Terrorism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Terrorism PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 72c372-MmFkM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Terrorism

Description:

Terrorism - Loudoun County Public Schools – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:142
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: LCPS157
Learn more at: http://www.loudoun.k12.va.us
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Terrorism


1
Terrorism
2
What is terrorism?
  • There is no universally agreed, legally binding,
    criminal law definition of terrorism. Common
    definitions of terrorism refer only to those
    violent acts which are intended to create fear
    (terror), are perpetrated for a religious,
    political or ideological goal, deliberately
    target or disregard the safety of non-combatants
    (civilians), and are committed by non-government
    agencies.
  • "Terror" comes from the Latin verb terrere
    meaning "to frighten". The terror cimbricus was a
    panic and state of emergency in Rome in response
    to the approach of warriors of the Cimbri tribe
    in 105 BC. The Jacobins cited this precedent when
    imposing a Reign of Terror during the French
    Revolution. After the Jacobins lost power, the
    word "terrorist" became a term of abuse. Although
    the Reign of Terror was imposed by a government,
    in modern times "terrorism" usually refers to the
    killing of innocent people by a private group in
    such a way as to create a media spectacle. This
    meaning can be traced back to Sergey Nechayev,
    who described himself as a "terrorist". Nechayev
    founded the Russian terrorist group "People's
    Retribution" in 1869.
  • In November 2004, a United Nations Secretary
    General report described terrorism as any act
    "intended to cause death or serious bodily harm
    to civilians or non-combatants with the purpose
    of intimidating a population or compelling a
    government or an international organization to do
    or abstain from doing any act"

3
(No Transcript)
4
Categories of Terrorism
  • Civil disorder A form of collective violence
    interfering with the peace, security, and normal
    functioning of the community.
  • Political terrorism Violent criminal behavior
    designed primarily to generate fear in the
    community, or substantial segment of it, for
    political purposes.
  • Non-Political terrorism Terrorism that is not
    aimed at political purposes but which exhibits
    conscious design to create and maintain a high
    degree of fear for coercive purposes, but the end
    is individual or collective gain rather than the
    achievement of a political objective.
  • Quasi-terrorism The activities incidental to
    the commission of crimes of violence that are
    similar in form and method to genuine terrorism
    but which nevertheless lack its essential
    ingredient. It is not the main purpose of the
    quasi-terrorists to induce terror in the
    immediate victim as in the case of genuine
    terrorism, but the quasi-terrorist uses the
    modalities and techniques of the genuine
    terrorist and produces similar consequences and
    reaction. For example, the fleeing felon who
    takes hostages is a quasi-terrorist, whose
    methods are similar to those of the genuine
    terrorist but whose purposes are quite different.
  • Limited political terrorism Genuine political
    terrorism is characterized by a revolutionary
    approach limited political terrorism refers to
    acts of terrorism which are committed for
    ideological or political motives but which are
    not part of a concerted campaign to capture
    control of the state .
  • Official or state terrorism "referring to
    nations whose rule is based upon fear and
    oppression that reach similar to terrorism or
    such proportions. It may also be referred to as
    Structural Terrorism defined broadly as terrorist
    acts carried out by governments in pursuit of
    political objectives, often as part of their
    foreign policy.

5
History of Terrorism
  • The history of terrorism goes back to Sicarii
    Zealots Jewish extremist group active in Iudaea
    Province at the beginning of the first century
    AD. After Zealotry rebellion in the 1st century
    AD, when some prominent collaborators with Roman
    rule were killed, according to contemporary
    historian Josephus, in 6 AD Judas of Galilee
    formed a small and more extreme offshoot of the
    Zealots, the Sicarii. Their terror also was
    directed against Jewish "collaborators",
    including temple priests, Sadducees, Herodians,
    and other wealthy elites.
  • The term "terrorism" itself was originally used
    to describe the actions of the Jacobin Club
    during the "Reign of Terror" in the French
    Revolution. "Terror is nothing other than
    justice, prompt, severe, inflexible," said
    Jacobin leader Maximilien Robespierre. In 1795,
    Edmund Burke denounced the Jacobins for letting
    "thousands of those hell-hounds called
    Terrorists...loose on the people" of France.
  • In January 1858, Italian patriot Felice Orsini
    threw three bombs in an attempt to assassinate
    French Emperor Napoleon III.Eight bystanders were
    killed and 142 injured. The incident played a
    crucial role as an inspiration for the
    development of the early Russian terrorist
    groups. Russian Sergey Nechayev, who founded
    People's Retribution in 1869, described himself
    as a "terrorist", an early example of the term
    being employed in its modern meaning.

