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Enlightenment Test Bank

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Title: Enlightenment Test Bank


1
Enlightenment Test Bank
Voltaire, Diderot, d'Alembert, La Harpe,
Condorcet, au café Le Procope.
2
Scientific Revolution
3
1. Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon contributed
to scientific development in the seventeenth
century by
  • A. making observations of planetary movements
  • B. articulating theories of the scientific
    method.
  • C. perfecting the metric system
  • D. Conducting experiments about gravitational
    forces
  • E. introducing logarithms

4
2. The Scientific Revolution overturned the
accepted ideas of which of the following
  • A. Galileo
  • B. Harvey
  • C. Aristotle
  • D. Newton
  • E. Vesalius.

5
5. Which of the following most accurately
describes the new attitudes that developed toward
reason and science in the seventeenth century?
  • A. it led men to think more of God and the
    afterlife
  • B. it encouraged religious intolerance and the
    persecution of minority groups
  • C. it promoted the belief that there were laws
    underlying the universe which man's reason
    enabled him to understand
  • D. it held that God could not exist since His
    existence could not be perceived or proved by the
    senses.

Read each answer carefully.
6
5. Which of the following most accurately
describes the new attitudes that developed toward
reason and science in the seventeenth century?
  • A. it led men to think more of God and the
    afterlife
  • B. it encouraged religious intolerance and the
    persecution of minority groups
  • C. it promoted the belief that there were laws
    underlying the universe which man's reason
    enabled him to understand
  • D. it held that God could not exist since His
    existence could not be perceived or proved by the
    senses.

Read each answer carefully.
7
9. The Royal Society for improving Natural
knowledge was founded in the reign of
  • A. Charles II Stuart
  • B. Elizabeth I Tutor
  • C. Henry VII Tudor
  • D. James I Stuart

8
9. The Royal Society for improving Natural
knowledge was founded in the reign of
  • A. Charles II Stuart
  • B. Elizabeth I Tutor
  • C. Henry VII Tudor
  • D. James I Stuart

9
12. The causes of the Scientific Revolution
include all of the following EXCEPT the
  • A. development of philosophy as an academic
    discipline in medieval universities.
  • B. navigational problems of ship captains.
  • C. Renaissance recovery of ancient Greek
    mathematical texts.
  • D. extensive support and funding provided by
    European governments.

10
15. The synthesis of the Scientific Revolution
was
  • A. John Locke's Essay Concerning Human
    Understanding.
  • B. Bernard de Fontenelle's Conversation of the
    Plurality of Worlds.
  • C. Isaac Newton's Principia.
  • D. Nicolaus Copernicus's On the Revolution of the
    Heavenly Bodies.

11
17. Galileo was brought before the Inquisition
and made to recant his views regarding the
  • A. Heliocentric theory
  • B. Circulation of blood
  • C. Law of gravitation
  • D. None of the above

12
19. The great scientific discoveries of the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led European
scholars to believe that
  • A. everything in nature and society operated in
    ways similar to those of a living organism
  • B. the universe was orderly and operated
    according to fixed rules
  • C. religious tradition formed the basis for all
    scientific truths and assumptions
  • D. the experimental method was an unreliable
    vehicle for scientific inquiry
  • E. only that which could be seen and examined was
    real

13
Enlightenment
14
20. The two men generally given credit for
creating the modern scientific method were
Francis Bacon and
  • A. Johannes Kepler.
  • B. Nicolaus Copernicus.
  • C. John Locke.
  • D. Rene Descartes.

15
20. The two men generally given credit for
creating the modern scientific method were
Francis Bacon and
  • A. Johannes Kepler.
  • B. Nicolaus Copernicus.
  • C. John Locke.
  • D. Rene Descartes.

