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Map of Ancient Greece

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Throughout most of their classical history, the Greeks were never unified politically or militarily. They were simply a group of independent city-states that shared a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Map of Ancient Greece


1
  • Throughout most of their classical history, the
    Greeks were never unified politically or
    militarily. They were simply a group of
    independent city-states that shared a common
    culture (religion, language, traditions.)

2
  • The Greeks fought each other more than they
    fought non-Greeks (who they referred to as
    barbarians because their language sounded like
    sheep sounds).
  • All this changed when a large eastern empire
    (the Persians) invaded the Greek world.

3
II. Persian Wars (500-479 B.C.E.)
  • Cause
  • Persia invasions
  • Greece
  • Battle of Marathon
  • Battles of Thermopolae Salamis.
  • Result
  • Greece won, but rivalry between the city-states
    caused the Peloponnesian Wars.

4
  • Persians
  • Largest army navy in the world.
  • Poorly armored (short spears, and wicker
    shields)
  • Cultural differences leading to poor motivation.
  • Long time to organize, required a lot of
    supplies.

5
III. The Golden Age
  • Greeces victory over the Persians gave rise to
    the Golden Age of Greek culture.
  • Achievements during the Golden Age
  • Democracy - Medicine
  • Philosophy - Science
  • Drama - History
  • Poetry - Art

6
Socrates is considered The Father of Greek
philosophy
7
  • He believed that people needed to think for
    themselves by questioning everything.
  • He argued that
  • pure truth could
  • never really be
  • discovered.
  • He often criticized
  • democracy.

8
Plato
  • A student of Socrates, who believed in rule by an
    aristocracy.
  • Wrote The Republic

9
Aristotle
  • A student of Plato teacher to Alexander the
    Great.
  • He explored the idea of good government (which
    governments make the best men.)
  • He developed rules of logic (men are ruled by
    natural laws.)

10
Sophocles was a Greek dramatist who wrote
tragedies such as Oedipus Rex Antigone
11
  • Hippocrates was a Greek medical scholar who
    looked for natural rather than supernatural
    causes of illnesses.

12
Aristarchus
  • Greek astronomer who believed in the Heliocentric
    theory (the sun is the center of the solar
    system.)
  • His theory was opposed by Claudius Ptolemy who
    taught that the earth is the center of the solar
    system (Geocentric).

13
Erastosthenes
  • Greek astronomer who calculated the circumference
    of the earth with amazing accuracy by measuring
    angles of the sun.
  • This information was forgotten until Columbus
    incorrect estimation in1492.

14
  • Archimedes
  • Greek physicist who
  • studied pulleys and levers.
  • He developed theories of
  • power force.

15
  • Aristotle
  • Greek philosopher that collected, described, and
    classified plants animals. This was the
    foundations of western botany, zoology anatomy.

16
  • Pythagoras
  • Greek
  • mathematician
  • who developed
  • the Pythagorean
  • theorem.

17
Characteristics of Greek Art
  • Glorified Human beings
  • Represented the City-state
  • Represented the Greek Ideas of beauty and
    usefulness

18
IV. Pelonponnesian Wars (431-404 BCE)
  • Cause
  • Rivalry between Greek city-states after the
    Persian Wars.
  • Result
  • Weakened city-states thus facilitated the
    invasion of the Macedonians lead by (Phillip II
    and
  • Alexander the Great)

19
  • To protect the Aegean from further Persian
    threat, Athens formed a military alliance called
    the Delian League.
  • Out of fear of an Athenian Empire, Sparta also
    formed a military alliance called the
    Peloponnesian League.

20
  • It wasnt long until the Greeks forgot the unity
    they had enjoyed against the Persians and began
    to fight each other again.
  • In 431 B.C.E. the two Leagues went to war.

21
The war lasted until 404 B.C.E. with the
surrender of Athens to Sparta. But the war left
all of Greece weakened and vulnerable to outside
attack.
22
V. Rise of Macedonia
  • Known as the Hellenistic Age (379 144 B.C.E.)
  • Lasted from the Fall of Greece to the Rise of Rome

23
Greece was finally conquered in 379 B.C.E. by the
Macedonians. Under the leadership of Philip
and His son Alexander.
Philip of -----------Macedonia Alexander of
Macedonia ----------
24
Philip of Macedonia
  • Macedonia was the northern part of Greece. It
    was a buffer zone between the Greek world and the
    barbarians. The Macedonians admired Greek
    culture but most Greeks saw them as
    hillbillies/rednecks.
  • In his desire to be more Greek King Philip
    conquered the Greeks after the Peloponnesian War.

25
Alexander the Great
  • He promised the Greeks in return for their
    alliance, he would conquer Persia.
  • His empire stretched from Greece to the Indus
    River
  • His civilization was a mix of Greek and Eastern
    elements called the Hellenistic Culture.

26
The End!
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