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Planning and Implementation of Post Enumeration Surveys Pres. 4

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Title: Planning and Implementation of Post Enumeration Surveys Pres. 4


1
Planning and Implementation of Post Enumeration
Surveys Pres. 4
2
Some Requirements for a Good PES
  • Adequate planning
  • Technical personnel with requisite skills and
    experience in survey methodology and in designing
    and implementing the whole PES process
  • Sample design, implementation, matching and
    estimation
  • Develop an efficient sample design
  • A successful PES calls for a good sample design
    and survey implementation
  • The timing of PES should be soon after census
  • Maintain operational independence

3
Some Requirements for a Good PES (Contd.)
  • Ensure quality assurance in all the stages of the
    PES, thus from planning to data processing
  • Control of non-sampling errors is essential like
    in any other surveys, as unlike sampling errors,
    they are difficult to measure, therefore one is
    better off controlling them
  • Credible estimation methodologies and procedures

4
Planning of PES
  • Judicious planning for the PES is critical in
    order to yield reliable results
  • Planning of PES should be
  • Preceded by a clear and unambiguous statement of
    objectives as this facilitates to articulate
    planning of PES activities
  • Synchronized with planning for the census
  • Start early and adequate resources devoted to it
    as part of overall census programme
  • Develop a comprehensive survey plan showing
    budgetary and manpower requirements

5
Planning of PES (contd.)
  • Adequate Resources
  • Financial allotment Without sufficient funds
    the PES would be poorly implemented and therefore
    may not produce better results than the census.
    This would defeat the whole purpose of
    evaluating a census
  • Human resources There is need to have requisite
    number of specialist staff such as survey
    methodologists demographers and analysts
    qualified enumerators and supervisors

6
Planning of PES (contd.)
  • Commitment to the philosophy of a PES it is very
    critical to have the top management of a
    statistical/census office committed to the
    philosophy of the PES, so that they can plan for
    resources and support its efficient
    implementation
  • Establishment of an independent unit It is
    advisable that an independent PES planning and
    implementation unit is established. This also
    enhances the operational independence between the
    census and PES
  • Technical planning It is necessary to have
    sub-technical teams to work on the sample design
    plan for the implementation of the PES the
    design of a Dual System of Estimation plan,
    matching and the reconciliation exercise

7
Planning of PES (contd.)
  • Elements of planning a PES
  • Preparatory activities
  • Data collection related activities
  • Matching
  • Reconciliation (if undertaken)
  • Data processing
  • Estimation of coverage and content error
  • Report preparation and dissemination

8
Planning of PES (contd.)
  • Publicity campaign
  • PES as a specialized data collection
  • Importance of not biasing potential sample
    population
  • Strategies used in different countries(??)

9
Implementation of PES
  • Pilot Test
  • This can be a dress rehearsal of the actual PES
    as the pilot census is a dress rehearsal of the
    census
  • It can be conducted in selected administrative
    divisions (taking into account costs)
  • The purpose of the pilot test is to test the
    adequacy of the entire PES plan and its
    organization
  • It should be conducted in conditions similar to
    the actual enumeration of the actual PES

10
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Pilot Test (Contd.)
  • The pilot test should follow immediately the
    census pilot test
  • While it is not a source of usable data it
    provides insights into operational aspects of
    data collection that can contribute to a
    successful conduct of a PES and census
  • Ideally it should be taken a year before the
    actual PES just as a pilot census is taken a year
    before a census (UN, 2008 PR)

11
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Pilot Test (Contd.)
  • Provides an opportunity to test questions and the
    overall field methodology before mounting the PES
  • It also offers a chance to test the matching and
    analytical procedures
  • Results of the pilot test contribute to
    establishment of matching rules, reconciliation
    procedures and logistical flows of documents
    between PES and census

12
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Data collection
  • Method commonly used in a PES is the face-to-face
    interview
  • Enumerators go to households, in selected
    EAs/clusters, and interview respondents
  • They collect information by asking questions from
    a PES questionnaire
  • This method provides an opportunity for probing
  • Enumerators can explain the objectives of the PES
    to respondents