6
(No Transcript)
7
Terrorism in the United States
  • Attacks by date 1800-99
  • November 7, 1837 A pro-slavery mob kills
    abolitionist Elijah P. Lovejoy, editor of the
    "Alton Observer".
  • May 21, 1856 Sacking of LawrencePro-Slavery
    forces enter Lawrence, Kansas to disarm residents
    and destroy the town's presses and the Free State
    Hotel.
  • May 24, 1856 May 25, 1856 Pottawatomie
    MassacreIn response to the sacking of Lawrence,
    John Brown leads a group of abolitionists in the
    murders of five pro-slavery Kansas settlers.
  • April 14, 1865 Abraham Lincoln assassination
    Part of a conspiracy by confederate supporters
    John Wilkes Booth, Lewis Powell and George
    Atzerodt to assassinate President Abraham
    Lincoln, Vice President Andrew Johnson and
    Secretary of State William Seward in Washington,
    DC to create chaos for the purpose of
    overthrowing the Federal Government. Booth
    succeeded in assassinating Lincoln at Ford's
    Theater, Seward survived numerous stabbings by
    Powell who stabbed others as he was chased out of
    Seward's home, Atzerodt failed to carry out the
    planned murder of Johnson. Booth was killed by
    soldiers when he failed to surrender. Eight
    conspirators were tried and convicted for their
    role in the conspiracy by a military tribunal.
    Four defendants were executed for their roles
    including Mary Surratt the first women ever to be
    hanged by the U.S. government.
  • May 4, 1886 Haymarket affairAnarchists at
    Haymarket Square in Chicago detonate a bomb
    during a labor rally, the police respond with
    gunfire killing twelve people.

8
(No Transcript)
9
1900-1959
  • 1917, November 24 A bomb explodes in a Milwaukee
    police station, killing nine officers and a
    civilian. Anarchists were suspected.
  • 1919 1919 United States anarchist bombings
  • 1920 Wall Street bombing
  • 1921 May 31 During the Tulsa Race Riot there
    were reports that whites dropped dynamite from
    airplanes onto a black ghetto in Tulsa. The riot
    killed 39300 people and destroyed more than
    1,100 homes. This account is heavily disputed,
    however.
  • 1927 May 18 The Bath School Disaster (bombings)
    killed 45 people and injured 58. Most of the
    victims were children in the second to sixth
    grades (712 years of age) attending the Bath
    Consolidated School. Their deaths constitute the
    deadliest act of mass murder in a school in U.S.
    history.
  • 1933, October 10, A Boeing 247 is destroyed in
    midflight over Indiana by a nitroglycerin bomb.
    All seven people aboard are killed. This incident
    is the first proven case of air sabotage in the
    history of aviation.
  • 1940 4 July Two New York City policemen killed
    and two critically wounded examining a bomb they
    had found at the British Pavilion at the World's
    Fair
  • 1901 September 6 President William McKinley
    assassinated by Michigan born Russian-Polish
    anarchist, Leon Czolgosz, in Buffalo, New York.
  • 1910 October 1 Los Angeles Times bombing. The
    Los Angeles Times building in Los Angeles is
    destroyed by dynamite, killing 21 workers. The
    bomb was apparently placed due to the paper's
    opposition to unionization of its employees
  • 1915, July 2 Frank Holt (also known as Eric
    Muenter), a German professor who wanted to stop
    American support of the Allies in World War I,
    exploded a bomb in the reception room of the U.S.
    Senate. The next morning he tried to assassinate
    J.P. Morgan, Jr. the son of the financier whose
    company served as Great Britains principal U.S.
    purchasing agent for munitions and other war
    supplies. Muenter was overpowered by Morgan in
    Morgan's Long Island home before committing
    suicide in prison on July 7.
  • 1916 July 22 The Preparedness Day bombing kills
    ten people and injures 40 in San Francisco. The
    identity of the bombers has never been proven.
    Radical union leaders were suspected.
  • 1916 July 30 The Black Tom explosion in Jersey
    City, New Jersey was an act of sabotage on
    American ammunition supplies by German agents to
    prevent the materiel from being used by the
    Allies in World War I.

10
(No Transcript)
11
1960s
  • 1960 The Sunday Bomber sets off a series of
    bombs in New York City subways and ferries during
    Sundays and Holidays, killing one woman and
    injuring 51 other commuters.
  • 1968 April Students at Trinity College hold the
    board of trustees captive until their demands
    were met.
  • April 23, 1968 April 30, 1968 During a student
    rebellion at New York's Columbia University
    members of the New Left organization Students for
    a Democratic Society and Student Afro-American
    Society held a dean hostage demanding an end to
    both military research on campus and construction
    of a gymnasium in nearby Harlem.
  • 1968 November Officials of San Fernando State
    College held at knife point by students.
  • 1969 January 1 1970 April 15 8200 Bombings,
    attempted bombings and bomb threats attributed to
    "campus disturbances and student unrest
  • 1969 February Secretary at Pomona College
    severely injured by bomb.
  • 1969 March Student critically injured while
    attempting to bomb a San Francisco State College
    classroom.
  • 1969 August 7 Twenty were injured by radical
    leftist Sam Melville in a bombing of the Marine
    Midland Building in New York City.
  • 1969 August 8 United States Department of
    Commerce Offices in New York City damaged by
    bombing
  • 1969 September 18 The Federal Building in New
    York City is bombed by radical leftist Jane
    Alpert.
  • 1969 October 7 Fifth floor of the Armed Forces
    Induction Center in New York City devastated by
    explosion attributed to radical leftist Jane
    Alpert.
  • 1969 November 12 A bomb is detonated in the
    Manhattan Criminal Court building in New York
    City. Jane Alpert, Sam Melville, and 3 other
    militant radical leftists are arrested hours
    later

