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AP REVIEW PART I

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Title: AP REVIEW PART I


1
AP REVIEW PART I COLONIZATION TO RECONSTRUCTION
2
Pre-Colonial America
  • Conquistadors 3 Gs
  • Smallpox and the start of slavery leads
    to.deaths of millions of Natives
  • In the new global economic system Europe has
    everything
  • Labor
  • Technology
  • Markets
  • Capital
  • BUT? Raw Materials

3
Early English Settlements
  • Jamestown 1607 (Virginia Company)
  • First successful settlement
  • Joint-stock company a group of investors who
    bought the right to establish New World
    plantations from the king
  • English not prepared high death rates from
    starvation and disease (wife jerky)
  • Indian relations one sided benefit

4
Growth of Virginia (Chesapeake Region)
  • John Rolfe King tobacco
  • Impacts of success
  • Creates need for more land end of New England
    Indians (What was this last War called?) King
    Philips War
  • Creates need for more labor indentured servants
  • Profitability draws more colonists
  • Begins southern single crop dependence
  • Irony of 1619
  • Virginia House of Burgess (first step to
    self-gov)
  • First shipment of African slaves

5
Pilgrims and Mass Bay Company
  • Puritan movement in England creates need for new
    religion
  • Separatists leave England to create a new
    community in the Americas Mayflower 1620
  • Mayflower Compact governments power comes from
    the consent of the governed

6
Mass Bay Colony
  • Congregationalists (change church from within )
    form larger colony in 1629 (better funded
    prepared)
  • Congregationalists and Separatists do not
    tolerate religious freedom (IRONIC?)
  • Roger Williams banished (creates Rhode Island)
  • Two big things about RI
  • Religious freedom for all
  • Very Democratic
  • Anne Hutchinson banished for preaching
    antinomianism (belief that those predestined need
    not obey secular laws)

7
City Upon a Hill John Winthrop
  • American exceptionalism is the idea that the
    United States and the American people hold a
    special place in the world, by offering
    opportunity and hope for humanity, derived from a
    unique balance of public and private interests
    governed by constitutional ideals that are
    focused on personal and economic freedom.

8
Growth of American Slavery
  • Indentured Servants
  • Primary source of labor until Bacons rebellion
    (why did they rebel?) poor land, no opportunity
  • African Slaves
  • Initially expensive with similar contracts to
    indentured servants
  • After Bacon, viewed as a less troublesome labor
    force
  • Develops into modern version with elimination
    of rights and permanent (hereditary) status as
    property
  • Legal in all colonies by 1700

9
Relationship between the Colonies and Britain
  • Policy of salutary neglect stimulates autonomy
    and self-government while fueling mercantilism
    (what is this?) Gain power through gold/silver
  • (how did the British government enforce?)
    Navigation Acts to control shipping
  • European struggles for power move to America
  • French Indian War (fought for control over?) Ohio
    Valley
  • Albany Plan (purpose?) colonial unity and common
    defense
  • Treaty of Paris 1763 (outcome for France?) No
    territory in North America
  • Proclamation of 1763 (angers the colonists
    why?) prohibits colonial settlement west of the
    Appalachian Mountains

10
Pre-Revolution Issues
  • Acts for Revenue
  • Sugar Act (1st)
  • Stamp Act (Most protest)
  • Townshend Acts
  • Acts for Control
  • Quartering Act
  • Declaratory Act
  • Intolerable Act
  • Colonial responses
  • Stamp Act Congress
  • Boston Massacre
  • Sons of liberty
  • Boston Tea Party
  • Committees of correspondence
  • First / Second Continental Congress

What was virtual representation? All members of
Parliament represent all British subjects.
11
Outcomes of American Revolution
  • Treaty of Paris 1783
  • Independence / Territory / Resumption of Trade
  • New Government
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Weak no executive, no power to tax, collect, or
    borrow, no power to regulate trade (BIG)
  • NW Ordinance
  • Why is this important in the long run? Rules for
    territories and states
  • Problems lead to Constitutional Convention

12
Creation of a Constitution
  • Compromise Key
  • NJ Plan Articles of Conf with more power
  • VA Plan Three branches, bicameral leg,
    proportional reps
  • Great (Connecticut) Compromise Proportional rep
    uniform rep
  • 3/5 Compromise Settles rep and tax status of
    slaves
  • No slave discussion till 1807

13
Adoption of the Constitution
  • Federalist vs. Antifederalist
  • Bill of Rights (protect who from what?) people
    from too strong of a government
  • GW First President
  • Jefferson vs. Hamilton
  • Interpretation of the Constitution (strict vs.
    loose)
  • Assumption, National Bank, (challenge what?)
  • Formation of two-party system

14
2 John Adams
  • Federalist Agenda
  • Characteristics of a Federalist
  • Interpretation? Loose interpretation
  • Foreign relations? Favored Britain over France
  • Peace (X,Y,Z and Convention of 1800)
  • Eliminate opposition (Alien Sedition)
  • KY / VA resolutions nullification
  • Pack the courts (Judiciary Act of 1801)
  • Marbury v. Madison establishes the principle of ?
  • Judicial review

15
3 Thomas Jefferson
  • Revolution of 1800
  • Legacy
  • Louisiana Purchase / Lewis Clark
  • Leaves federalist programs intact
  • Leaves problem with France/Britain to Madison
    (Embargo of 1807 causes what?)