16
21 "Men being by nature all free, equal, and
independent, no one can be put out of this estate
and subjected to the political power of another
without his own consent, which is done by
agreeing with other men, to join and unite into a
community for their comfortable, safe, and
peaceable living in a secure enjoyment of their
properties." The quotation above is from a work
by
  • A. Francis Bacon
  • B. John Locke
  • C. Edmund Burke
  • D. Voltaire
  • E. Adam Smith

17
22. "The law is the expression of the general
will. All citizens have a right to concur either
personally or by their representatives in its
formation. The law should be the same for all,
whether it protects or whether it punishes." The
quotation above is a formulation of the ideas of
  • A. Frederick the Great
  • B. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • C. Adam Smith
  • D. Condorcet
  • E. Voltaire

18
27. "The salon was a weekly gathering held in the
home of one of the dominant ladies of the
society, at which dinner was usually served,
cards usually played, but conversation led by the
hostess predominated. A few salons were known as
having the ideal mixture of leading
intellectuals, open-minded nobles, and clever,
elegant women." The passage above describes an
important aspect of social life in which of the
following
  • A. Geneva during the Reformation
  • B. Florence during the Renaissance
  • C. London during the Glorious Revolution
  • D. Paris during the Enlightenment
  • E. Berlin during the Kulturkampf

19
28. The philosophes were convinced that the
"scientific method" would
  • A. enable them to raise the consciousness of the
    masses and effect rapid social change.
  • B. free mankind from all religious beliefs
  • C. enable them to devise an empirically based
    defense of traditional privileges
  • D. lead to the development of a utopian society
  • E. lead to the discovery of general laws
    applicable to contemporary human problems

20
28. The philosophes were convinced that the
"scientific method" would
  • A. enable them to raise the consciousness of the
    masses and effect rapid social change.
  • B. free mankind from all religious beliefs
  • C. enable them to devise an empirically based
    defense of traditional privileges
  • D. lead to the development of a utopian society
  • E. lead to the discovery of general laws
    applicable to contemporary human problems

21
29. The Enlightenment beliefs that environment
controls everything and that man is highly
perfectible were inspired by
  • A. Newton's law of universal gravity
  • B. Descartes' principles of rationality
  • C. Hume's skepticism
  • D. Locke's theory of knowledge
  • E. the ancient theory of innate ideas.

22
29. The Enlightenment beliefs that environment
controls everything and that man is highly
perfectible were inspired by
  • A. Newton's law of universal gravity
  • B. Descartes' principles of rationality
  • C. Hume's skepticism
  • D. Locke's theory of knowledge
  • E. the ancient theory of innate ideas.

23
30. In his The Spirit of Laws, Montesquieu
revealed a decided preference for
  • A. separate and balanced powers as embodied in
    the English political system
  • B. the theory of the divine right of kings
  • C. the supreme sovereignty of the legislative
    branch of government typical of republics
  • D. absolutism under the rule of law
  • E. a Calvinistic theory

24
33. He advanced the view that in matters of
religion all persons must have absolute freedom
of conscience
  • A. Edmund Spencer
  • B. Baruch Spinoza
  • C. Jan de Witt
  • D. William Gilbert

25
33. He advanced the view that in matters of
religion all persons must have absolute freedom
of conscience
  • A. Edmund Spencer
  • B. Baruch Spinoza
  • C. Jan de Witt
  • D. William Gilbert

26
35. The purpose of Diderot's Encyclopedia was
  • A. to improve the education of the masses
  • B. to improve vocabulary and style of writing
  • C. to correct the misunderstanding and
    misinformation that had been handed down from the
    past
  • D. to change the general way of thinking

27
36. Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau would have
agreed that
  • A. the ideal state should have no form of
    organized religion
  • B. democracy was the best form of government
  • C. enlightened despotism was the best form of
    government
  • D. the aristocracy should be abolished as a class

28
36. Montesquieu, Voltaire and Rousseau would have
agreed that
  • A. the ideal state should have no form of
    organized religion
  • B. democracy was the best form of government
  • C. enlightened despotism was the best form of
    government
  • D. the aristocracy should be abolished as a class

29
39. The optimistic outlook of the philosophes
regarding the perfectibility of man and society
was expressed most clearly by
  • A. Voltaire
  • B. the Marquis de Condorcet
  • C. David Hume
  • D. the Baron d'Holbach

30
39. The optimistic outlook of the philosophes
regarding the perfectibility of man and society
was expressed most clearly by
  • A. Voltaire
  • B. the Marquis de Condorcet
  • C. David Hume
  • D. the Baron d'Holbach