12
(No Transcript)
13
1970s
  • 1973 March 4 A failed terrorist attack by
    Palestinian group Black September, with car
    bombings in New York City while Israeli Prime
    Minister Golda Meir was visiting the city.
  • 1973 June 1 Yosef Alon, the Israeli Air Force
    attache in Washington, D.C., was shot and killed
    outside his home in Chevy Chase, Maryland.
  • 1974 June 13 The 29th floor of the Gulf Tower in
    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was bombed with
    dynamite at 941 p.m. resulting in no injuries.
    The radical leftist group Weatherman took credit,
    but no suspects have ever been identified.
  • 1974 Summer "Alphabet Bomber" Muharem
    Kurbegovich bombs the Pan Am Terminal at Los
    Angeles International Airport killing three and
    injuring eight.
  • 1975 December 29 The LaGuardia Airport Christmas
    Bomb kills 11 and injures 75. The bombing remains
    unsolved.
  • 1976 September 11 Croatian terrorists hijack a
    TWA airliner diverting it to Gander, Newfoundland
    and Labrador, and then Paris demanding a
    manifesto be printed. One police officer was
    killed and three injured during an attempt to
    defuse a bomb that contained their communiqués in
    a New York City train station locker.
  • 1976 September 21 Orlando Letelier, a former
    member of the Chilean
  • government, was killed by a car bomb in
    Washington, D.C. along with his assistant Ronni
    Moffitt. The killing was carried out by members
    of the Chilean DINA.
  • 1970 April At Stanford University over a period
    of several nights bands of student radicals
    systematically set fires, break windows and throw
    rocks.
  • 1970 May In reaction to the U.S. Invasion of
    Cambodia, Kent State Shootings, and Jackson State
    Shootings a Fresno State College computer center
    is destroyed by a firebomb.
  • 1970 August 24 Sterling Hall bombing at the
    University of WisconsinMadison in protest of the
    Army Mathematics Research Center and the Vietnam
    War, killing one.
  • 1970 November 21 Bombing of the City Hall of
    Portland, Oregon in an attempt to destroy the
    state's bronze Liberty Bell replica.
  • 1970 Jewish Defense League linked with a bomb
    explosion outside of Aeroflot's New York City
    office in protest of treatment of Soviet Jews
  • 1971 Jewish Defense League linked to a
    detonation outside of Soviet cultural offices in
    Washington and rifle fire into the Soviet mission
    to the United Nations
  • 1971 March 1 The radical leftist group
    Weatherman explode a bomb in the United States
    Capitol to protest the U.S. invasion of Laos.

14
(No Transcript)
15
1980s
  • 1980 June 3 Bombing of the Statue of Liberty. At
    730 p.m., a time delayed explosive device
    detonated in the Statue of Liberty's Story Room.
    FBI investigators believed the perpetrators were
    Croatian terrorists seeking independence for
    Croatia from Yugoslavia, though no arrests were
    made.
  • 1980 July 22 Ali Akbar Tabatabai, an Iranian
    exile and critic of Ayatollah Khomeni, was shot
    in his Bethesda, Maryland home. Dawud Salahuddin,
    an American Muslim convert, was apparently paid
    by Iranians to kill Tabatabai.
  • 1981 December 7 James W. von Brunn served 6
    years in prison for attempting to kidnap members
    of the Federal Reserve at their headquarters in
    Washington, D.C.
  • 1982 January 28 Kemal Arikan, the Turkish
    Consul-General in Los Angeles, is killed by
    members of the Justice Commandos Against Armenian
    Genocide.
  • 1982 May 4 Turkish Honorary Consul Orhan Gunduz
    was assassinated in his car in Somerville,
    Massachusetts by the Justice Commandos Against
    Armenian Genocide.
  • 1983 November 7 U.S. Senate bombing. The Armed
    Resistance Unit, a militant leftist group, bombs
    the United States Capitol in response to the U.S.
    invasion of Grenada.
  • 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack In what is
    believed to be the first incident of bioterrorism
    in the United States the Rajneeshee cult spreads
    salmonella in salad bars at 10 restaurants in
    Oregon, to influence a local election which
    backfired as suspicious residents came out in
    droves to prevent the election of Rajneeshee
    candidates.. Health officials say that 751 people
    were sickened and more than 40 hospitalized.
  • 1984 July 18 Alan Berg, Jewish lawyer-talk show
    host was shot and killed in the driveway of his
    home on Capitol Hill, Denver, Colorado, by
    members of a White Nationalist group called The
    Order. Berg had stridently argued with a member
    of the group on the show earlier who was
    convicted in his murder.
  • 1985 October 11 Alex Odeh, a prominent
    Arab-American, was killed by a bomb in his office
    in Santa Ana, California. The case is unsolved,
    but it is thought the Jewish Defense League was
    responsible.
  • 1985 December 11 computer rental store owner,
    Hugh Scrutton, is the first fatality of the
    Unabomber's neo-luddite campaign.
  • 1989 March 1 1989 firebombing of the Riverdale
    Press. The Riverdale Press, a weekly newspaper in
    the Bronx, New York, is firebombed one week after
    publishing an editorial defending author Salman
    Rushdie's right to publish The Satanic Verses,
    which questioned the founding myth of Islam.

