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Industrial Expansion

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Industrial Expansion United States History Mrs. O Shea Economic Growth p. 803 - 805 Shortage of labor = efficient, labor saving machinery Dramatic changes in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Expansion


1
Industrial Expansion
  • United States History
  • Mrs. OShea

2
Economic Growth
  • p. 803 - 805
  • Shortage of labor efficient, labor saving
    machinery
  • Dramatic changes in productivity
  • High tariffs placed on foreign products
  • Electric Power
  • Transportation improvements
  • Communication improvements
  • Scientific Process research

3
Transcontinental Railroad
  • Pacific Railway Act 1862
  • Union Pacific and Central Pacific met Promontory
    Point, Utah
  • Financed by federal land grants and selling of
    railroad bonds

4
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5
Technological Revolution
  • Electricity Improvements
  • Oil drilling
  • Railroads Improvements
  • Telegraph
  • Telephone
  • Steel

6
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7
Big Business
  • Invention -gt Factories and Marketing -gt
  • Inventors needed investors willing to take a
    gamble on a new product.
  • Enter
  • the businessman

8
Social Darwinism
  • Charles Darwin survival of the fittest
  • Social Darwinism apply Darwins ideas to
    society
  • Fit succeed and become rich Employers
  • Weak Employees

9
  • Laissez-Faire let do
  • the functions of the state should be limited to
    internal police and foreign protection no
    public education, no limitation of hours of
    labor, no welfare legislation.
  • Spencer, who published Social Statistics in 1865,
    also included the Darwinian principle of survival
    of the fittest to his dog-eat-dog ideology
  • Does this go along with the ideas behind social
    Darwinism?

10
Monopoly vs. Oligopoly
  • Oligopoly market dominated by a few large,
    profitable companies
  • Examples
  • Breakfast Cereals
  • Cars
  • Monopoly market dominated by one company
  • Examples
  • Apple
  • Microsoft

11
Robber Barons or Captains of Industry
  • Robber Baron
  • cruel and ruthless businessmen who would stop at
    nothing to achieve great wealth
  • accused of exploiting workers and forcing
    horrible working conditions and unfair labor
    practices upon them
  • Captain of Industry
  • ingenious leaders who transformed American
    economy with their business skills
  • praised for their philanthropy (charity)

12
What do you think?
Captain of Industry
Robber Baron
  • Carnegie
  • Rockefeller

13
  • Leaders in Industry
  • Positives
  • Charity
  • Advancements in technology
  • Expansion of business () in U.S.
  • Negatives
  • Exploitation of workers
  • Putting others out of business

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20
Unions
  • Became a means for expressing workers demands to
    employers
  • Shorter work hours
  • Higher wages
  • Better working conditions

21
Labor Unrest 1870-1900
22
  • Collective Bargaining negotiate as a group
    (power in numbers)
  • Scabs workers called in to replace striking
    workers

23
Employers Reactions
  1. Forbidding union meetings
  2. Firing union organizers
  3. Yellow dog contracts I will not participate in
    union activities
  4. Refusing collective bargaining
  5. Refusing to recognize union representatives

24
European Immigrants
  • Came through Ellis Island
  • 1892-1924 17 million immigrants were processed

http//memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/irish.h
tml
25
Physical and Mental Test
26
Asian Immigrants
  • Angel Island
  • 1910-1940 50,000 Chinese Immigrants

27
Tenement Slum Living
28
Tenement Life
  • Run down buildings
  • Overcrowded- An entire family living in one room
    multiple families living on the same floor
  • Little light or ventilation
  • Horrible sanitation No garbage pick-up no
    plumbing, smelly
  • Conditions caused disease that was easily spread

29
Dumbbell Tenement
30
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31
Triangle Shirtwaist Co. Fire
  • 1911- New York City, 10-story building
  • Doors locked from the outside
  • One fire escape- rusted and collapsed
  • Workers jumped to their deaths or perished in the
    smoke and flames
  • 146 workers died

32
  • Against big business or monopolies
  • 1, 3, 9
  • Effects of distribution of wealth
  • 2, 7, 8, 6
  • Support of Business Support of Social Darwinism
  • 4, 5

33
Muckrakers
  • Derogatory name earn their livelihood by
    telling scandalous falsehoods about honest men
  • Many brought attention to tragic truth
  • Living conditions
  • Working conditions
  • Business Practices
  • Child Labor
  • Conditions of food processing factories
  • Corruption in government
  • Prison Conditions

34
Federal Reform
  • Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act
    (Roosevelt influenced by the Jungle)
  • Constitutional Amendments
  • 16th Federal income taxes
  • 17th Direct election of senators
  • 18th Abolition of alcohol

Chicago Meat Inspectors 1906
35
City (Municipal) Reforms established public
health programs enforced tenement codes took over
utilities services (gas, water,
electricity) provided free kindergarten
  • State Reforms
  • reformed election process held primary
    elections
  • developed workers accident insurance and
    compensation
  • abolished child labor
  • set minimum wages
  • Federal Reforms
  • Broke up trusts
  • Developed Interstate Commerce Commission
  • Pure Food and Drug Act
  • Established a Department of Labor
  • Established the U.S. Forest Service - set aside
    land for National Parks
  • 16th, 17th and 18th Amendments

36
Beginnings of the Suffrage Movement
  • First formally demanded right to vote at Seneca
    Falls Convention (1848)
  • Not allowed to vote
  • Husbands had legal power over their wives
  • Working women paid only a fraction of what men
    earned
  • Women had no means to gain an education since no
    college would accept women students
  • Women were robbed of their self-confidence and
    self-respect, and were made totally dependent on
    men

37
Anti-Suffrage Movement
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39
Nineteenth Amendment
  • 1920
  • Extended the right to vote to women
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