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Training Counselors for Social Justice and Multicultural Competence: Outcomes from National and International Outreach Projects

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Title: Training Counselors for Social Justice and Multicultural Competence: Outcomes from National and International Outreach Projects


1
Training Counselors for Social Justice and
Multicultural Competence Outcomes from National
and International Outreach Projects
  • Cirecie West-Olatunji
  • Rachael D. Goodman
  • University of Florida
  • Gargi Roysircar-Sodowsky
  • Antioch University New England

ICSWS 2009 - Penang, Malaysia
2
Presentation Agenda
  • Culturally competent disaster response
  • Importance Theoretical Basis
  • Seven-Step Training Model
  • Case Illustrations
  • Research Outcomes
  • Future Projects
  • Discussion

ICSWS 2009 - Penang, Malaysia
3
Culturally Competent Disaster Response (CCDR)
Importance
  • As disasters rise globally, there is an
    increasing need for counselors to respond to
    disasters worldwide
  • (Walker, Wisner, Learning Minear, 2005).
  • Often, mental health providers are not adequately
    prepared to provide effective, culturally
    competent disaster response services
  • Therefore, training programs are needed to
    prepare counselors for culturally competent
    disaster response
  • (Arredondo et al., 1996 Goodman West-Olatunji,
    in press Kennedy, 2006 Pedersen Ivey, 1993)

ICSWS 2009 - Penang, Malaysia
4
Culturally Competent Disaster Response
Theoretical Basis
  • Critical Consciousness (Freire, 2000) is the
    ability to perceive oppression and to act against
    the oppressive elements in society.

Action that is based on reflection, awareness,
collaboration, and empowerment is liberating and
humanizing for both service providers and
communities.
ICSWS 2009 - Penang, Malaysia
5
CCDR Seven-Step Training Model (Goodman
West-Olatunji, in press)
  • STEP 1 - Awareness participants recognize that
    they bring their own biases into the environment
  • STEP 2 - Respect participants recognize that
    community members have equally valid realities
    and funds of knowledge
  • STEP 3 - Context participants acknowledge the
    sociopolitical context
  • STEP 4 - Integration participants integrate
    knowledge into clinical conceptualization
  • STEP 5 - Empowerment participants are able to
    appropriately intervene with empowerment as the
    goal
  • STEP 6 - Praxis participants formulate advocacy
    action
  • STEP 7 - Transformation participants integrate
    the experience into their own personal and
    professional identities

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6
Disaster Response Case Illustrations
  • 2006 Post-Katrina New Orleans
  • During the 8-day deployment, participants
    provided disaster response counseling and
    consultation to teachers and school personnel
  • Location K-8 Charter school

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7
Disaster Response Case Illustrations
  • 2007 South Africa and Botswana
  • During the 23-day deployment, participants
    provided direct clinical services, training, and
    consultation/supervision
  • Locations Schools and community agencies
    (HIV/AIDS, crisis response, domestic violence)

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8
Applying the Seven-Step CCDR Model
  • STEP 1 - Awareness
  • Application process (short answer and
    inventories) and pre-outreach training focused on
    awareness of culture and cultural biases
  • STEP 2 - Respect
  • Tours of important sites by community informants
    illuminated community members funds of knowledge
    and were embedded in the deployment

ICSWS 2009 - Penang, Malaysia
9
Applying the Seven-Step CCDR Model
  • STEP 3 - Context
  • Training, readings, and tours furthered the
    participants understanding of the
    socio-political context
  • STEP 4 - Integration
  • Supervision and group process allowed
    participants to integrate new knowledge into
    clinical conceptualization

ICSWS 2009 - Penang, Malaysia
10
Applying the Seven-Step CCDR Model
  • STEP 5 Empowerment
  • With live supervision and group process,
    participants were able to intervene with
    community members not in a humanitarian way, but
    in a humanizing way
  • STEP 6 Praxis
  • From this humanizing perspective, participants
    encouraged the formulation of advocacy action
    whereby community members make change within
    their own system

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11
Applying the Seven-Step CCDR Model
  • STEP 7 - Transformation
  • Daily written reflection and summative whole
    group process enabled participants to integrate
    authenticity, cultural awareness, respect, and
    love

