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PSYCHOLOGY%20(8th%20Edition)%20PROLOGUE

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Title: PSYCHOLOGY%20(8th%20Edition)%20PROLOGUE


1
PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) PROLOGUE
2
Bellringer
  • Write a response to the following statement.
  • 5 minutes 5 points
  • Please define
  • the mind
  • the brain.
  • How they are similar or different?

3
Definition of Psychology
  • The scientific study of behavior and mental
    processes
  • What is behavior ? Anything an organism does -
    anything that can be observed
  • What are mental processes? the internal,
    subjective experiences we infer from behavior
    (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts,
    beliefs, and feelings)

4
Roots of Psychology Who, what, and when
5
Prescientific Psychology
  • Socrates (469-399 B.C.)Plato (428-348 B.C.)

Socrates and his student Plato believed the mind
was separate from the body, the mind continued to
exist after death, and ideas were innate.
6
Why did Socrates and Plato believe this?
  • Socrates and Plato used logic to come to their
    findings.
  • LOGIC the science that investigates the
    principles of governing correct or reliable
    inferences

7
Prescientific Psychology
  • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.)

Aristotle, Platos student, suggested that the
soul is not separable from the body and that
knowledge (ideas) grow from experience.
8
Aristotle
  • Used careful observations
  • From observing people, Aristotle believed that
    knowledge is not preexisting instead, it grows
    from the experiences stored in our memories.

9
Prescientific Psychology
  • Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Descartes, like Socrates and Plato, believed in
soul (mind)-body separation, but wondered how the
immaterial mind and physical body communicated.
10
Descartes
  • The mind and body must communicate when you put
    your hand in the fire, your mind feels the pain
  • How? - According to Descartes, there are animal
    spirits that travel. These spirits travel
    through hollow nerves from the brain to muscles,
    creating experiences and memories known as
    reflexes

11
Homework
  • Study Figure 1 on pg 10 (Three Main Levels of
    Analysis) aka Bio-Psycho-Social approach be
    prepared to analyze a behavior or mental process
    using this approach
  • Example - anger

12
Prescientific Psychology
  • John Locke (1632-1704)

Locke held that the mind was a tabula rasa, or
blank sheet, at birth, and experiences wrote on
it.
13
BELL RINGER
  • Think Pair Share
  • Think about the question
  • Pair up with a partner
  • Share out with the class when called
  • Who were the early people we studied in
    psychology and what did they believe?

14
What comes from Locke?
  • Lockes beliefs helped form modern empiricism
    (knowledge originates in experience and that
    science should, therefore, rely on observation
    and experimentation)

14
15
Key Terms
  • Monism the belief that the mind and body are
    separate, different aspects of the same thing
    Exist independently of each other
  • Dualism the presumption that the mind and body
    are two distinct entities that interact exist
    in concert with each other
  • Mind what the brain does
  • Brain the physical component of the head

15
16
Bell Ringer
  • Place your BIO-PSYCHO-SOCIAL homework on your
    desk to be checked for completion.
  • We are going to check your work together, as a
    class. After reviewing, if you are missing a
    component of the BIO-PSYCH-SOCIAL approach, add
    it to your chart.

17
Psychological Science is Born
Wundt and Titchener studied the elements (atoms)
of the mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig,
Germany, in 1879.
Wundt (1832-1920)
Titchner (1867-1927)
18
Structuralism
  • Wundt and his student Titchner focused on the
    elements of mind, and studied it by using
    introspection (self-reflection).
  • Introspection asking people to look inside
    themselves and share their beliefs, feelings,
    etc
  • Problems with introspection people have to be
    honest and straightforward

19
Psychological Science is Born
  • Functionalism

William James (1842-1910)
Mary Calkins
Influenced by Darwin, William James established
the school of functionalism, which opposed
structuralism.
20
Functionalism
  • James suggested that it would be more fruitful to
    consider the evolved functions of our thoughts
    and feelings than simply studying the elements of
    mind. Based on the theory of evolution, he
    suggested that the function of these thoughts and
    feelings was adaptive.

21
Mary Calkins
  • James admitted the first woman student Mary
    Calkins to Harvard and tutored her. Despite his
    efforts she was not able to attain her PhD from
    Harvard.

22
Psychological Science is Born
  • The Unconscious Mind

Sigmund Freud and his followers emphasized the
importance of the unconscious mind and its
effects on human behavior.
Freud (1856-1939)
23
Behaviorism
Watson (1878-1958)
Skinner (1904-1990)
Watson (1913) and later Skinner emphasized the
study of overt behavior as the subject matter of
scientific psychology.
24
Psychological Science Develops
  • Humanistic Psychology

Maslow (1908-1970)
Rogers (1902-1987)
Maslow and Rogers emphasized current
environmental influences on our growth potential
and our need for love and acceptance.
25
Bell Ringer Think for 3 minutes Discuss for 5
minutes as a class
  • What does
  • Nature vs. Nurture
  • mean to you?

