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Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts

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Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts Unit Nine Chapter One Technology Today – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Engineering and Technology Concepts


1
Introduction to Engineering and Technology
Concepts
  • Unit Nine
  • Chapter One Technology Today

2
Instructions for Success
  • Each chapter of every unit will begin with a
    Mindjog. This is a warm up question that you
    should answer in your workbook in the proper
    chapter.
  • Please take notes as you move through the
    presentations in the notebook that has been
    provided.
  • Sections will come up in each presentation with
    an assignment notice. Turn to the section
    detailed on the slide in your workbook and
    complete the assignment before proceeding.
  • Good luck!

3
Objective
  • Students will compare lifestyle, employment,
    control, and major concerns in regards to todays
    technology (Wright, 2004).

4
Mindjog!
  • On your worksheet, please respond to the
    following question 
  • How do you think your day would differ if you
    still lived in colonial times instead of present
    day? What would you do for fun? What sort of
    routines might you have?

5
Change
  • This course has discussed much of technology and
    how it has developed and how it plays a part in
    your everyday life.
  • In the past 50 years, housing, transportation,
    shopping, and communication has changed very
    drastically.
  • This chapter will look at how technology affects
    lifestyle, employment, individual control, major
    concerns, and new horizons (Wright, 2004) .

6
Lifestyle
  • A lifestyle is what a person does with business
    and family life their work, social, and
    recreational activities.
  • Consider that during colonial times, families
    worked six days a week with long hours to grow a
    small amount of food. These people did not take
    vacations and instead worked on perfecting their
    craft or trade, such as being a blacksmith.
  • Housing was modest and simple, as were other
    technologies available to meet basic human needs
    and wants (Wright, 2004).

7
Lifestyle (continued)
  • However, with the exception of slaves, most
    people were their own bosses. They owned their
    farms and stores, or practiced their crafts as
    independent workers.
  • However, the Industrial Revolution changed all
    that when more advanced technology was developed
    for the farm and land West of the Appalachians
    allowed for larger and more efficient farms.
  • During this time, the work force on farms dropped
    radically from 90 to three percent (Wright,
    2004) .

8
Lifestyle (continued)
  • During this time, new immigrants to the United
    States and the farmers, who were no longer needed
    to till the soil, provided a vast labor supply.
  • This supply was the basic resource for the
    factory system that was being developed as the
    demand for goods could no longer be met by the
    local trades people working their shops.
  • In fact, their functions were being replaced by
    operations that included
  • Professional Management
  • Division of Labor
  • Continuous Manufacturing Techniques
  • Material Handling Devices
  • And Interchangeable Parts (Wright, 2004).

9
Lifestyle (continued)
  • At this point, men and women of all ages worked
    long hours in factories for low pay.
  • Low wages and poor working conditions, of which
    the workers had no say, caused unrest.
  • Labor unions were formed to give the workers a
    voice in determining pay and conditions.
  • Improvements were made as the government began
    changing its attitudes by creating new laws and
    different management stances, including the 40
    hour, five day work week with paid vacation time
    (Wright, 2004).

10
Lifestyle (continued)
  • The information age and the computer changed the
    idea that whatever factory could produce the most
    was the most successful.
  • In fact, the computer allowed for flexible
    manufacturing, where manufacturing can quickly
    and inexpensively respond to change.
  • The management group became less distant from the
    workers and seen as team members (Wright, 2004).

11
Employment
  • Lifestyle and employment are closely linked- you
    need the money to afford the type of life you
    want.
  • Besides high school graduation, college degree,
    and technical training, workers in the
    information age must be willing to
  • Pursue additional education and training
    throughout their lives.
  • Accept job and career changes several times
    during their work lives.
  • Work in teams, and place team goals above
    personal ambitions.
  • Exercise leadership, and accept responsibility
    for their work (Wright, 2004).

12
Employment (continued)
  • Someone seeking employment in a technical job
    might look into one of these positions
  • Production Worker people that process materials
    and make products.
  • Technician these individuals work closely with
    production workers but do more specialized jobs.
  • Technologist form the bridge between the
    engineers who design systems and the workers who
    implement them.
  • Engineer designs products and structures,
    conducts research, and develops production
    processes and systems.
  • Managers set goals, plot courses of action, and
    motivate people to work together (Wright, 2004).

