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Scientific Inquiry

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Scientific Inquiry Topics How Scientists Think Scientists use the skills of observing, inferring, and predicting. How Scientists Think Observing Using one or more ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific Inquiry


1
Scientific Inquiry
2
Topics
How Scientists Think
The process of inquiry
How Science Develops
Metric System
References
3
How Scientists Think
  • Scientists use the skills of observing,
    inferring, and predicting.

4
How Scientists Think
  • Observing Using one or more senses to gather
    information
  • Inferring An interpretation based upon
    observation and prior knowledge

5
How Scientists Think
  • Predicting The process of forecasting what will
    happen based upon evidence

6
Observing
  • There are two types of observations
  • Qualitative
  • Observations that deals with characteristics that
    are not expressed in numbers

7
Observing
  • Quantitative
  • Observations that deals with numbers, amounts, or
    measurements

8
Inferring
Based upon reasoning from what is already known
(evidence/data)
9
Predicting
Predictions are based upon past
experience, data, or evidence.
A guess has no evidence, data, or past
experience to support it.
TOC
10
The process of Inquiry
  • Scientific inquiry refers to the different ways
    scientists study the natural world.
  • Scientific inquiry use a process called the
    scientific method to gain scientific knowledge.

11
Scientific Method
  • Collection of scientific facts through
    observation and measurements
  • Development of one or more working hypotheses to
    explain the facts

12
Scientific Method
  • Development of experiment to test the hypothesis
  • Acceptance, modification, or rejection of
    hypothesis based on extensive testing.

13
Scientific Process
  • The scientific method is divided into a series
    of steps or a process

14
Scientific process
  • Identify the problem/pose a question
  • Investigate the problem
  • Formulate a hypothesis
  • Test the hypothesis

15
Scientific Process
  • Collect and organize data
  • Analyze data
  • Draw a conclusion
  • Communicating

16
Identify the ProblemPose a Question
Problems and questions that can be addressed
through observation are the type that can be
answered through scientific inquiry
Scientific Inquiry can not answer Questions
based upon opinion, judgment or values.
17
Investigate the problem
  • Once a problem has been identified or a question
    asked, then the additional information is
    gathered
  • This is done to find out what is already known at
    to determine a hypothesis

18
Formulate a hypothesis
  • A hypothesis is a possible answer to a scientific
    question or problem
  • The hypothesis must be testable through
    observation or experimentation.

19
Test the hypothesis
  • In order to determine whether a hypothesis is
    true or not, scientists design experiments to
    test the hypothesis.

20
Test the Hypothesis
  • Scientist must be able to identify and/or account
    for the various types of variables (factors) that
    can change in an experiment
  • The two main types of variables are
  • Independent (manipulated) Variable
  • Dependent (Responding) Variable

21
Collect and organize data
  • During the experiment data/information must be
    collected and organize into a format so that it
    can be used
  • Data may be organized into
  • Tables
  • Graphs

22
Analyze data
  • Once the data is organized scientists must
    determine what the data is saying.

The data is organized into a graph which
says that as time increases the distance is not
changing. This means that the object is not
moving.
23
Drawing a Conclusion
  • After scientists interpret their data, they draw
    a conclusion about their hypothesis.
  • A conclusion states whether or not the data
    supports the hypothesis.

24
Communication
  • Communicating is the sharing of ideas and
    conclusions with others through writing
    (publications) and speaking.

25
Communicating
  • When scientists share the design of an experiment
    other scientists can repeat that experiment to
    check results.

26
Communicating
  • Communicating information often leads to new
    questions, new hypotheses and new investigations

27
How Science Develops
  • Scientists use models and develop laws and
    theories to help explain the natural world.

28
How Science Develops
  • Scientific Models
  • A representation of an object or a process
  • Scientific laws
  • A statement that describes what scientists expect
    to happen every time under a particular set of
    conditions
  • Scientific Theories
  • An explanation for a wide range of observations
    or experimental results

29
Scientific Model
  • There are three basic types of models scientists
    use to represent objects and/or processes
  • Physical model
  • Computer model
  • Mathematical Model

30
Physical Model
Model of a car made out of meat
31
Computer Model
3D computer model of bullet car
32
Mathematical Model
A mathematical schematic of a car during
derailment
33
Scientific law
  • A scientific law describes an observed pattern in
    nature without attempting to explain it.
  • Example Law of gravity

34
Scientific Theory
  • A scientific theory is determined when many
    observations can be connected by one explanation
  • Examples Atomic Theory
  • Future evidence may not support a theory in which
    case the theory may be modified or discarded all
    together.