31
40. Which of the following is NOT a major key
phrase for the eighteenth century?
  • A. reason
  • B. religious faith
  • C. natural law
  • D. progress

32
41. The editor of the Encyclopedie was
  • A. Choiseul
  • B. Carl von Linne
  • C. Denis Diderot
  • D. the Marques de Pombal

33
42. Which of the following concepts would NOT
have been approved by Francois Quesnay and the
Physiocrats?
  • A. "natural laws" exist which govern the economic
    sphere
  • B. the mercantilist concept of the accumulation
    of wealth is wrong
  • C. rigid state regulation is necessary for its
    economy to thrive
  • D. true wealth is derived from agriculture

34
44. Calling for reforms in his Essay on Crimes
and Punishments, he held punishments should be
clear, swift, and certain
  • A. David Hume
  • B. Cesare Beccaria
  • C. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • D. Christopher Gluck

35
47. He saw the concept of checks and balances and
separation of powers as a key to the superior
structure of the British political system
  • A. Thomas Hobbes
  • B. Montesquieu
  • C. David Hume
  • D. Adam Smith

36
48. Which of the following views would Rousseau
have rejected?
  • A. individual self-interest may not oppose the
    "general will"
  • B. democracy is the form of government all
    nations should seek
  • C. the "general will" represents what is best for
    the whole community
  • D. the "social contract" involved all people in
    society

37
48. Which of the following views would Rousseau
have rejected?
  • A. individual self-interest may not oppose the
    "general will"
  • B. democracy is the form of government all
    nations should seek
  • C. the "general will" represents what is best for
    the whole community
  • D. the "social contract" involved all people in
    society

38
49. The influence of which of the following is
NOT to be seen in the American Constitution?
  • A. Montesquieu
  • B. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • C. John Locke
  • D. the English Bill of Rights

39
49. The influence of which of the following is
NOT to be seen in the American Constitution?
  • A. Montesquieu
  • B. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  • C. John Locke
  • D. the English Bill of Rights

40
50. While accepting many doctrines of the
Enlightenment, he still explicitly emphasized a
moral law in the conscience implanted by God
  • A. David Hume
  • B. Daniel Defoe
  • C. Immanual Kant
  • D. Henry Fielding

41
50. While accepting many doctrines of the
Enlightenment, he still explicitly emphasized a
moral law in the conscience implanted by God
  • A. David Hume
  • B. Daniel Defoe
  • C. Immanual Kant
  • D. Henry Fielding

42
51. A bitter, satirical attack on the optimism of
the philosophes was seen in Jonathan Swift's
  • A. Emile
  • B. Moll Flanders
  • C. Candide
  • D. Gulliver's Travels

43
52. All of the following were political
consequences of the Enlightenment EXCEPT
  • A. a weakening of absolutism in France.
  • B. the idea that government was a science.
  • C. attempts to reform from above.
  • D. a growing respect among monarchs for
    individual rights.

44
54. The Enlightenment reached its highest
development in France for all the following
reasons EXCEPT
  • A. French was the international language of the
    educated classes.
  • B. French scientists and universities were the
    most preeminent in the Scientific Revolution.
  • C. the level of censorship and repression was
    somewhat less than that in most of Europe.
  • D. French philosophes asked fundamental
    questions and sought actively to influence the
    educated public.

45
54. The Enlightenment reached its highest
development in France for all the following
reasons EXCEPT
  • A. French was the international language of the
    educated classes.
  • B. French scientists and universities were the
    most preeminent in the Scientific Revolution.
  • C. the level of censorship and repression was
    somewhat less than that in most of Europe.
  • D. French philosophes asked fundamental
    questions and sought actively to influence the
    educated public.

46
56. All of the following are later Enlightenment
philosophes EXCEPT
  • A. Baron Paul d'Holbach.
  • B. Madame du Chatelet.
  • C. David Hume.
  • D. Marquis de Condorcet.

47
59. According to its editor, the fundamental goal
of the Encyclopedia was to
  • A. popularize the Scientific Revolution.
  • B. improve the material life of Europeans.
  • C. change the general way of thinking.
  • D. undermine French absolutism.

