage of Grace massive multiclass
    rebellion against Henrican religious policies
    brutally suppressed
  • 1536- Ten Articles established the doctrine for
    the Church of England (basically Lutheran)

33
  • 1536 Institutes of Christian Religion published
    by Calvin
  • 1540 Society of Jesus, Jesuits, founded by
    Ignatius of Loyola
  • 1541 John Calvin begins theocracy in Geneva,
    Switzerland
  • 1542 Roman Inquisition
  • 1542 Catholic Church publishes Index of
    Prohibited Books
  • 1543 Copernicus publishes On Revolutions of
    Heavenly Spheres the year he died to avoid
    persecution by the Catholic Church

34
  • 1545-1563 Council of Trent called by Pope Paul
    III to suggest reforms of the Catholic Church
    End of Reformation
  • 1547 Miguel de Cervantes born author of Don
    Quixote a story that criticized the Spanish
    government for their negligence
  • 1548 Ignatius Loyola publishes Spiritual
    Exercises
  • 1549 Thomas Cranmers Book of Common Prayer
    published
  • 1550 Start of Baroque movement period of
    elaborate art, which was present in many Catholic
    churches and institutions art Rubens The
    Horrors of War music - Bach

35
1550-1700
  • This period of time was known as the Baroque
    Movement
  • Emotional, exuberant art
  • Emphasized dramatic, curving forms, elaborate
    ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate
    parts
  • Developed with exceptional vigor in Catholic
    countriesSpain, Latin America, Austria, southern
    Germany, Poland

36
1555
  • Peace of Augsburg(cuius regio, eius religio)

37
1556
  • After the abdication of Charles V, his son Philip
    II became King of Spain in 1556
  • Marriage was only considered a political alliance
    to him
  • Queen Mary I of England
  • Elisabeth of Valois, the daughter of Henri I of
    France
  • Anne, the daughter of emperor Maximilian II
  • Declared himself the leader of the Counter
    Reformation
  • Ignatius Loyola dies

38
  • 1558 - death of Queen Mary of England
  • The daughter of Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I
    took the throne in England, succeeding her
    half-sister
  • She was a politique
  • She was the last monarch of the Tudor dynasty

39
1559
  • Act of Uniformity in England required the use of
    the Protestant Book of Common Prayer by Thomas
    Cranmer
  • Philip II of Spain Henri II of France signed
    the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis
  • Henry II killed in joust Catherine de Medici
    becomes regent for Francis II
  • It ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars with Spain as
    the victor
  • It ended an era of dynastic wars so both
    countries could focus on wiping out Protestantism

40
1560-1660
  • This period marked the height of the Great
    European Witch-Hunt
  • The vast majority of witches were married or
    widowed women between the ages of fifty and
    seventy years old. They were usually crippled or
    bent with age, and with pockmarked skin.
  • 3,229 witches were executed in southwestern
    Germany

41
1562-1598
  • The War of Three Henrys was a French civil war
    for the throne between Henri of Navarre
    (Huguenot), Henri of Guise (Catholic), and Henri
    III of Valois (Catholic)

Navarre
Guise
  • Henri of Navarre emerged victorious and became
    Henry IV of France

Valois
42
1571-1630
  • Johannes Kepler expanded on the work of his
    mentor, Tycho Brahe
  • Three famous laws of planetary motion
  • While Copernicus speculated, Kepler proved his
    ideas mathematically

43
1564-1642
  • Galileo Galilei challenged old ideas about motion
  • He consolidated the experimental method
  • Galileo formulated the law of inertia and
    provided astrological evidence for the Copernican
    theory
  • Tried for heresy by the papal Inquisition and
    forced to recant his views

44
1572
  • The wave of Catholic mob violence against the
    French Huguenots was known as St. Bartholomews
    Day Massacre
  • It marked a turning point in the War of Three
    Henrys
  • Several dozen Huguenot leaders were murdered in
    Paris

45
1579
  • The Union of Utrecht unified the northern
    provinces of the Netherlands and formed a
    Protestant republic
  • Foundation of the republic of the Seven United
    Netherlands
  • Their independence was not formally recognized
    until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

46
1584-1613
  • Following the death of Ivan the Terrible, Russia
    experienced a period of chaos and struggles
    known as the Time of Troubles
  • In 1613 the nobles elected Michael Romanov,
    sixteen-year-old grandnephew of Ivan the
    Terrible, to be the tsar of Russia because they
    thought they could manipulate him

47
1587
  • Mary, Queen of Scots was beheaded on charges of
    plotting against her first cousin, Elizabeth I
    (The Babington Plot)
  • If Elizabeth were to die childless, the Catholic
    Mary would have become Queen of England