35
Summary of Scientific Process
36
The Metric System
  • The standard system of measurement used by
    scientists around the world is known as the
    Système International dUnités (SI).
  • SI units are based on multiples of 10.
  • Each unit is 10 times larger than the next
    smallest unit and one tenth the size of the next
    largest unit

37
Base Metric Units
  • Scientist have to measure
  • Lengths
  • Mass/Weight
  • Volume
  • Temperature
  • Time
  • There is a base unit for each of these measures

38
Base Units
Measure Base Unit
Length Meter (m)
Mass Gram (g)
Volume Liter (l)
Temperature Celsius (oC)
Time Seconds (s)
39
SI Prefixes
Kilo (k) 1000
Milli (m) 0.001
meter liter gram
Centi (c) 0.01
Hecto (h) 100
Deci (d) 0.1
Deka (da) 1O
40
Metric Nomenclature
The describing of a measurement depends on how
big or small the measure is in relation to the
base unit.
For example A 6 inch ruler measures 15.24cm
0.1524m 0.0001524km
Each measure is the same length, but it is much
more convenient to use centimeters to describe
the length of this ruler.
41
Metric Conversions
The relationship between two units is called the
conversion factor. Conversion factors are used
to calculate the conversion of SI units.
For example 1km 1000m This is the
relationship between kilometers and meters
42
Metric Conversions
Base
1000
100
10
1/10
1/100
1/1000
meter gram liter
Deca
Hecto
Kilo
Deci
centi
milli
Metric units may be easily converted by moving
the decimal point. For example to convert 80cm
to meters move the decimal point 2 space to the
Left. Therefore 80 cm becomes 0.8 meters
43
Metric Conversions
Base
1000
100
10
1/10
1/100
1/1000
meter gram liter
Deca
Hecto
Kilo
Deci
centi
milli
To convert 0.75km to meters move the
decimal point 3 spaces to the right. Therefore
0.75km becomes 750meters
44
General Rule If going from high unit to low unit
move decimal point to the Right If going from low
unit to high unit move decimal point to the Left
45
Using Conversion Factors
To convert any measure from kilometers to meters
or from meters to kilometers the measure is
multiplied by the conversion factor which is
written as a fraction km or m
m km depending on
what unit of the original measure is.
46
Calculating the Conversion
Converting 80 centimeters into meters.
The conversion factor for centimeters to Meters
is 1m 100cm (1m/100cm) 80 centimeters is
multiplied by the conversion factor
80 cm x 1m 80cm 0.8meters
100cm 100cm
47
References
FCAT Power Words June 26, 2007 Sarasota Middle
school www.sarasotamiddleschool.com/assets/image
/infer.jpg
Frank, David et. al. Science Explorer Physical
Science Boston MA, Pearson Prentice Hall. 2007
H, Mark Entry 78 Biome Blogs http//biomeblog.ty
pepad.com/the_bioes_blog/meat_carthumb.jpg
Predicting The Future June 26, 2007 CSL Cartoon
Stock www.cartoonstock.com/lowres/shr11301.jpg
Szilagyi, Mike 3D Bullet Car Philadelphia Trolley
Tracks www.phillytrolley.org/IMAGES/BULWIRE.gif
Tank Car Structural Integrity Volpe Center
Structures and Dynamics Division www.volpe.dot.go
v/sdd/images/tankcar3.gif June 27, 2007
48
References
Tarbuck, Edward and Fredrick Lutgens. Earth
Science 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Boston MA.
Its Your planet http//geoweb.tamu.edu/courses/
geol100/grossman/sci.method.jpg
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