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12
Research Design
  • Research Methodology
  • Culture-centered transformation, liberation, and
    praxis (King Mitchell, 1995 Tillman, 2002)
  • Participants 14 counseling/psychology graduate
    students (7 from each trip)
  • Data sources (1) application information, (2)
    inventories, (3) daily journals
  • Data analysis thematic analysis, NVIV0 2.0

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13
Research Outcomes
  • Participants developed
  • The ability to work collaboratively with the
    community
  • Greater cultural competence, awareness, and self
    knowledge
  • Increased sense of agency and social justice
  • Participants experienced
  • Psychological healing
  • The importance of mentoring, group cohesion, and
    self-care

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14
Culture-centered Interventions
  • Build on existing knowledge within the clients
    worldviews
  • Maintain client empowerment and agency
  • Demonstrate reciprocity in the transformation
    process
  • Honor the historical and contextual forms of
    healing within the clients familial and
    community networks

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15
Significance of Research Pyramid of Critical
Consciousness Development for CCDR (Goodman
West-Olatunji, in press)
From Applying critical consciousness Culturally
competent disaster response outcomes, by R. D.
Goodman C. A. West-Olatunji, in press, Journal
of Counseling Development . Adapted with
permission of the author.
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16
Discussion
  • There is a need to increase cultural competence
    among mental health service providers in order to
    provide more expedient and effective service
    delivery to disaster survivors
  • Clinical training needs to include more emphasis
    on social justice and advocacy skills, especially
    in relation to disaster response
  • Clinical researchers must provide more examples
    of culture-centered counseling techniques that
    can be employed with culturally diverse
    individuals
  • Future research in this area should focus on the
    identification of assessment tools that aid in
    the selection of disaster mental health
    responders for best fit.

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17
Future Research
  • Forming interdisciplinary outreach teams
  • Using outreach as a component of training in
    counselor education programs
  • Identifying how engaging in outreach impacts
    traditional or non-outreach counseling practice
  • Developing assessments and interventions for
    communities and individuals experiencing systemic
    oppression and transgenerational trauma, in the
    context of disaster
  • (Goodman West-Olatunji, 2008)

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18
Future Projects Southern Africa 2009
  • Conference to be held at the University of
    Botswana, Gaborone, July 8-11, 2009
  • Ten-day package for conference and historical
    tour of South Africa Botswana July 3-12, 2009
  • Call for conference proposals open until January
    21, 2009
  • Outreach participants will return to agencies for
    continued partnership (now closed)
  • Visit www.amcdaca.org for more information

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19
Selected References
  • Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New
    York Continuum International Publishing Group,
    Inc.
  • Goodman, R. D., West-Olatunji, C. A. (in
    press). Applying critical consciousness
    Culturally competent disaster response outcomes.
    Journal of Counseling Development.
  • Goodman, R. D., West-Olatunji, C. A. (2008).
    Transgenerational trauma and resilience
    Improving mental health counseling for survivors
    on Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Mental Health
    Counseling, 30, 121-136
  • Harrell, S. P. (2000). A multidimensional
    conceptualization of racism-related stress
    Implications for the well-being of people of
    color. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70,
    42-57.
  • Tillman, L. C. (2002). Culturally sensitive
    research approaches An African-American
    perspective. Educational Researcher, 319, 3-12
  • Walker, P., Wisner, B., Learning, J, Minear, L.
    (2005). Smoke and mirrors Deficiencies in
    disaster funding. British Medical Journal, 330,
    247-250.

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20
Contact Information
  • Rachael D. Goodman, M.Ed., Ed.S
  • Doctoral Candidate
  • Department of Counselor Education
  • College of Education
  • University of Florida
  • rachaeldg_at_gmail.com 
  • Gargi Roysircar-Sodowsky, Ph. D.
  • Professor
  • Department of Clinical Psychology
  • Antioch University New England
  • 40 Avon Street
  • Keene, NH 034361
  • g_roysircar-sodowsky_at_antiochne.edu

Cirecie A. West-Olatunji, Ph.D. Assistant
Professor Counselor Education College of
Education University of Florida 1204 Norman
Hall PO Box 117046 Gainesville, FL 32607
USA cwestolatunji_at_coe.ufl.edu  
ICSWS 2009 - Penang, Malaysia
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