13
Employment (continued)
  • A variety of job requirements affect each
    employee. When selecting employment, a person
    should consider job requirements from three
    points
  • Authority and Responsibility The level of
    accountability that goes with the job.
  • Data, Machines, and People the balance of how
    much each of these factors weighs into the
    positions duties.
  • Education People should select jobs that have
    educational requirements matched with their
    ability to learn (Wright, 2004).

14
Individual Control
  • Individuals control technology in a number of
    ways
  • As a consumer, people must select proper
    products, structures, and services. They must
    also use, maintain, and dispose of them correctly
    and as needed.
  • Individuals also have political power. Companies
    are all operating under government regulations.
    Few laws are passed solely because an elected
    official thinks they are important. Most of them
    come from people asking their elected
    representative to deal with a concern.
  • Finally, individuals can be activists, who use
    public opinion to shape practices and societal
    values (Wright, 2004).

15
Major Concerns
  • In previous Units, the chapters have stated some
    issues that arise when developing and using
    technology. At the forefront of our attention
    are
  • Nuclear power and waste disposal Is nuclear
    power safe and how can we harness and maintain it
    in a safe manner?
  • Technological Unemployment we saw earlier in
    this chapter that technology can put people out
    of a job, just like the farmers. Should
    technology that causes unemployment be applied?
    Should companies provide training and benefits to
    workers who become unemployed due to these
    technologies? Should foreign products that cause
    technological unemployment be barred from
    domestic markets? What are the individuals
    responsibilities regarding changing job
    requirements? (Wright, 2004).

16
Major Concerns (continued)
  • Genetic Engineering Is it right to change the
    genetic structure of living organisms and whose
    right is it? Is it permissible to alter the DNA
    of a human? How are religious and technological
    conflicts going to be dealt with?
  • Energy Use How can we reduce our dependence on
    petroleum and the private automobile? What other
    alternative energy sources exist? How do we
    control environmental damage caused by our
    actions? Should mass transit be financed with
    tax money? Should we pay higher taxes on
    gasoline?
  • Land Use What are the rights of landowners?
    Should the desire of the majority overrule these
    rights? How do you balance environmental
    protection issues with economic issues? What
    responsibilities do government officials have for
    public lands (Wright, 2004)?

17
Major Concerns (continued)
  • Pollution Should products that pollute the
    environment be banned from manufacture and use?
    How much, and what type of evidence is needed
    before a product can be banned? How do you
    handle the economic and social impact of banning
    products? Should strict pollution controls apply
    equally to individuals and companies? Should
    there be a pollution tax on things that damage
    the environment?
  • As you can see, technological problems must be
    researched before they can be solved.
  • Unfortunately, technology cannot possibly solve
    ALL of our issues (Wright, 2004).

18
New Horizons
  • Technology continues to be developed at a very
    rapid pace. In the 1800s, Jules Verne wrote
    about traveling under the ocean in a
    submarineimpossible for the time. In the 1940s
    and 50s, comics brought about the ridiculous idea
    that rocket ships could travel into space. What
    is fiction today may become an everyday part of
    your life.
  • What about mining the resources of the oceans or
    space? Perhaps moving manufacturing into space
    to avoid further adverse affects on Earth.
    Commercial space travel is something thats being
    considered, as to date it is government-financed.
  • Of course all of these ideas have their own trade
    offs (positive and negative aspects).
  • What could be next (Wright, 2004)?

19
Assignment 1
  • Please turn to the section in your workbook
    entitled, Unit Nine, Chapter One Technology
    Today.
  • Complete the extension questions under the
    Assignment 1 header before moving onto the
    next section of slides.

20
BEFORE MOVING ON
  • Did you complete the Assignment 1 Section
    under the Unit Nine, Chapter One Technology
    Today section of your workbook?
  • If you have, please proceed to the next slide.

21
Chapter One Completed!
  • Please close this presentation and launch the
    file entitled, Chapter 2 Technology and
    Society.

22
References
  • Wright, R. (2004) Technology The
    Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.
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