16
(No Transcript)
17
1990s
  • 1993 January 25 CIA Shooting Mir Aimal Kasi
    opened fire to cars waiting at the stop light in
    front of CIA Headquarters in Langley, VA killing
    two and injuring three others.
  • 1993 February 26 First World Trade Center
    bombing killed six and injured 1,000. The attack
    was carried out by radical Islamist Ramzi Yousef,
    a member of Al Qaeda.
  • 1994 December 10 Advertising executive, Thomas
    J. Mosser, is killed after opening a mail package
    from the Unabomber, being the second fatality of
    the mail bomb campaign.
  • 1995 April 19 Oklahoma City bombing A truck
    bomb shattered the Alfred P. Murrah Federal
    Building in downtown Oklahoma City, killing 168
    people-including children playing in the
    building's day care center. Right-wing terrorists
    Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were convicted
    in the bombing.
  • 1995 April 24 Timber industry lobbyist, Gilbert
    P. Murray, is the third and final fatal victim of
    the Unabomber's mail bomb campaign.
  • 1996 July 27 Centennial Olympic Park bombing by
    Eric Robert Rudolph occurred in Atlanta, Georgia,
    during the Atlanta Olympics. One person was
    killed and 111 injured. In a statement released
    in 2005 Rudolph said the motive was to protest
    abortion and the "global socialist" Olympic
    Movement.
  • 1997 February 24 69-year-old Palestinian Ali
    Hassan Abu Kamal opens fire on tourists at an
    observation deck atop the Empire State Building
    killing a Danish national and wounding visitors
    from the United States, Argentina, Switzerland
    and France before turning the gun on himself. A
    handwritten note carried by the gunman claims
    this was a punishment attack against the "enemies
    of Palestine". His widow claimed he became
    suicidal after losing 300,000 in a business
    venture. In a 2007 interview with the New York
    Daily News his daughter said her mother's story
    was a cover crafted by the Palestinian Authority
    and that her father wanted to punish the United
    States for its support of Israel.
  • 1999 December 31 An arson fire causes one million
    dollars in damage and destroys the fourth floor
    of Michigan State University's Agriculture Hall.
    In 2008 four people that the government claimed
    were Earth Liberation Front members were indicted
    for that incident

18
(No Transcript)
19
2000s
  • 2000 October 13, Firebombing of Temple Beth El
    (Syracuse)
  • 2000 2000 New York terror attack Three young men
    of Arab descent hurled crude Molotov cocktails at
    a synagogue in The Bronx, New York to "strike a
    blow in the Middle East conflict between Israel
    and Palestine".
  • 2001 May 21 The Center for Urban Horticulture at
    the University of Washington burned. Replacement
    building cost 7 million (8,686,000 in current
    dollar terms). Earth Liberation Front members
    pleads guilty.
  • 2001 September 11 September 11, 2001 attacks
    carried out by Al-Qaeda. The attacks killed
    nearly 3,000 civilians, and were carried out by
    Islamic fundamentalists using hijacked commercial
    airplanes to damage the Twin Towers of the World
    Trade Center, ultimately destroying both
    110-story skyscrapers. The Pentagon near
    Washington, D.C., was also severely damaged.
    Building 7 of the World Trade Center was also
    destroyed in the attack. A fourth plane crashed
    in Pennsylvania before it could reach its target.
  • 2001 September 18 November 2001 anthrax
    attacks. Letters tainted with anthrax kill five
    across the U.S., with politicians and media
    officials as the apparent targets. On July 31,
    2008 Bruce E. Ivins a top biodefense researcher
    committed suicide.
  • May 2002 Mailbox Pipe Bomber Lucas John Helder
    rigged pipe bombs in private mailboxes to explode
    when the boxes were opened. He injured 6 people
    in Nebraska, Colorado, Texas, Illinois, and Iowa.
    His motivation was to garner media attention so
    that he could spread a message denouncing
    government control over daily lives and the
    illegality of marijuana, as well as promote
    astral projection.
  • 2002 July 4 2002 Los Angeles Airport shooting
    Hesham Mohamed Hadayet, a 41-year-old Egyptian
    national, kills two Israelis and wounds four
    others at the El Al ticket counter at Los Angeles
    International Airport.
  • October 2002 Beltway Sniper Attacks During three
    weeks in October 2002, John Allen Muhammad and
    Lee Boyd Malvo killed 10 people and critically
    injured 3 others in Washington D.C, Baltimore,
    and Virginia. The pair were also suspected of
    earlier shootings in Maryland, Alabama, Arizona,
    Georgia, Louisiana, and Washington state. No
    motivation was given at the trial, but evidence
    presented showed an affinity to the cause of the
    Islamic jihad.
  • 2006 July 28 Seattle Jewish Federation shooting,
    Naveed Afzal Haq, an American citizen of
    Pakistani descent, kills one woman and shoots
    five others at the Jewish Federation building in
    Seattle.
  • 2007 October 26 A pair of improvised explosive
    devices were thrown at the Mexican Consulate in
    New York City. The fake grenades were filled with
    black powder, and detonated by fuses, causing
    very minor damage. Police were investigating the
    connection between this and a similar attack
    against the British Consulate in New York in
    2005.
  • 2008 February In the first reported incident of
    animal-rights extremists physically assaulting
    the family members of animal researchers, six
    masked activists attempted to force their way
    into the home of a University of California,
    Santa Cruz, researcher and injured the
    researcher's husband.
  • 2008 March 3 Four multimillion-dollar show homes
    place in Woodinville, Washington are torched. The
    Earth Liberation Front is suspected.