48
1588
  • The Spanish Armada defeated by the English
  • The Spanish ironically had called the fleet
    la felícissima armadaThe most fortunate fleet
  • Prevented Philip II from imposing religious unity
    on Western Europe by force

49
1598
  • The Edict of Nantes ended the War of Three
    Henrys
  • Henry IV of France granted the French Huguenots
    liberty of conscience and worship
  • The Huguenots were granted 150 places of safety,
    such as La Rochelle
  • Its purpose was primarily to end the long-running
    French wars of religion restore peace
  • Prepared the way for French absolutism in the
    seventeenth century by restoring internal unity

50
  • 1602 - Chartering of Dutch East India Company
    reaped enormous wealth and allowed the
    Netherlands to dominate the European economy in
    1650
  • 1603 Death of Elizabeth I and the end of the
    Tudor dynasty and the start of the Stuarts end
    of the northern Renaissance

51
1605
  • The Gunpowder Plot - a desperate but failed
    attempt by a group of unsophisticated English
    Catholics to kill King James I of England, by
    blowing up the Houses of Parliament

52
  • 1611 King James Version of the Bible first
    published in England
  • 1613 An Assembly of the Russian Empire elects
    Mikhail Romanov to be the Tsar of Russia
    establishes the Romanov Dynasty

53
1614
  • The French Estates General meets for the last
    time before the beginning of the French Revolution

54
1618-1648 Thirty Years War
  • Four phases
  • Bohemian - Defenestration of Prague starts war in
    Bohemia Protestant forces defeated
  • Danish height of Catholic forces during the
    war Edict of Restitution (1629) emperor
    declared all church territories secularized since
    1552 to be restored to Catholic Church
  • Swedish Protestants liberate territory lost in
    previous phase
  • French International Phase political

55
  • 1624-1643 Richelieu dominates French government
    during Louis XIIIs reign.
  • Reshuffled the royal council, eliminated
    potential power brokers, crushed aristocratic
    conspiracies, used intendants
  • 1625 Huguenots revolt in France
  • 1625-1675 Golden Age of Dutch culture

56
1626 Charles I dissolves Parliament
  • He came to the throne when Europe was moving
    towards control by all-powerful monarchs, such as
    Louis XIV. Charles would attempt to pursue
    similar policies but would be limited by a
    powerful parliamentary opposition.
  • widespread opposition to many of Charles'
    actions
  • use of the Court of the Star Chamber to suppress
    dissent
  • taxation without the approval of Parliament
  • a religious policy that was seen by the puritans
    as an attempt to bring the Anglican Church closer
    to Roman Catholicism

57
1628
  • 1628 Charles I reconvenes the English Parliament
    and accepts the Petition of Right as a concession
    to gain his subsidies
  • limited the power of Charles I of England
  • could not declare martial law
  • could not collect taxes
  • could not imprison people without cause
  • soldiers could not be housed without consent

58
1632
  • Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World
    Systems is published

59
1640
  • The English Long Parliament is summoned.
  • called by Charles I after the Bishops Wars. It
    receives its name from the fact that it sat
    almost continuously during the English Civil War.
    The sole reason Charles reassembled Parliament
    was to ask it to pass finance bills, since the
    Bishops Wars had bankrupted him.
  • 1640-1688 Frederick William, Elector of
    Brandenburg

60
1642-49 English Civil War
  • Between the Royalists (supporters of Charles I of
    England) and the Parliamentarian supporters of
    the Long Parliament. 1648 Peace of Westphalia
    ended the Thirty Years' War and readjusted the
    religious and political affairs of Europe
  • 1645 Cromwell creates The New Model Army
  • 1649 Charles I executed

61
1648
  • Start of the Fronde in France
  • English Parliament finds Charles I guilty of
    treason, and sentences him to be executed
  • Oliver Cromwell would soon become Lord Protector
    of England, a position which made him a virtual
    dictator

62
1648-1660 Fronde
  • The Fronde in France
  • series of outbreaks during the reign of King
    Louis XIV, caused by
  • the efforts of the Parlement of Paris to limit
    the growing authority of the crown
  • the personal ambitions of discontented nobles
  • the grievances of the people against the
    financial burdens suffered under cardinals
    Richelieu and Mazarin

63
1650
  • William III of Orange becomes Prince of the House
    of Orange in the Netherlands
  • Netherlands is Protestant

64
1651
  • Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher
    political theorist
  • In Leviathan, he explains that sovereignty is
    derived from the people, who in turn transfer it
    to the monarchy
  • He says the power of the ruler is absolute, but
    they do not have divine right
  • Advocated absolutism - without it, there would be
    anarchy and chaos
  • Parliament passes first Navigation ActGoods
    imported into England must be on English ships

65
Anglo-Dutch Wars 1652-1675
  • Enforced by Oliver Cromwell said that British
    goods have to be carried on British ships
  • Goal to hurt Dutch shipping
  • Caused the rise of British Mercantilism crushed
    the Dutch shipping dynasty
  • 1650-1790 Marked unprecedented growth of Atlantic
    Trade!