26
Psychologys Big Debate
  • Nature versus Nurture
  • Nature
  • What we are born with Genes, heredity, etc
  • Nurture
  • How we are raised our surroundings,
    environment, etc

Darwin (1809-1882)
Darwin stated that nature selects those that best
enable the organism to survive and reproduce in a
particular environment.
27
Psychologys Three Main Levels of Analysis
Bio-psycho-social approach considers the
influence of biological, psychological, and
socio-cultural factors on behavior. Each approach
provides an incomplete explanation of behaviors.
28
BIOLOGICAL
  • GENETIC PREDISPOSITION
  • GENETIC MUTATIONS
  • NATURAL SELECTION OF ADAPTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND
    BEHAVIORS
  • GENES RESPONDING TO THE ENVIRONMENT

29
PSYCHOLOGICAL
  • LEARNED FEARS AND OTHER LEARNED EXPECTATIONS
  • EMOTIONAL RESPONSES
  • COGINITIVE PROCESS AND PERCEPTUAL INTERPRETATIONS

30
SOCIAL-CULTURAL
  • PRESENCES OF OTHERS
  • CULTURAL, SOCIETAL, AND FAMILY EXPECTATIONS
  • PEER AND OTHER GROUP INFLUENCES
  • COMPELLING MODELS

31
Bell Ringer Think-Pair-Share
  • With a partner, take turns coming up with the
    type of questions a psychologist might ask when
    doing their job.
  • Example How does that make you feel?

32
Perspectives of Psychology
  • Different psychologist specialize in different
    areas. Following are the current perspective,
    their focus, and sample questions that help
    describe each perspective.

33
NEUROSCIENCE
  • Focus
  • How the body and brain enables emotions
  • Questions
  • How are messages transmitted in the body?
  • How is blood chemistry linked with mood and
    motives?

34
Evolutionary
  • Focus
  • How the natural selection of traits promotes the
    perpetuation of ones genes?
  • Questions
  • How does evolution influence behavior tendencies?

35
Behavior Genetics
  • Focus
  • How much our genes and our environments influence
    our individual differences?
  • Questions
  • To what extent are psychological traits such as
    intelligence, personality, sexual orientation,
    and vulnerability to depression attributable to
    our genes?
  • To our environment?

36
Psychodynamic
  • Focus
  • How behavior springs from unconscious drives and
    conflicts?
  • Questions
  • How can someones personality traits and
    disorders be explained in terms of sexual and
    aggressive drives or as disguised effects of
    unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas?

37
Behavioral
  • Focus
  • How we learn observable responses?
  • Questions
  • How do we learn to fear particular objects or
    situations?
  • What is the most effective way to alter our
    behavior, say to lose weight or quit smoking?

38
Cognitive
  • Focus
  • How we encode, process, store and retrieve
    information?
  • Questions
  • How do we use information in remembering?
  • Reasoning?
  • Problem solving?

39
Social-Cultural
  • Focus
  • How behavior and thinking vary across situations
    and cultures?
  • Questions
  • How are we as Africans, Asians, Australians or
    North Americans alike as members of human
    family?
  • As products of different environmental contexts,
    how do we differ?

40
Test your knowledge what perspective is
described
  • Someone working from the _____________
    perspective might study how anger facilitated the
    survival of our ancestors genes.
  • answer Evolutionary Perspective

41
Test your knowledge what perspective is
described
  • 2. Someone working from the ____________
    perspective might study the facial expressions
    and body gestures that accompany anger, or might
    attempt to determine which external stimuli
    results in angry responses or aggressive acts.
  • answer - behavioral

42
Test your knowledge what perspective is
described
  • 3. Someone working on the ________ perspective
    might study how our interpretation of a situation
    affects our anger and how our anger affects our
    thinking.
  • answer - Cognitive

43
Test your knowledge what perspective is
described
  • 4. Someone working from the ___________
    perspective might view an outburst as an outlet
    for unconscious hostility.
  • answer - Psychodynamic

44
Test your knowledge what perspective is
described
  • 5. Someone working on the ___________ perspective
    might explore which situations produce the most
    anger, and how expressions of anger vary across
    cultural contexts.
  • answer Social-Cultural

45
Test your knowledge what perspective is
described
  • 6. Someone working from the __________
    perspective might study the brain circuits that
    produce the physical state of being red in the
    face and hot under the collar.
  • answer - Neuroscience

46
Test your knowledge what perspective is
described
  • 7. Someone working from the _____________
    perspective might study how heredity and
    experience influence our individual differences
    in temperament.
  • answer Behavior Genetics Perspective