20
(No Transcript)
21
2000s
  • 2008 March 6 A homemade bomb damaged a
    Recruiting Office in Times Square
  • 2008 May 4 Multiple nail-laden pipe bombs
    exploded at a Federal Courthouse in San Diego
    causing "considerable damage" to the entrance and
    lobby and sending shrapnel two blocks away. The
    F.B.I. is investigating links between this attack
    and an April 25 explosion at the FedEx building
    also in San Diego.
  • 2008 July 27 Jim D. Adkisson opened fire in the
    Tennessee Valley Unitarian Universalist Church in
    Knoxville, Tennessee, killing two and injuring
    seven before being tackled to the ground by
    congregation members. A note found in his SUV
    indicated this was intended as a suicide attack,
    and said the church was apparently targeted
    because of its support of liberal social
    policies.
  • 2008 August 2, August 3 University of
    California-Santa Cruz molecular biologist David
    Feldheim's home was firebombed. FBI is
    investigating incidents as domestic terrorism
    related to animal rights groups.
  • 2009 April 8 According to a report in the Wall
    Street Journal, intruders left malware in power
    grids, water, and sewage systems that could be
    activated at a later date. While the attacks
    which have occurred over a period of time seem to
    have originated in China and Russia, it is
    unknown if they are state-sponsored
  • 2009 May 31 Assassination of George Tiller. Dr.
    George Tiller, a doctor who provided late-term
    abortions was shot to death in a Wichita, Kansas
    church. Tiller was shot previously in 1993, and
    his abortion clinic had been bombed in 1985.
  • 2009 May 25 Crude bomb explodes in a Starbucks
    in Manhattan's Upper East Side. On July 14, Kyle
    Shaw age 17 was arrested and plead not guilty.
    Police said his motive was to emulate "Project
    Mayhem" a series of assaults on corporate America
    portrayed in the movie Fight Club.
  • 2009 June 1 Arkansas recruiting office shooting
    One military recruiter was killed, and another
    critically injured, by gunshot at a Little Rock,
    Arkansas Army/Navy Career Center. The suspect,
    Abdulhakim Mujahid Muhammad, said he was part of
    Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and upset over
    U.S. killing of Muslims in Iraq and Afghanistan.
  • 2009 June 10 United States Holocaust Memorial
    Museum shooting. 88-year-old James Wenneker von
    Brunn walked into the U.S. Holocaust Memorial
    Museum in Washington, D.C. and shot a guard, who
    later died. Von Brunn was a self-described white
    supremacist and neo-Nazi.
  • 2009 November 5 Fort Hood Shooting, Army
    psychiatrist Nidal Malik Hasan opens fire and
    kills 13 people at the Fort Hood Army base in
    Texas in what Secretary of Homeland Security
    Janet Napolitano described as an act of violent
    Islamic terrorism.

22
(No Transcript)
23
2010- Present
  • 2010 February 18 Joseph Stack flew a small plane
    into an IRS building in Austin, Texas, believed
    to be in retaliation to the U.S. Government.
  • 2010 September 1 James J. Lee wearing explosives
    and carrying a gun took hostages at the
    headquarters of the Discovery Channel in Silver
    Spring, Maryland before being killed by police.
    He was protesting the channel's "anti
    environmental" message and programming
    encouraging birth of humans who he called filthy.
  • 2011 January 6 Three Packages detonate in the
    mail rooms of two Maryland state government
    buildings. No serious injuries
  • On January 8, 2011, Giffords was shot in the head
    outside a Safeway grocery store in Casas Adobes,
    Arizona, a suburban area northwest of Tucson,
    during her first "Congress on Your Corner"
    gathering of the year. Nineteen people were shot,
    of whom six died, when a man ran up to the crowd
    and began firing. The suspect, identified as
    Jared Lee Loughner, was detained by bystanders
    until he was taken into police custody. Federal
    officials charged Loughner on the next day with
    killing federal government employees, attempting
    to assassinate a member of Congress and
    attempting to kill federal employees.

24
(No Transcript)
25
Acts of Terror
  • Domestic terrorism in the United States between
    1980 and 2000 consisted of 250 of the 335
    incidents confirmed as or suspected to be
    terrorist acts by the FBI. These 250 attacks are
    considered domestic by the FBI because they were
    carried out by U.S. citizens

26
How do we prevent terrorism?
  • Counter-terrorism is the practices, tactics,
    techniques, and strategies that governments,
    militaries, police departments and corporations
    adopt to prevent or in response to terrorist
    threats and/or acts, both real and imputed.
  • The tactic of terrorism is available to
    insurgents and governments. Not all insurgents
    use terror as a tactic, and some choose not to
    use it because other tactics work better for them
    in a particular context. Individuals, such as
    Timothy McVeigh, may also engage in terrorist
    acts such as the Oklahoma City bombing.
  • If the terrorism is part of a broader insurgency,
    counter-terrorism may also form a part of a
    counter-insurgency doctrine, but political,
    economic, and other measures may focus more on
    the insurgency than the specific acts of terror.
  • Foreign internal defense (FID) is a term used by
    several countries for programs either to suppress
    insurgency, or reduce the conditions under which
    insurgency could develop.
  • Counter-terrorism includes both the detection of
    potential acts and the response to related events