66
1658 Oliver Cromwell Dies So
The Restoration 1660
  • The Restoration
  • Charles II Brought Back to the Throne
  • Parliament Restored Anglican Church
  • 1670 Charles II Secretly Agrees With to Louis
    XIV to- ReCatholicize England - Declare
    himself Catholic (at the appropriate time)-Ease
    restrictions on Catholics

67
1660s
  • 1663-1683 Colberts Mercantilism in France
  • Created powerful merchant marine under Louis Xiv
    greatly aided the development of manufactured
    goods
  • 1665 The Plague in GB
  • Brought by fleas on black rats on ships
  • 1666 Great Fire in GB
  • Helped end the plague

68
Test Acts 1673
  • People had to take the Eucharist or you would be
    limited from holding public office

69
1680s Start of Enlightenment
  • 1682-1725 Rule of Peter the Great in Russia
  • Westernization of Russia Built St. Petersburg
  • 1685 Edict of Fontainebleau
  • 1685 - Louis XIV Revoked the Edict of Nantes to
    ensure his complete unity of the state
  • 1686 Fontenelle published Conversation on the
    Plurality of Worlds
  • Attempt to make scientific revolution information
    witty expose a new audience to it
  • 1687 Newtons Principia
  • Describes laws of motion synthesizes everyones
    work previous to him

70
1685
  • Charles IIs brother James becomes king of
    England
  • Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes-ends
    religious toleration of the Huguenots

71
Glorious Revolution 1688
  • James II sympathetic towards Catholics
  • All of England Scared of a Catholic King
    possibility of Catholic Heir
  • James Violated Test Act!!!
  • Tories Parliamentary supporters of the king
  • Whigs Parliamentary opponents of the king
  • William of Orange James daughter Mary invited
    to take over
  • No blood shed _at_ all GLORIOUS!!!
  • James flees to France

72
1689
  • William and Mary accept the Bill of Rights
  • Affirms the rights of Parliament
  • Anglicanism is the established Church of England
  • Catholics prohibited from being on the throne

73
1690
  • John Lockes Essays Concerning Human
    Understanding
  • Tabula Rasa!!! blank slateexperience and
    exposure
  • Second Treatise of Civil Government
  • Life, liberty property

74
1700-1721
  • Great Northern War
  • Charles XII (Sweden)
  • Peter the Great
  • Ended by Treaty of Nystad
  • Peter gained Baltic states window to the West

75
1701
  • Tull invents the seed drill
  • Turnips
  • Brought agricultural revolution to England from
    the Netherlands
  • Foundation of St. Petersburg
  • Westernization of Russia by Peter the Great
  • Influenced by Louis XIVs Versailles
  • Act of Settlement in England
  • Only Anglican could succeed to the throne of
    England
  • After restoration
  • Charles II king

76
1701-1713
  • War of Spanish Succession
  • Between England, Spain, and France
  • Fought because of Louis XIVs relatives
    possibility of becoming the new Spanish King

77
1707
  • Act of Union
  • Unified Scotland and England
  • English and Scottish Parliaments merged
  • Became Great Britain

78
1712
  • Savery and Newcomen invent steam pump
  • Agricultural Revolution

79
1713
  • Peace of Utrecht end of War of Spanish
    Succession
  • Ended French expansion policies under Louis XIV
  • Destroyed French economy
  • Led to depopulation
  • Weakened Louis XIV
  • Britain biggest winner
  • Got asiento from Spain
  • Spain lost most of its possessions

80
Pragmatic Sanction 1713
  • Pragmatic Sanction
  • Maria Teresa- reduced serfdom- Joseph II

81
1715
  • End of the reign of Louis XIV
  • He was the most successful absolute ruler

82
1733
  • Kay invented the flying shuttle
  • Agricultural Revolution

83
1740-1748 War of Austrian Succession
  • Prussia, France, Bavaria, and Spain vs. Austria
    and Russia
  • Prussia took Silesia from Austria making it the
    most powerful German State great power
  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
  • Ended War of Austrian Succession