48
60. Madame du Chatelet
  • A. believed women's limited contribution to
    science was the result of unequal education.
  • B. was the first woman admitted into the Royal
    Academy of Sciences.
  • C. was the powerful mistress of Louis XV.
  • D. inspired Jean-Jacques Rousseau's ideas on
    education and emotion.

49
61. Rousseau's concept of the "general will"
asserts that
  • A. enlightened monarchs protect the interests of
    the entire society and should be relied upon for
    reform.
  • B. only by direct democracy can the people's
    political wishes be conveyed.
  • C. authentic, long-term needs of the people can
    be correctly interpreted by a farseeing minority.
  • D. sovereignty resides in the people.

50
61. Rousseau's concept of the "general will"
asserts that
  • A. enlightened monarchs protect the interests of
    the entire society and should be relied upon for
    reform.
  • B. only by direct democracy can the people's
    political wishes be conveyed.
  • C. authentic, long-term needs of the people can
    be correctly interpreted by a farseeing minority.
  • D. sovereignty resides in the people.

51
62. A striking feature of the salons was that
  • A. women participated as equals.
  • B. philosophes, nobles, and members of the upper
    middle class intermingled.
  • C. they were often sponsored by the government.
  • D. members of the working classes often
    attended.

52
63. Hobbes and Rousseau would have agreed that
  • A. a monarch has absolute power
  • B. the state is based on a social contract
  • C. the state of nature is peaceful and harmonious
  • D. political authority should be shared by the
    monarch and representatives of the people
  • E. citizens have a right to revolt

53
68. Which of the following is most characteristic
of Voltaires ideas?
  1. Empiricism and religious toleration are to be
    celebrated.
  2. The branches of government should be balanced.
  3. Future progress is inevitable and limitless
  4. Future progress is inevitable and limitless.
  5. Sensory experience can never be verified.

54
Enlightenment Absolute Monarchy
55
72 .The Enlightened monarchs of the eighteenth
century would most likely have favored which of
the following?
  • A. the Society of Jesus
  • B. written constitutions
  • C. the abolition of organized religion
  • D. the codification of laws
  • E. royal succession based on ability instead of
    birth

Read each choice carefully and select the best
answer.
56
72. The Enlightened monarchs of the eighteenth
century would most likely have favored which of
the following?
  • A. the Society of Jesus
  • B. written constitutions
  • C. the abolition of organized religion
  • D. the codification of laws
  • E. royal succession based on ability instead of
    birth

Read each choice carefully and select the best
answer.
57
74. The acquisition of which of the following
territories during the 18th century helped to
establish Prussia as a great power?
  • A. Bohemia
  • B. Bavaria
  • C. Brandenburg
  • D. Silesia
  • E. Saxony

58
75. Which of the following characterized
European warfare between the Peace of Utrecht
(1713) and the outbreak of the French Revolution
(1789)?
  • A. standing armies pursuing limited strategic
    goals
  • B. citizen armies fighting for their native lands
  • C. feudal armies fighting for their lords
  • D. mass armies pursing global strategies
  • E. highly mobile armies unhampered by traditional
    defenses

59
77. Which of the following was the most
revolutionary aspect of the Diplomatic
Revolution?
  • A. the enmity between Prussia and Austria
  • B. the enmity between England and France
  • C. the enmity between Prussia and France
  • D. the alliance between Austria and France
  • E. the alliance between Prussia and England

enmity hostility
60
80. Joseph II's conversion of labor obligations
to cash payments
  • had the support of the nobles.
  • was opposed by both nobles and peasants.
  • C. transformed a barter economy into a monetized
    one.
  • D. was the basis for the future evolution of
    Austrian society.