27
How do you stop terrorists??
  • Building a counter-terrorism plan involves all
    segments of a society or many government
    agencies. In dealing with foreign terrorists, the
    lead responsibility is usually at the national
    level. Because propaganda and indoctrination lie
    at the core of terrorism, understanding their
    profile and functions increases the ability to
    counter terrorism more effectively.
  • See the series of articles beginning with
    intelligence cycle management, and, in
    particular, intelligence analysis. HUMINT
    presents techniques of describing the social
    networks that make up terrorist groups. Also
    relevant are the motivations of the individual
    terrorist and the structure of cell systems used
    by recent non-national terrorist groups.
  • Most counter-terrorism strategies involve an
    increase in standard police and domestic
    intelligence. The central activities are
    traditional interception of communications, and
    the tracing of persons. New technology has,
    however, expanded the range of military and law
    enforcement operations.
  • Domestic intelligence is often directed at
    specific groups, defined on the basis of origin
    or religion, which is a source of political
    controversy. Mass surveillance of an entire
    population raises objections on civil liberties
    grounds.
  • To select the effective action when terrorism
    appears to be more of an isolated event, the
    appropriate government organizations need to
    understand the source, motivation, methods of
    preparation, and tactics of terrorist groups.
    Good intelligence is at the heart of such
    preparation, as well as political and social
    understanding of any grievances that might be
    solved. Ideally, one gets information from inside
    the group, a very difficult challenge for HUMINT
    because operational terrorist cells are often
    small, with all members known to one another,
    perhaps even related.
  • Counterintelligence is a great challenge with the
    security of cell-based systems, since the ideal,
    but nearly impossible, goal is to obtain a
    clandestine source within the cell. Financial
    tracking can play a role, as can communications
    intercept, but both of these approaches need to
    be balanced against legitimate expectations of
    privacy.

28
Homeland Security
  • The scope of homeland security includes
  • Emergency preparedness and response (for both
    terrorism and natural disasters), including
    volunteer medical, police, emergency management,
    and fire personnel
  • Domestic and International intelligence
    activities, largely today within the FBI
  • Critical infrastructure and perimeter protection
  • Border security, including both land, maritime
    and country borders
  • Transportation security, including aviation and
    maritime transportation
  • Biodefense
  • Detection of radioactive and radiological
    materials
  • Research on next-generation security
    technologies.
  • Homeland security is an umbrella term for
    security efforts to protect the United States
    against terrorist activity. Specifically, is a
    concerted national effort to prevent terrorist
    attacks within the US, reduce Americas
    vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize the
    damage and recover from attacks that do occur.
  • The term arose following a reorganization of many
    U.S. government agencies in 2003 to form the
    United States Department of Homeland Security
    after the September 11 attacks and may be used to
    refer to the actions of that department, the
    United States Senate Committee on Homeland
    Security and Governmental Affairs, or the United
    States House of Representatives Committee on
    Homeland Security.
  • Homeland defense (HD) is the protection of U.S.
    territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and
    critical infrastructure against external threats
    and aggression

29
The War on Terror
  • The War on Terror (also known as the Global War
    on Terror or the War on Terrorism) is an
    international military campaign led by the United
    States and the United Kingdom with the support of
    other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
    as well as non-NATO countries. Originally, the
    campaign was waged against al-Qaeda and other
    militant organizations with the purpose of
    eliminating them.
  • The phrase War on Terror was first used by US
    President George W. Bush and other high-ranking
    US officials to denote a global military,
    political, legal and ideological struggle against
    organizations designated as terrorist and regimes
    that were accused of having a connection to them
    or providing them with support or were perceived,
    or presented as posing a threat to the US and its
    allies in general. It was typically used with a
    particular focus on militant Islamists and
    al-Qaeda.

30
The War on Terror
  • Pre - 9/11
  • In May 1996 the group World Islamic Front for
    Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders (WIFJAJC),
    sponsored by Osama bin Laden and later reformed
    as al-Qaeda, started forming a large base of
    operations in Afghanistan, where the Islamist
    extremist regime of the Taliban had seized power
    that same year.
  • Following the bombings of US embassies in Kenya
    and Tanzania, US President Bill Clinton launched
    Operation Infinite Reach, a bombing campaign in
    Sudan and Afghanistan against targets the US
    asserted were associated with WIFJAJC. The
    strikes failed to kill any leaders of WIFJAJC or
    the Taliban.
  • Next came the 2000 millennium attack plots which
    included an attempted bombing of Los Angeles
    International Airport. In October 2000 the USS
    Cole bombing occurred, followed in 2001 by the
    September 11 attacks.

31
The War on Terror
  • The George W. Bush administration defined the
    following objectives in the War on Terror
  • Defeat terrorists such as Osama bin Laden, Abu
    Musab al-Zarqawi and destroy their organizations
  • Identify, locate and destroy terrorists along
    with their organizations
  • Deny sponsorship, support and sanctuary to
    terrorists
  • End the state sponsorship of terrorism
  • Establish and maintain an international standard
    of accountability with regard to combating
    terrorism
  • Strengthen and sustain the international effort
    to fight terrorism
  • Work with willing and able states
  • Enable weak states
  • Persuade reluctant states
  • Compel unwilling states
  • Interdict and disrupt material support for
    terrorists
  • Eliminate terrorist sanctuaries and havens
  • Diminish the underlying conditions that
    terrorists seek to exploit
  • Partner with the international community to
    strengthen weak states and prevent (re)emergence
    of terrorism
  • Win the war of ideals
  • Defend US citizens and interests at home and
    abroad
  • Implement the National Strategy for Homeland
    Security
  • Attain domain awareness
  • Enhance measures to ensure the integrity,
    reliability, and availability of critical
    physical and information-based infrastructures at
    home and abroad
  • Integrate measures to protect US citizens abroad
  • Ensure an integrated incident management
    capability