84
1748
  • Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of the Law
  • Power checks power
  • Influenced the American Revolution

85
1750
  • Beginning of the Population explosion in Europe

86
1751
  • First publication of the Encyclopedia by Diderot
    and dAlembert (published until 1765)

87
1756
  • Start of the Seven Years War
  • Diplomatic Revolution (Alliance of Britain and
    Prussia)

88
1762
  • Rousseaus Social Contract
  • Ascension of Catherine the Great

89
1765
  • Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny
  • Arkwright invents the water frame

90
1772
  • 1st Partitioning of Poland by Catherine the Great
    of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, and
    Frederick of Prussia
  • Poland lost one-third of territory and half of
    the population

91
1774
  • 1773-4 Pugachevs Rebellion in Russia
  • Death of Louis XV
  • Ascension of Louis XVI

92
1776
  • Adam Smiths Wealth of Nations
  • Attacked mercantilism and advocated economic
    liberalism

93
1780
  • Death of Maria Theresa
  • Ascension of Joseph II of Austria
  • (ish) Arkwright Steam engine to power looms

94
1781
  • Enlightened despot Joseph II abolishes serfdom

95
1789
  • Estates General called by Louis XVI
  • Tennis Court Oath
  • Declaration of the Right of Man
  • 3rd Estate becomes the National Assembly
  • Storming of the Bastille
  • Women march to Versailles to demand action from
    Louis XVI

96
1791
  • Olympe de Gourges The Rights of Women
  • Legislative Assembly convenes
  • Prussia and Austria issue the Declaration of
    Pillnitz
  • Death of Mozart

97
1792
  • Mary Wollstonecraft Declaration of the Rights of
    Woman
  • Legislative Assembly declares war
  • Legislative Assembly disbands
  • National Convention formed
  • France declared a Republic

98
1793
  • 2nd Partitioning of Poland
  • Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin
  • Louis XVI beheaded
  • Mountain ousts the Girondins
  • Committee of Public Safety formed
  • Start of the Reign of Terror

99
1794
  • Danton and Followers executed
  • Marie Antoinette beheaded
  • Thermidorean Reaction
  • End of the Reign of Terror
  • Robespierre executed
  • Girondins readmitted
  • Economic controls lifted ended control of
    sans-culottes
  • Institution of the Revolutionary Calendar

100
1795
  • 3rd and Final Partitioning of Poland
  • Formation of the Directory

101
1799
  • Coup détat Brumaire by Napoleon
  • Formation of the Consulate Napoleon declared 1st
    Consul
  • Combination Acts the British government
    prohibit the formation of unions

102
Napoleon ltfirst consul in 1799gt
  • Concordant (1801) creates reconciliation between
    the church and government
  • Louisiana Purchase (1803) allows France to
    concentrate on its European agenda
  • Napoleonic Code (1804) system of rules and civil
    code
  • Napoleon becomes the self proclaimed emperor of
    France (1804)

103
War efforts
  • 1805 - Battle of Trafalgar Nelson of Britain
    destroys the French Navy and any chance of a
    French invasion
  • 1805 - Battle of Austerlitz France defeats
    invading Russian Army
  • Creation the Confederation of the Rhine and Grand
    Duchy of Warsaw establishes Napoleons European
    Power
  • After failing to wipe out Britain with the
    continental system Napoleon comes to odds with
    Spain and touches off the Peninsula War
  • 1807 - Treaty of Tilsit Between Russia and
    France. Keeps Russia out of European Conflict

104
End of Napoleon
  • Grand Army in Russia (1812) French face defeat
    due to the harsh winter
  • He is then defeated by a European Coalition and
    exiled to Elba, but shortly escapes. (Hundred
    Days)
  • Waterloo (1815) Napoleon defeated by England and
    is exiled to St. Helena where he dies

105
Congress of Vienna
  • From 1814-1815, major European powers were called
    together to decide what they should do with
    post-Napoleon Europe
  • They decided to strengthen Frances border states
    in order to create a balance of power
  • The leading speakers where Metternich (Austria),
    Talleyrand (France), and Castlereagh (England)

106
Liberalism
  • 1819 Carlsbad Decree limited freedom of the
    press and prohibited fraternities in Germany

107
England
  • 1807 Britain outlaws slave trade in its colonial
    trade possesions
  • 1824-1825 Combination Acts repealed in London
    allowing the formation of unions
  • 1825 First Railway in the world built in Great
    Britain
  • 1834 Britain outlaws slave ownership in colonial
    possesions
  • 1837 Queen Victoria comes to power marks the end
    of the industrial revolution