16
4 James Madison /5 James Monroe
  • MONROE
  • Henry Clay American System
  • Components?
  • Protect/promote business
  • Internal improvements
  • National Bank/Tariffs
  • Panic of 1819
  • Era of Good Feelings
  • Purpose of the name?
  • No political opposition
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • MADISON
  • Macons Bill No 2
  • War of 1812
  • Who supports?
  • South/West
  • Who doesnt?
  • NE
  • Treaty of Ghent
  • Tariff of 1816
  • Goal? Protect American industry

17
6 John Quincy Adams
  • Corrupt Bargain (Why named?)
  • (Clay Sec of State)
  • Tariff of 1828 (Tariff of Abomination)
  • Political football Scheme to create lose/lose
    for Adams
  • NE oks to protect industry
  • South deeply upset major consumers of
    manufactured goods
  • Potential intrusion into slavery loss of
    prestige/power in federal government
  • Calhoun authors The Exposition VP (argument
    for?) states rights
  • Policies increase voter turnout and create the
    Era of the Common Man (return to the ideals
    of?) Jefferson

18
7 Andrew Jackson
  • Ideals
  • Jeffersonian
  • Rags to riches
  • Spoils system
  • Executive leadership
  • Union first
  • Actions
  • Nullification crisis (over what?) tariff policy
  • SC vs. US
  • Indian relocation
  • Role of the Supreme Court
  • Bank of US

19
1830s-1860Westward Expansion Sectionalism
  • Aroostook War (who vs. who?) Maine vs. Canada
    over border disputes
  • Manifest Destiny (what is this?) God given right
    to expand
  • Why was Oregon annexed peacefully, but not Texas?
    (why did it take so long for Texas to be a
    state?) controversy of expansion of slavery

20
1830s-1860Westward Expansion Sectionalism
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (who got what?)
  • New Mexico, California to US for 15m
  • Rio Grande border of Texas
  • Wilmot Proviso (purpose?) no slavery in
    territories acquired in war with Mexico
  • Ostend Manifest (what?) secret offer to buy Cuba
    from Spain

21
Presidents 8-15
  • MVB
  • Harrison
  • Tyler
  • Polk (best example of?) Manifest Destiny
  • Taylor
  • Fillmore
  • Pierce
  • Buchanan

22
People and Events
  • Second Great Awakening (sets the foundation for?)
    social reform
  • Mormons (why persecuted?) emphasis on community
    and cooperative effort
  • Joseph Smith
  • Brigham Young
  • Utopian communities
  • (desire for?) social, religious or economic
    perfection

23
People and Events
  • Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
  • (purpose?) expand rights of women until Civil
    War (switch to abolition)
  • Cult of domesticity (who, what?) glorified
    traditional role of women as wives and mothers
  • Noah Webster (contribution?) standardized
    American language
  • Horace Mann (goal of public education?) create
    informed citizens

24
Abolition and Coming Crisis
  • Compromise of 1850
  • (conditions?)
  • California in as free state
  • Stronger fugitive slave law
  • Utah and NM open to popular sovereignty
  • No slave trade in Washington, D.C.
  • Fugitive Slave Law
  • (Northern response?) Increased abolitionism
  • Harriet Beecher Stowe
  • (who, what, importance?) Intended to show
    cruelty of slavery

25
Abolition and Coming Crisis
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) (example of?) popular
    sovereignty (let territory residents decide
    whether to allow slavery)
  • Creates increased northern opposition to slavery
  • Creates birth of Republican Party
  • Expands violence in Kansas
  • Know-Nothings (platform?) nativism
  • Dred Scott Decision slaves not citizens, and
    Congress cant regulate expansion of slavery
  • Republican Party (platform?) no expansion of
    slavery

26
Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Secession (event?)1860 election of Lincoln
  • Comparing North South (advantages?)
  • North RR, Industry, Navy, Larger population
  • South Better generals, moral cause, defense of
    homeland
  • Foreign involvement
  • (goals?) weak America better for Britain and
    France
  • Emancipation Proclamation
  • (purpose?), strengthen Union moral cause

27
Civil War and Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction Plans
  • Lincoln
  • 10 Plan rapid readmission of Southern states
  • Wade-Davis
  • Major difference between Congress and Presidents
    concerning Reconstruction
  • Constitutional Issues
  • Status of confederate states
  • Reconstruction Amendments (13,14,15)
  • 13 no slavery, 14 rights of citizens, 15
    right to vote all males
  • End of Reconstruction (event?) Compromise of 1877

28
The West
  • Indians
  • End of the Buffalo end of Indian way of life
  • Assimilation
  • Settlers / Farmers
  • Homestead Act promote settlement
  • Barb wire end of open range
  • Farmers produce for outside markets
  • RR exploiting farmers

29
Industry and Urbanization
  • Key terms/events/people
  • Horizontal integration
  • Vertical integration
  • Social darwinism
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Interstate Commerce Commission
  • Pendleton Act
  • Jim Crow laws
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