61
82. As it grew weaker, the European territories
of the so-called "sick man of Europe" became a
center of conflict between
  • A. Prussia and France
  • B. Russia and Austria
  • C. Poland and Hungary
  • D. France and England

62
83. The liberum veto greatly weakened the power
of its monarchs to govern effectively
  • A. Holland
  • B. Denmark
  • C. Poland
  • D. Prussia

63
85. In the Seven Years' War, Frederick the
Great expanded his territories at the expense of
  • A. Louis XV of France
  • B. Maria Theresa of Austria
  • C. Leopold of Belgium
  • D. George I, Elector of Hanover

64
86. The battle between Generals Montcalm and
Wolfe on the Plains of Abraham determined
  • A. Prussia's status as a great European power
  • B. the fate of France's American empire
  • C. the outcome of the War of the Austrian
    Succession
  • D. that the Stuart dynasty would never again rule
    England

65
89. The "miracle of the House of Brandenburg"
occurred when
  • A. Peter III of Russia withdrew from the Seven
    Years' War
  • B. Great Britain signed an alliance with Prussia
  • C. the king, Frederick II, defeated Austria at
    Rossbach in 1757
  • D. Frederick II was able to retain Silesia

66
94. During the Seven Years' War, which of the
following nations switched sides?
  • A. England
  • B. Russia
  • C. France
  • D. Spain

67
94. During the Seven Years' War, which of the
following nations switched sides?
  • A. England
  • B. Russia
  • C. France
  • D. Spain

68
95. All of the following monarch's were
"enlightened" EXCEPT
  • A. Frederick the Great
  • B. George III
  • C. Catherine the Great
  • D. Joseph II

69
97. Frederick II the Great of Prussia sought to
achieve all but one of the following which was
NOT one of his goals?
  • A. expansion of Prussia's agricultural and
    industrial production
  • B. extending religious toleration to all but Jews
  • C. breaking down the social barriers of Prussian
    society
  • D. improvement of the state's legal system

70
97. Frederick II the Great of Prussia sought to
achieve all but one of the following which was
NOT one of his goals?
  • A. expansion of Prussia's agricultural and
    industrial production
  • B. extending religious toleration to all but Jews
  • C. breaking down the social barriers of Prussian
    society
  • D. improvement of the state's legal system

71
98. "He the prince is only the first servant of
the state, so obligated to act with fairness,
wisdom, and unselfishness." So wrote
  • A. Alexander I of Russia
  • B. Frederick the Great of Prussia
  • C. Louis XV of France
  • D. George III of England

72
101. The activities of Yemelyan Pugachev of
Russia
  • A. led to the extension of Russian territory into
    the Caucasus
  • B. led Catherine the Great to tighten controls on
    the serfs
  • C. reflected the influence of the American
    Revolution in Russia
  • D. forced Catherine to abandon her policy of
    religious toleration

73
101. The activities of Yemelyan Pugachev of
Russia
  • A. led to the extension of Russian territory into
    the Caucasus
  • B. led Catherine the Great to tighten controls on
    the serfs
  • C. reflected the influence of the American
    Revolution in Russia
  • D. forced Catherine to abandon her policy of
    religious toleration

74
102. Catherine the Great sought to accomplish all
of the following EXCEPT
  • A. codify laws based on the ideas of the
    Enlightenment
  • B. reorganize local government
  • C. free the serfs
  • D. rule as an Enlightened despot

75
103. Under Catherine the Great, Russia gained
extensive and important territories at the
expense of
  • A. China
  • B. the Ottoman Empire
  • C. Austria
  • D. Sweden

76
104. Catherine II's greatest territorial triumph
was the
  • A conquest of the Caucasus.
  • B. partition of Poland.
  • C. annexation of Siberia.
  • D seizure of Silesia.

77
104. Catherine II's greatest territorial triumph
was the
  • A conquest of the Caucasus.
  • B. partition of Poland.
  • C. annexation of Siberia.
  • D seizure of Silesia.

78
105. All of the following played a role in the
erosion of French absolutism EXCEPT the
  • A. political resurgence of the nobility.
  • B. inattentiveness of Louis XV.
  • C. rise of the middle class.
  • D. growth of judicial power in the parlements.

79
105. All of the following played a role in the
erosion of French absolutism EXCEPT the
  • A. political resurgence of the nobility.
  • B. inattentiveness of Louis XV.
  • C. rise of the middle class.
  • D. growth of judicial power in the parlements.

80
106. The accomplishments of Frederick II included
all of the following EXCEPT
  • A. territorial expansion.
  • B. judicial and bureaucratic reform.
  • C. economic improvements.
  • D. restructuring the Prussian social system.