108
Ireland
  • Irish potato famine (1845-1850)
  • Potato crop ruined
  • Massive starvation,
  • Many people immigrated to England and America

109
Karl Marx
  • Marx, who lived in Paris, was influenced by the
    French Utopian socialists but thought they were
    unscientific
  • Believed capitalism was simply a stage of history
    marked by class struggles
  • Marx developed the idea of scientific socialism
  • The Communist Manifesto (1848) Written by Karl
    Marx and Freidrich Engels, introduces socialism
    attractive to many struggling European countries
  • He who controls the means of production controls
    power

110
Revolutions of 1848
  • February Rebellion in France overthrows the rule
    of Louis Philippe (1830-1848) and established the
    Second republic, ended with the creation of a
    republic where Napoleon the III was elected
    president

111
Revolutions of 1848
  • Germany influenced by the French, the Germans
    revolt to create a unified, national government.
    After indecisiveness to agree on a national
    constitution by the provisional government, the
    old regime gains power again

112
Revolutions of 1848
  • Italy After their revolt causes the Pope Pius IX
    to leave Italy, Mazzini is given the power to
    unify Italy, but could not due to the rigid
    individuality of city states

113
Revolutions of 1848
  • Austria
  • All the revolutions of 1848 FAILED!!!

114
Second Empire in France
  • 1852-1871
  • Emperor Napoleon III seizes power in December
    1851 via coup detat
  • Disastrous Foreign Policy
  • Liberal reforms to cover foreign policy
  • Extended power of Legislative Assembly
  • Ended by Franco-Prussian War

115
Third French Republic
  • Adolphe Thiers- created National Assembly
  • Paris Commune 1870-71, radical
  • Chamber of Deputies- Nobles had power
  • Gambetta- leading radical republican
  • Ferry- secular education
  • Boulanger Crises (1887-89)- leader against the
    republic committed suicide this weakened
    support for reforms, good for republicans
  • Dreyfus Affair 1894, threat to republic, Emile
    Zola realist author, condemned military

116
Great Britain
  • Lord Palmerston- dominant power from 1850-65
  • Conservative party- from Tory Party
  • Liberal Party- from Whig Party
  • Mill- On Liberty (1859)
  • Reform Bill of 1867- Disraelis leap in the
    Dark
  • Reform Act of 1884- suffrage to adult males in
    some counties
  • Fabian Society (1883)- advanced form of
    revisionist Marxism

117

Crimean War 1853-1856
  • Dispute over privileges in Holy Land - Concert of
    Europe failed
  • Turks negotiate with France
  • Russian Czar Nicholas II threatened by
    negotiations
  • Fighting between Russians and Turks
  • Britain, France, and Piedmont join against Russia
  • Concluded by Peace of Paris- Russians big losers
    _at_ conference

118
Austria-Hungary
  • Ausgleich- 1867 this compromise made Austria
    into the Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Karl Luegar- Vienna mayor, anti-Semitism
  • Magyars- integrated with Hungary

119
Unification of Italy 1859-1870
  • Sardinia-Piedmont led way in unification under
    Count Cavour
  • Cavour sought unity for Northern Italy
  • Realpolitik Pragmatic and Machiavellian view of
    politics

120
  • France agreed to support Sardinia if there was a
    war with Austria so Sardinia could establish a
    Northern Italian state
  • France ignored agreement because didnt want to
    go to war with Prussia
  • Sardinia got Lombardy
  • 1860- Cavour annexes Parma, Modena, Romagna, and
    Tuscany
  • Nice and Savoy transferred to France

121
  • May 1860- Liberated Southern Italy and Sicily
    with support of his Red Shirts
  • September 1860- took control of Naples and the
    Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
  • Allowed these territories to be annexed by Victor
    Emmanuel II, King of Sardinia Piedmont

122
  • 1866- Venice included in Italian Kingdom due to
    agreement with Otto Van Bismarck
  • 1871- Rome captured by Italian Troops
  • Rome made capital of Italy
  • Italian completes political unification
  • Cultural gap between progressive, industrial
    North and Agrarian South

123
Otto Von Bismarck
  • Bismarck-Imperial Chancellor Iron Chancellor
    dominated 1850-1900
  • A member of the Prussian Junker aristocracy
  • In 1862 he claimed that Prussia must use Blood
    and Iron

124
Schleswig-Holstein 1863
  • Schleswig and Holstein were located south of
    Denmark
  • The people were most German speaking, but ruled
    by the Danish king
  • The Danish king annexed Schleswig
  • Bismarck proposed an alliance with Austria
  • Denmark quickly defeated in 1864
  • Prussia would occupy SchleswigAustria would
    occupy Holstein