47
Bell ringer Which isnt a psychologist?
  1. A white-coated scientist probing a rats brain.
  2. An intelligence research measuring how quickly an
    infant becomes bored with a familiar picture.
  3. An executive evaluating a new health life-style
    training program for employees.
  4. Someone at a computer keyboard analyzing data on
    whether adopted teens temperaments more closely
    resemble those of their adoptive parents or those
    of their biological parents.
  5. A therapist listening carefully to a clients
    depressed thoughts.
  6. A traveler en route to another culture to collect
    data on variations in human values and behaviors
  7. A teacher or writer sharing the joy of psychology
    with others

48
Answer
  • ALL OF THEM REPRESENT A PSYCHOLOGIST

49
Types of psychologist
  • Basic Research
  • To build psychologys knowledge base
  • Applied Research
  • Aims to solve a practical problem

50
Types of psychologist Subfields Research
Psychologist What they do
Biological Explore the links between brain and mind.
Developmental Study changing abilities from womb to tomb.
Cognitive Study how we perceive, think, and solve problems.
Personality Investigate our persistent traits.
Social Explore how we view and affect one another.
51
Psychologys Subfields Research
Data APA 1997
52
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Psychologist What they do
Clinical Studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
Counseling Helps people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges.
Educational Studies and helps individuals in school and educational settings
Industrial/ Organizational Studies and advises on behavior in the workplace.
53
Psychologys Subfields Applied
Data APA 1997
54
Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry
  • A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies,
    assesses, and treats troubled people with
    psychotherapy.
  • Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical
    professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like
    drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically
    diseased patients.

55
Who Am I?
  • I meet regularly with a person suffering with
    bi-polar disorder. I evaluate them and offer
    treatment in the form of therapy and medication.
  • Answer Clinical Psychologist

56
Who Am I?
  • 2. I work at a university where I meet with
    students to discuss with them how they learn and
    develop as a student. My research also includes
    meeting with grade-school children.
  • Answers Educational Psychologist

57
Who Am I?
  • 3. I am a medical doctor that treats the mind. I
    can prescribe medication to my patients.
  • Answer - Psychiatrist

58
Who Am I?
  • 4.I am a psychologist that consults with large
    corporations on how they can become more
    productive by providing motivation and incentives
    to their workers.
  • Answer Industrial/Organizational Psychologist

59
Who Am I?
  • 5.I lend an ear to people when they feel
    overwhelmed. I often discuss martial problems,
    academic problems, and social problems with my
    clients. The type of treatment I offer my
    clients is mostly being an ear and offering
    support.
  • Answer Counseling Psychologist

60
Who Am I?
  • 6.I am a psychologist with a Ph.D. I treat my
    patients with psychotherapy.
  • Answer Clinical Psychologist

61
How much do they make?
  • Salaries for Various Psychology Jobs
  • Career Counselor 46,000
  • Clinical Psychologist 63,000
  • Counselor 47,530
  • Health Psychologist 40,000 (entry-level) to
    85,000 (advanced-level)
  • Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 97,820
  • Psychiatrist 144,020
  • School Counselor 53,750
  • School Psychologist 59,440
  • Sports Psychologist 54,000
  • Substance Abuse Counselor 59,460

62
How much school is needed?
  • Clinical Psychologist Doctorate Degree in
    Psychology (4 to 7 years of graduate school)
  • Industrial-Organizational Psychologist Master's
    Degree (2 to 3 years of graduate school)
  • Licensed Counselor Master's Degree (2 to 3 years
    of graduate school)
  • School Psychologist Varies by state (2 to 3
    years of graduate school)
  • Health Psychologist Doctorate Degree (4 to 5
    years of graduate school)
  • Sports Psychologist Master's Degree (2 to 3
    years of graduate school)
  • School Psychologist Master's degree (2 to 3
    years of graduate school)
  • Child Psychologist Doctoral degree (5 to 7 years
    of graduate school)
  • Criminal Psychologist Master's degree (2 to 3
    years of graduate school) a doctoral degree is
    recommended.

63
Homework Written response
  • You have to choose a career in psychology. What
    type of psychologist would you like to become and
    why? What educational sacrifices would you have
    to make?
  • Write a 1 page response. 50 points

64
Close-up
Your Study of Psychology Survey, Question, Read,
Review and Reflect (SQ3R)
  • Survey What you are about to read, including
    chapter outlines and section heads.
  • Question Ask questions. Make notes.
  • Read Make sure you read outlines, sections and
    chapters in entirety.
  • Review Margin definitions. Study learning
    outcomes.
  • Reflect On what you learn. Test yourself with
    quizzes.

65
Review for quiz
  • People of psychology and what they believed
  • Schools of psychology
  • Nature vs nurture
  • Perspectives of psychology
  • Types of psychologist
  • SQ3R
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