81
107. Absolute monarchs like Catherine II and
Frederick II pursued reform primarily
  • A. because they believed in the Enlightenment.
  • B. to compete in the fierce international system
    of the European states.
  • C. to improve the lives of their subjects.
  • D. to lessen the power of their nobles.

82
107. Absolute monarchs like Catherine II and
Frederick II pursued reform primarily
  • A. because they believed in the Enlightenment.
  • B. to compete in the fierce international system
    of the European states.
  • C. to improve the lives of their subjects.
  • D. to lessen the power of their nobles.

83
108. After the Seven Years' War, Frederick II set
out to
  • A. punish the states that had attacked him.
  • B. partition Poland with the Russians.
  • C. restructure the Prussian social system.
  • D. rebuild the Prussian economy and improve the
    lives of his subjects.

84
108. After the Seven Years' War, Frederick II set
out to
  • A. punish the states that had attacked him.
  • B. partition Poland with the Russians.
  • C. restructure the Prussian social system.
  • D. rebuild the Prussian economy and improve the
    lives of his subjects.

85
109. Enlightenment thinkers relied on the
reforming efforts of monarchs for all of the
following reasons EXCEPT
  • A. so that individual philosophes could claim
    credit for such efforts.
  • B. that absolute monarchy was a fact of political
    existence.
  • C. the monarchs seemed to be listening to the
    philosophes.
  • D. the belief that the common people were like
    children in need of firm guidance.

86
110. The least realized of Catherine II's chief
goals was
  • A. domestic reform.
  • B. the spread of Western culture in Russia.
  • C. suppression of the Russian nobility.
  • D. territorial expansion.

87
110. The least realized of Catherine II's chief
goals was
  • A. domestic reform.
  • B. the spread of Western culture in Russia.
  • C. suppression of the Russian nobility.
  • D. territorial expansion.

88
112. After the death of Louis XIV, the French
parlements
  • A. typically supported the reform efforts of the
    monarchy.
  • B. were undermined by the appointment of
    conservative nobles.
  • C. effectively challenged royal absolutism.
  • D. attempted to quash the Enlightenment.

89
114. The conflict between Louis XV and the
Parlement of Paris centered on the issue of
  • A. taxation.
  • B. serfdom.
  • C. political sovereignty.
  • D. judicial independence.

90
117. Since my accession to the throne, I have
ever been anxious to conquer prejudices and to
gain the confidence of my people. I granted
toleration, and removed the yoke which had
oppressed Protestants for centuries. Tolerance
is a convincing proof of the improvement of the
human mind The author of this quotation above
was most likely a
  1. German ruler who had declared for Lutheranism
  2. Monarch devoted to the concept of absolutism
  3. Ruler influenced by Enlightenment precepts
  4. Sixteenth century Russian tsar
  5. Catholic ruler in the time of the Catholic
    Reformation

91
118. Which of the following is true regarding the
salons of the 18th century?
  1. They were exclusively a French phenomenon.
  2. They excluded women
  3. They discussed social questions as well as
    literary works
  4. They were held exclusively at royal courts
  5. They were endorsed by traditional religious
    leaders

92
118. Which of the following is true regarding the
salons of the 18th century?
  1. They were exclusively a French phenomenon.
  2. They excluded women
  3. They discussed social questions as well as
    literary works
  4. They were held exclusively at royal courts
  5. They were endorsed by traditional religious
    leaders 2009

93
120. According to Adam Smith, the invisible
hand would
  1. Provide checks and balances among the branches of
    government
  2. Convince devout men and women of the value of
    religious toleration
  3. Reconcile selfish individual interests with
    general economic benefits
  4. Guide absolute monarchs to embrace liberal
    reforms
  5. Cause populations to exceed available food
    supplies

94
120. According to Adam Smith, the invisible
hand would
  1. Provide checks and balances among the branches of
    government
  2. Convince devout men and women of the value of
    religious toleration
  3. Reconcile selfish individual interests with
    general economic benefits
  4. Guide absolute monarchs to embrace liberal
    reforms
  5. Cause populations to exceed available food
    supplies
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