125
Austro-Prussian War 1866
  • Bismarck made sure Russia, France, and Italy
    would remain neutral if there was a conflict with
    AustriaFrance agreed because they expected a
    long war and Austrian victoryItaly would gain
    possessions from AustriaRussia had gained the
    support of Bismarck in the suppression of the
    Russian peasants in 1863
  • Prussia accused Austria of interfering in the
    affairs of Schleswig
  • In the Seven Weeks War the Prussians soundly
    defeated the Austrians

126
  • Bismarck wanted to be lenient towards Austria
    because he knew he would need their help against
    France
  • 1866 Treaty of Praguea) Prussia get possession
    of Schleswig and Holsteinb) also gets some
    northern German statesc) Austria agreed to
    dissolution of the German Confederationd) Italy
    gained Venetia
  • North German Confederation (1867) now dominated
    by Prussia
  • In the south there were 4 independent states
  • Prussia wanted the Catholic and liberal
    independent states

127
Franco-Prussian War 1870
  • Ems Dispatch -Bismarck manipulated Napoleon III
    to declare war on Prussia
  • French surrendered after the Battle of Sedan
  • 1871 Treaty of Frankfurt Alsace-Lorraine to
    Germany(led to French resentment)
  • January 18, 1871- German Unification complete
  • William I- Crowned Emperor of Germany (Kaiser
    Wilhelm) at Versailles

128
The Three Emperors League 1872
  • Designed by Bismarck to create stability
  • William I of GermanyEmperor Francis Joseph of
    AustriaTsar Alexander II of Russia

129
Third French Republic
  • Established in 1875 after downfall of Napoleon
    III
  • Dominated by bourgeoisie
  • Chamber of Deputies
  • Universal Male Suffrage
  • Leon Gambetta- led Republicans
  • Jules Ferry- secular education
  • Government fell multiple times

130
Russia
  • Emancipation Act of 1861- Mirs
    Zemstvosabolished serfdom
  • Intelligensia- nihilism- radical intellectuals of
    the socialist pool
  • Alexander III Pogroms- anti-Semitism,
    Autocracy, Orthodoxy, Russification
  • Herzel- Zionism- Jewish Holy Land

131
Emancipation Act 1861
  • Alexander II very liberal
  • 90 of Russians lived off the land
  • Serfs freed, but many not impacted because of
    mirs, Russian communities

132
Suez Canal
  • In the 1800s Egypt was an autonomous part of the
    Ottoman empire
  • The French built the Suez Canal in 1869 to open
    the Mediterranean Sea to Indian Ocean
  • Huge British Advantage
  • Financial problems soon caused the Egyptians to
    sell part ownership to the British
  • When riots broke out against the British the
    British navy bombarded Alexandria
  • In 1882 Egypt became a British protectorate

133
Russo-Turkish War 1877-78
  • Russia dreamed of controlling the Bosporus
  • Russia supported Pan-Slavism, but under Russian
    control
  • The Slavs in the Turkish empire used Russian
    support to cause problems for the Turks
  • In 1877 Russia declared war on Turkey
  • The British became involved to protect the Suez
    canal which was in Egypt (part of the Ottoman
    Empire)
  • In 1878 Turkey was forced to sign the Treaty of
    San Stefano

134
Congress of Berlin 1878
  • War between Britain and Russia looked inevitable
  • Bismarck called for a Congress to meet in Berlin
  • The Congress kept peace in Europe by carving up
    the Turkish Empire
  • The Russians gave up the Treaty of San Stefano,
    but still won independence for the Serbs and
    Romanians
  • Austria-Hungary was authorized to occupy and
    administer Bosnia
  • Germany gained nothing, except European peace
  • Bismarck was called the honest broker
  • However Balkan nationalists were dissatisfied and
    this would be a cause of World War I in 1914

135
Africa
  • Africa - Began in the 1870s
  • Stanley and Livingstone

136
  • Conference of Berlin 1875
  • Called by Bismarck to establish rules for
    dividing Africa
  • Germany Cameroon, Togo, southwest Africa, East
    Africa
  • France Tunisia, Algeria, French West Africa
  • Britain Egypt and Sudan
  • Italy Libya
  • Fashoda Crisis- Occurred when British and French
    armies met unexpectedly in Fashoda, Sudan

137
India
  • India controlled by British jewel of the Empire
  • Sepoy Mutiny 1857-1858
  • Insurrection of Hindu Muslim soldiers
    defeated
  • Indian National Congress 1885