32
International Terrorism
  • US and NATO-led military operations
  • Operation Active Endeavour
  • is a naval operation of NATO started in October
    2001 in response to the September 11 attacks. It
    operates in the Mediterranean Sea and is designed
    to prevent the movement of militants or weapons
    of mass destruction and to enhance the security
    of shipping in general. The operation has also
    assisted Greece with its prevention of illegal
    immigration.
  • Operation Enduring Freedom
  • the official name used by the Bush administration
    for the War in Afghanistan, together with three
    smaller military actions, under the umbrella of
    the Global War on Terror. These global operations
    are intended to seek out and destroy any al-Qaeda
    fighters or affiliates.
  • Operation Anaconda
  • Launched in March 2002 in the hopes that theyll
    destroy any remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban forces
    in the Shah-i-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains of
    Afghanistan. The Taliban suffered heavy
    casualties and evacuated the region.
  • The Taliban regrouped in western Pakistan and
    began to unleash an insurgent-style offensive
    against Coalition forces in late 2002.Throughout
    southern and eastern Afghanistan, firefights
    broke out between the surging Taliban and
    Coalition forces. Coalition forces responded with
    a series of military offensives and an increase
    in the amount of troops in Afghanistan.
  • Operation Moshtarak
  • In February 2010, Coalition forces launched
    Operation Moshtarak in southern Afghanistan along
    with other military offensives in the hopes that
    they would destroy the Taliban insurgency once
    and for all.Peace talks are also underway between
    Taliban affiliated fighters and Coalition forces

33
Nato U.S. Operations
  • Operation Enduring Freedom Horn of Africa
  • Task Force 150 consists of ships from a shifting
    group of nations, including Australia, Canada,
    France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan,
    New Zealand and the United Kingdom.
  • The primary goal of the coalition forces is to
    monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected
    shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region
    and affecting the US' Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  • Included in the operation is the training of
    selected armed forces units of the countries of
    Djibouti, Kenya and Ethiopia in counter-terrorism
    and counter-insurgency tactics.
  • Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA
    include rebuilding of schools and medical clinics
    and providing medical services to those countries
    whose forces are being trained.
  • Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines
  • In January 2002, the United States Special
    Operations Command, Pacific deployed to the
    Philippines to advise and assist the Armed Forces
    of the Philippines in combating Filipino Islamist
    groups.
  • The operations were mainly focused on removing
    the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and Jemaah Islamiyah
    (JI) from their stronghold on the island of
    Basilan.The second portion of the operation was
    conducted as a humanitarian program called
    "Operation Smiles." The goal of the program was
    to provide medical care and services to the
    region of Basilan as part of a "Hearts and Minds"
    program

34
Iraq
  • Operation Iraqi Freedom
  • The Iraq War began in March 2003 with an air
    campaign, which was immediately followed by a
    U.S.-led ground invasion. The Bush administration
    stated the invasion was the "serious
    consequences" spoken of in the UNSC Resolution
    1441.
  • Baghdad, Iraqs capital city, fell in April 2003
    and Saddam Husseins government quickly
    dissolved.
  • On May 1, 2003, Bush announced that major combat
    operations in Iraq had ended.
  • However, an insurgency arose against the
    U.S.-led coalition and the newly developing Iraqi
    military and post-Saddam government. The
    insurgency, which included al-Qaeda affiliated
    groups, led to far more coalition casualties than
    the invasion.
  • Other elements of the insurgency were led by
    fugitive members of President Hussein's Ba'ath
    regime, which included Iraqi nationalists and
    pan-Arabists. Many insurgency leaders are
    Islamists and claim to be fighting a religious
    war to reestablish the Islamic Caliphate of
    centuries past.
  • Iraqs former president, Saddam Hussein was
    captured by U.S. forces in December 2003. He was
    executed in 2006.
  • In 2004, the insurgent forces grew stronger. The
    United States conducted attacks on insurgent
    strongholds in cities like Najaf and Fallujah.
  • In January 2007, President Bush presented a new
    strategy for Operation Iraqi Freedom based upon
    counter-insurgency theories and tactics developed
    by General David Petraeus. The Iraq War troop
    surge of 2007 was part of this "new way forward"
    and, along with US backing of Sunni groups it had
    previously sought to defeat, has been credited
    with a widely recognized dramatic decrease in
    violence by up to 80.

35
Iraq
  • Operation New Dawn
  • The war entered a new phase on September 1, 2010,
    with the official end of US combat operations.
    However, 50,000 US troops remain in an advise and
    assist role to provide support for Iraqi security
    forces.