13
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Questionnaire
  • Should be based on the final census questionnaire
  • The format and size of questionnaire are
    important for recording of responses and for data
    capture
  • Pre-testing of questionnaire is imperative
  • Selection of items for the questionnaire deserves
    careful consideration
  • Items to be used in matching process should
    ideally be considered for the questionnaire

14
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Questionnaire (Contd.)
  • Variables for which information is to be
    collected on the PES should have been included on
    the census as well
  • Commonly considered variables include age, sex,
    relationship to reference person, marital status,
    educational level and type of housing unit

15
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Selection and training of field staff
  • Enumerators are the interface with respondents
  • should be able to communicate effectively with
    respondents
  • Their work is critical to the success of the PES
    field work and therefore their selection is
    critical and should be done objectively
  • They should be thoroughly trained before being
    assigned field work
  • Main objective of training is to enhance
    uniformity and minimize measurement error during
    interviews

16
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Training
  • Qualified instructors well versed with the
    objectives of the PES should be responsible for
    training
  • It is advisable that the trainers should be part
    of the PES planning and implementation teams
  • Trainees should take turns in explaining to
    others various items in the questionnaire
  • Practical lessons are essential both in the
    classroom and the field. Based on performance
    trainees can be retained as enumerators or
    dismissed

17
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • The role of supervisors
  • Despite good training of enumerators, without
    good supervision, in the field, there may be
    inaccurate results
  • Need for dedicated and effective supervision
  • Supervisors should be more experienced and better
    qualified than enumerators
  • Like enumerators, they should undergo extensive
    training in all aspects of the PES
  • Supposed to organize work for enumerators by
    determining field assignments

18
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • The role of supervisors (Contd.)
  • They review completed work and maintain a high
    commitment of enumerators to the PES
  • A supervisor can make follow-up visits to
    non-respondents as they are better qualified and
    experienced
  • There should be a manageable ratio between
    enumerators and a supervisor (1 to 5 ratio should
    be okay)

19
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Field data collection
  • During data collection objective is to classify
    individuals by enumeration status relative to
    census night
  • Use of probing is necessary to adequately
    establish census night residence status

20
Planning of PES (contd.)
  • Reconciliation (if done)
  • Developing instructions for field reconciliation
    visits
  • Training of enumerators and supervisors
  • Carrying out reconciliation visits
  • Final decisions on unresolved cases with respect
    to final status
  • Data processing
  • Selection or development of computer programmes
    for data processing, tabulation estimation
  • Recruitment and training of data processing staff
  • Carrying out data entry, editing and tabulation

21
Planning of PES (contd.)
  • Estimation of coverage and content error
  • (i) Estimation of coverage error
  • (ii) Estimation of content error
  • Report preparation and dissemination
  • (i) Analysis of PES results including
    producing and interpretation of sampling errors
    for key variables
  • (ii) Preparation of PES analytical report
  • (iii) Dissemination of results

22
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Control of non-sampling errors
  • Should be controlled and reduced to the level
    that their presence does not compromise the
    usefulness of the PES results
  • Particularly harmful when they are non-random
    because they introduce bias in the PES estimates
  • Bias is difficult to measure
  • Best way to control non-sampling error is to
    follow the right procedures in all PES activities

23
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Control of non-sampling errors (Contd.)
  • Should be controlled and reduced to the level
    that their presence does not compromise the
    usefulness of the PES results
  • Particularly harmful when they are non-random
    because they introduce bias in the PES estimates
  • Bias is difficult to measure
  • Best way to control non-sampling error is to
    follow the right procedures in all PES activities

24
Implementation of PES (contd.)
  • Factors contributing to non-sampling error
  • Vague objectives of the PES
  • Duplication or omissions due to imprecise
    definition of boundaries of EAs
  • Inappropriate methods of interviewing
  • Lack of trained and experienced field
    interviewers and supervisors
  • Inadequate identification particulars of sampling
    units
  • Errors occurring in data processing

25
  • Thank You!
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