138
China
  • Sino-Japanese War
  • China defeated by Japan
  • Rush for protectorates and concessions
  • Britain, France, Germany, Russia and Japan

139
China
  • 1842 Opium War British annex Hong Kong
  • Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) showed how weak China
    was and opened door for imperial nations
  • Britain, France, Germany, Japan, and Russia all
    gained territory and control in east China
  • Led to Boxer Rebellion of 1900 and end of Manchu
    Dynasty

140
Boxer Rebellion 1900
  • Uprising by Chinese nationalists against Western
    encroachment
  • Put down
  • Led to end of Manchu Dynasty

141
Boer War 1899-1902
  • Cecil Rhodes- Prime Minister of Cape Colony
  • Discovery of diamonds and gold in Transvaal
  • Area controlled by Boers (Dutch settlers)
  • Kruger Telegram- Kaiser Wilhelm II congratulates
    Boers on victory over British

142
Imperialist Literature
  • Rudyard Kipling, The White Mans Burden - Stated
    it was Westerners duty to civilize backwards
    peoples of Africa
  • 1902 Joseph Conrad writes Heart of Darkness
  • 1902 J.A. Hobson Imperialism A Study
    financiers were the power behind imperialism
  • 1916 Lenin, Imperialism The Last Stage of
    Capitalism capitalism must expand to survive

143
Nationalism
  • Loyalty felt to government
  • Universal Male Suffrage common
  • Welfare States in Germany, Britain, and France
  • Conservatives often led governments
  • Conservatives channeled patriotism into
    anti-liberalism
  • Build up of militaries

144
The Balkans
  • The Eastern Question who would control the
    Balkans?
  • Russia wanted to retake and re-christianize the
    Balkans
  • Gave rise to pan-slavism
  • Defeated Ottoman Turks
  • Negotiations mediated by Bismarck the honest
    broker
  • Congress of Berlin 1871- Russia left

145
  • 1904 Entente CordialeAn agreement against
    Germany by France and Great Britain. Great
    Britain gains Egypt and France gains Morocco

146
Russo-Japanese War 1904
  • Start of the Russo Japanese War This imperialist
    war solidifies Japan as a world power
  • Japan attacked Russian installation at Port
    Arthur
  • Technology-advanced Japan defeated traditional
    Russia
  • First time a major European power has been beaten
    and the first major war since 1870
  • Weakens the myth of Russian power
  • Cause of the Russian Revolution as Russia shifted
    attention back to Europe, especially the Balkans

147
Russian Revolution 1905
  • Defeat by Japanese discredits Russia government
  • March Revolution of 1905
  • Bloody Sunday troops open fire on demonstrators
    led by Father Gapon
  • Turns people against tsar in Russia
  • 1905 October Manifesto, Nicholas II promiseda)
    constitutional reformsb) guarantees civil
    libertiesc) establish a Duma (elected
    parliament)
  • 1906 Fundamental Laws The tsar limits the
    power of the Duma

148
  • 1905 Einstein develops Theory of Relativity
  • 1907 Anglo Russian TreatyA naval treaty to
    ensure the protection of Persia
  • Military competition between England and Germany
  • Britain develops the Dreadnought
  • Moroccan Crisis

149
  • 1914 Assassination of Franz FerdinandThis event
    sparks the powder keg
  • 1914 World War I begins
  • 1915 Lusitania Sunk by German U-boats.
  • 1916 Battle of VerdunFrance defeats Germany

150
  • 1916 Easter RisingAn attempt to overtake Dublin
    and end British rule in Ireland
  • 1917 Zimmerman TelegramNote sent by German
    ambassador promising Mexico part of United
    States, and also used by USA as propaganda for war

151
Bolshevik Revolution 1917
  • Bolshevik Revolution in RussiaThis ends the rule
    of the tsars
  • Caused by military incompetence and hunger
  • 1918 Treaty of Brest LitovskRussia drops out of
    WWI.