36
War on Terrors success?
  • In addition, there have been several planned
    terrorist attacks that were not successful.
  • 21 July 2005 London bombings and 2007 London car
    bombs
  • 2006 Toronto terrorism plot
  • 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot involving liquid
    explosives carried onto commercial airplanes
  • 2007 Fort Dix attack plot
  • 2009 Bronx terrorism plot
  • 2009 New York Subway and United Kingdom Plot
  • 2009 Christmas Bomb Plot
  • 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt
  • 2010 cargo plane bomb plot
  • 2010 Portland car bomb plot
  • Since 9/11, al-Qaeda and other radical Islamic
    groups have successfully executed major attacks
    in several parts of the world.
  • 2002 Bali bombings in Indonesia
  • Mike's Place suicide bombing in Israel
  • 2003 Casablanca bombings and 2007 Casablanca
    bombings in Morocco
  • 2003 Istanbul bombings in Turkey
  • February 2004 Moscow metro bombing and 2010
    Moscow Metro bombings in Russia
  • 2004 Madrid train bombings in Spain
  • August 2004 Moscow metro bombing
  • 7 July 2005 London bombings and 2007 Glasgow
    International Airport attack in the United
    Kingdom
  • 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings in India
  • 11 April 2007 Algiers bombings in Algeria
  • 2007 Karachi bombing of Benazir Bhutto's
    motorcade and Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing in
    Pakistan
  • 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks in India
  • Domodedovo International Airport bombing in
    Russia

37
(No Transcript)
38
Americas Actions
  • Reactions
  • Political interest groups have stated that these
    laws remove important restrictions on
    governmental authority, and are a dangerous
    encroachment on civil liberties, possible
    unconstitutional violations of the Fourth
    Amendment.
  • On July 30, 2003, the American Civil Liberties
    Union (ACLU) filed the first legal challenge
    against Section 215 of the Patriot Act, claiming
    that it allows the FBI to violate a citizen's
    First Amendment rights, Fourth Amendment rights,
    and right to due process, by granting the
    government the right to search a person's
    business, bookstore, and library records in a
    terrorist investigation, without disclosing to
    the individual that records were being searched.
    Also, governing bodies in a number of communities
    have passed symbolic resolutions against the act.
  • In a speech on June 9, 2005, Bush said that the
    USA PATRIOT Act had been used to bring charges
    against more than 400 suspects, more than half of
    whom had been convicted. Meanwhile the ACLU
    quoted Justice Department figures showing that
    7,000 people have complained of abuse of the Act.
  • The USA PATRIOT Act
  • of October 2001 dramatically reduces restrictions
    on law enforcement agencies' ability to search
    telephone, e-mail communications, medical,
    financial, and other records eases restrictions
    on foreign intelligence gathering within the
    United States expands the Secretary of the
    Treasurys authority to regulate financial
    transactions, particularly those involving
    foreign individuals and entities and broadens
    the discretion of law enforcement and immigration
    authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants
    suspected of terrorism-related acts.
  • The act also expanded the definition of terrorism
    to include domestic terrorism, thus enlarging the
    number of activities to which the USA PATRIOT
    Act's expanded law enforcement powers could be
    applied. A new Terrorist Finance Tracking Program
    monitored the movements of terrorists' financial
    resources (discontinued after being revealed by
    The New York Times newspaper). Telecommunication
    usage by known and suspected terrorists was
    studied through the NSA electronic surveillance
    program. The Patriot Act is still in effect.

39
Activity Terrorism..how do we respond
  • Four groups
  • Read policy
  • Present policy
  • Decide best option or create option in groups and
    present

40
Criticisms of the War on Terror
  • The notion of a "war" against "terror" or
    "terrorism" has proven highly contentious, with
    critics charging that it has been exploited by
    participating governments to pursue long-standing
    policy objectives, reduce civil liberties, and
    infringe upon human rights.
  • Some argue that the term war is not appropriate
    in this context, since they believe there is no
    identifiable enemy, and that it is unlikely
    international terrorism can be brought to an end
    by military means

41
Abuse of Rights?
  • One of the primary difficulties of implementing
    effective counter-terrorist measures is the
    waning of civil liberties and individual privacy
    that such measures often entail, both for
    citizens of, and for those detained by states
    attempting to combat terror. At times, measures
    designed to tighten security have been seen as
    abuses of power or even violations of human
    rights.
  • Examples include
  • In November 2003 Malaysia passed new
    counter-terrorism laws that were widely
    criticized by local human rights groups for being
    vague and overbroad. Critics claim that the laws
    put the basic rights of free expression,
    association, and assembly at risk. Malaysia
    persisted in holding around 100 alleged militants
    without trial, including five Malaysian students
    detained for alleged terrorist activity while
    studying in Karachi, Pakistan.
  • In November 2003 a Canadian-Syrian national,
    Maher Arar, alleged publicly that he had been
    tortured in a Syrian prison after being handed
    over to the Syrian authorities by U.S.
  • In December 2003 Colombia's congress approved
    legislation that would give the military the
    power to arrest, tap telephones and carry out
    searches without warrants or any previous
    judicial order.
  • Images of unpopular treatment of detainees in US
    custody in Iraq and other locations have
    encouraged international scrutiny of US
    operations in the war on terror.
  • Hundreds of foreign nationals remain in prolonged
    indefinite detention without charge or trial in
    Guantánamo Bay, despite international and US
    constitutional standards some groups believe
    outlaw such practices.

42
Torturing Democracy
  • Video
  • Questions

43
Where to go from here.
  • Four Futures activity
  • Groups read policy
  • Present policies
  • Assessment
  • decide which policy is best and detail WHY!!!!!
About PowerShow.com