152
Treaty of Versailles 1919
  • Germany loses Alsace and Lorraine, and Poland
    becomes an independent country

153
  • 1922 End of Bolshevik Revolution and start of
    U.S.S.R. led by Lenin
  • 1924 Dawes PlanAmerican Charles Dawes
    establishes system for Germany to pay reparations
  • 1924 Stalin takes power after Lenin dies

154
  • 1925 Locarno PactAgreements that secure post
    war territorial disputes
  • 1926 English General StrikeStrike by trade
    unions in England

155
  • 1928 The Five Year PlansIndustrial and
    agricultural plans in the U.S.S.R. establishing
    socialist policies
  • 1929 Great Depression in USA hurts world
    economies

156
Adolph Hitler
  • 1933 Reichstag FireGerman Parliament burns down
  • 1933 Rise of Nazi Party in Germany
  • 1935 Nuremburg LawsLead to persecution of Jews
    in Germany
  • 1936 Start of Spanish Civil War
  • 1936 Rome-Berlin AxisPact between Fascist Italy
    and Nazi Germany

157
  • 1938 Munich Conference Neville Chamberlain of
    England appeases Germany and agrees to let Hitler
    invade Sudetenland
  • Peace in our time
  • 1939 End of Spanish Civil War

158
World War II
  • 1939 Start of World War II in Europe to halt
    Nazi expansionism
  • Causesa) failure of appeasementb) incomplete
    enforcement of Versaillesc) fear of Communismd)
    rising unemployment in Germanye) domestic
    problems caused by the Great Depression
  • 1939 Russo German Nonaggression PactGermany
    promises not to invade Russia

159
  • 1941 Lend-Lease beginsAllows for supplies to be
    sent to Allied forces from Americas
  • 1941 Atlantic CharterDocument calls for no
    secret agreements, self determination, and free
    elections
  • 1942-43 Battle of StalingradBattle proves to be
    turning point for the Eastern Front as the Red
    Army begins to push the Germans back out of
    Russia
  • 1944 D-DayAllied Forces Invade German Occupied
    France and becomes largest naval invasion in
    history

160
1945
  • Yalta ConferenceThe Big Three decide that Berlin
    and Germany is to be divided into 4 separate
    military zones
  • Hitler commits suicide
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt dies
  • End of World War II
  • Potsdam ConferenceStalin opposes free elections
    in Eastern Europe. The United Nations is
    established
  • United Nations chartered

161
The Cold War
  • 1946 Churchill delivers iron curtain speech at
    Fulton, Missouri
  • 1947 Truman Doctrine helps fight Communism in
    Greece and Turkey
  • 1947 Marshall PlanAdvocates American financial
    aid to help European restoration
  • 1947 Great Britain grants India independence
  • 1948 Communist dictatorship in Czechoslovakia
  • 1948 Britain, France, and the Benelux countries
    sign the Brussels Pact

162
The Cold War
  • 1948 Berlin Blockade and Berlin AirliftSoviets
    blockade Western Berlin so airlifts carry
    supplies to city
  • 1949 Soviets lift Berlin blockade
  • 1949 NATO created
  • 1951 Schuman Plan integrates French and West
    German coal and steel industries and forms the
    European Coal and Steel Community
  • 1953 Stalin died replaced by Nikita Khrushchev
    who advocated peaceful coexistence
  • 1955 Warsaw pact created by Soviets to balance
    NATO
  • 1955-1962 De-Stalinization

163
  • 1956 Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago
  • 1956 Soviets suppress Hungarian revolution
  • 1957 Russian Satellite Sputnik - in orbit
  • 1957 Treaty of Rome creates the European
    Economic Community (Common Market)

164
  • 1960s Space Race
  • 1960 U-2 incident causes collapse of Paris
    Summit
  • 1961 Soviets construct the Berlin Wall to stop
    East Germans from leaving
  • 1961 the Russian cosmonaut first to orbit the
    globe
  • 1962 Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan
    Denisovitcvh
  • 1962 Cuban missile crisis
  • 1963 Freidan, The Feminine Mystique
  • 1968 Students protest the policies of the De
    Gaulle government in France
  • Soviet tanks end Prague Spring
  • 1969 America puts first man on the moon

165
  • 1971 collapse of postwar monetary system
  • 1973-1979 OPEC oil prices increase
  • 1979 Soviets invade Afghanistan ends détente
    between the superpowers
  • 1979 Election of Pope John Paul II from Poland

166
  • 1980s Growth of debt
  • Reduced Spending on Big Science
  • Computer revolution through 1990s
  • 1980 Lech Walesa leads Solidarity in Poland
  • 1985 Gorbachev take power
  • Revival of religion in Soviet Union
  • 1988 Economic crisis in Poland
  • 1989 Unification of Germany
  • 1989-1990 Revolutions in Eastern Europe

167
1990s
  • 1990 Maastricht Treaty proposes monetary union
  • 1990s Conservative economic policies develop in
    western Europe
  • - Migration towards western Europe increases
  • 1991 End of the Soviet Union!
  • 1991-1995 War in former Yugoslavia
  • 1993 European Community becomes European Union
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