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Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Ecosystems Lesson
2 Energy and Matter Lesson 3 Humans and
Ecosystems Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
  • How do living things interact with each other and
    the environment?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. In symbiosis, two species cooperate in a way
    that benefits both species.
  • 2. Overpopulation can be damaging to an
    ecosystem.
  • 3. Sunlight provides the energy at the base of
    all food chains on Earth.
  • 4. A detritivore is a type of carnivore.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 5. Human actions can have unintended effects on
    the environment.
  • 6. The only job of the U.S. Environmental
    Protection Agency is to enforce environmental
    laws.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Ecosystems
  • How can you describe an ecosystem?
  • In what ways do living organisms interact?
  • How do population changes affect ecosystems?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Ecosystems
  • habitat
  • population
  • community
  • niche
  • predation
  • symbiosis
  • carrying capacity

8
Lesson 1-1
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
  • Ecosystems contain all the nonliving and living
    parts of the environment in a given area.
  • The nonliving partscalled abiotic
    factorsinclude sunlight, water, soil, and air.
  • The living or once-living parts of an
    ecosystemcalled biotic factorsinclude living
    organisms and the decayed remains of dead
    organisms.

9
Lesson 1-1
Abiotic and Biotic Factors (cont.)
How can you describe an ecosystem?
10
Lesson 1-2
Habitats
  • A habitat is the area within an ecosystem that
    provides the biotic and abiotic factors an
    organism needs to survive and reproduce.

11
Lesson 1-3
Populations and Communities
  • A population is the number of individual
    organisms of the same species that live in an
    ecosystem at the same time.
  • All the populations living in an area at the same
    time form a community.

12
Lesson 1-3
Populations and Communities (cont.)
community from Latin communitatem, means
fellowship
13
Lesson 1-4
Interactions of Living Things
  • More than one population can live in the same
    habitat because each species has a different way
    of using the resources.
  • A niche is the way a species interacts with
    abiotic and biotic factors to obtain food, find
    shelter, and fulfill other needs.

14
Lesson 1-3
  • Giraffes, kudus, and steenboks have different
    niches. Each has a different way of using the
    resources.

15
Lesson 1-4
Interactions of Living Things (cont.)
  • A predator is an organism that hunts and kills
    other organisms for food.
  • Prey is an organism caught and eaten by a
    predator.
  • Predation is the act of one organism, the
    predator, feeding on another organism, its prey.

16
Lesson 1-4
Interactions of Living Things (cont.)
  • Symbiosis is a close, long-term relationship
    between two species that usually involves an
    exchange of food or energy.
  • The three types of symbiosis are mutualism,
    commensalism, and parasitism.

17
Lesson 1-4
Interactions of Living Things (cont.)
  • In mutualism, both species benefit from the
    relationship.
  • In commensalism, one species benefits from the
    relationship and the other species is neither
    harmed nor benefited.
  • In parasitism, one species (the parasite)
    benefits and the other (the host) is harmed.

18
Lesson 1-4
Interactions of Living Things (cont.)
What is one way that living things interact?
19
Lesson 1-4
Interactions of Living Things (cont.)
  • Organisms that share the same habitat often
    compete for resources.
  • Competition describes interactions between two or
    more organisms that need the same resource at the
    same time.

20
Lesson 1-5
Population Changes
  • Populations increase when offspring are produced
    or when new individuals move into a community.
  • Populations decrease when individuals die or move
    away.

21
Lesson 1-5
Population Changes (cont.)
  • Changes in the abiotic factors of an ecosystem
    affect population size.
  • If a drought reduces plant growth, less food is
    available for plant eaters, which can lead to a
    decrease in plant-eater populations.

22
Lesson 1-5
Population Changes (cont.)
  • Interactions between organisms also affect
    population size.
  • For example, the wolf population can keep
    increasing until there are no longer enough
    moose to support it.

23
Lesson 1-5
Population Changes (cont.)
  • Population density is the size of a population
    compared to the amount of space available.
  • A high population density can increase
    competition and make it easier for disease to be
    transmitted from one individual to another.

24
Lesson 1-5
Population Changes (cont.)
  • There is a limit to resources an ecosystem can
    provide.
  • Carrying capacity is the largest number of
    individuals of one species that an ecosystem can
    support over time.
  • If a population exceeds its carrying capacity the
    area becomes over-populated.

25
Lesson 1-5
Population Changes (cont.)
  • If all the members of a population die or move
    away from an area, that population becomes
    extinct.
  • If all populations of a species disappear from
    Earth, the entire species becomes extinct.

26
Lesson 1-6
Population Changes (cont.)
How do population changes affect ecosystems?
27
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Ecosystems are all the living and nonliving
    things in a given area.

28
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Species in the same habitat have different
    niches.
  • Populations can increase and decrease.

29
Lesson 1 LR1
Which term refers to an organism that hunts and
kills other organisms for food?
A. niche B. parasite C. predator D. prey
30
Lesson 1 LR2
Which term refers to interactions between
organisms that need the same resource at the same
time?
A. competition B. mutualism C. predation D. symbio
sis
31
Lesson 1 LR3
Which is the largest number of individuals of one
species that an ecosystem can support over time?
A. carrying capacity B. community C. population
density D. symbiosis
32
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. In symbiosis, two species cooperate in a way
    that benefits both species.
  • 2. Overpopulation can be damaging to an ecosystem.

33
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Energy and Matter
  • How does energy move through an ecosystem?
  • How does matter move through an ecosystem?

34
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Energy and Matter
  • producer
  • consumer
  • detritivore
  • food web
  • energy pyramid

35
Lesson 2-1
Food Energy
  • Producers are organisms that use an outside
    energy source, such as the Sun, and produce their
    own food.
  • Most producersgreen plants, algae, and some
    kinds of bacteriamake energy-rich compounds
    through photosynthesis.

36
Lesson 2-1
Food Energy (cont.)
  • Some producers make energy-rich compounds through
    chemosynthesis, a process in which a chemical
    such as hydrogen sulfide or methane is used to
    produce glucose.

37
Lesson 2-2
Consumers
  • Organisms that cannot make their own food are
    consumers.
  • Consumers obtain energy and nutrients by
    consuming other organisms or compounds produced
    by other organisms.

38
Lesson 2-2
Consumers (cont.)
consumer Science Use an organism that cannot make
its own food Common Use a person who uses
economic goods
39
Lesson 2-2
Consumers (cont.)
  • Herbivores eat producers and include butterflies,
    aphids, snails, mice, rabbits, fruit-eating bats,
    gorillas, and cows.
  • Omnivores eat producers and consumers and include
    corals, crickets, ants, bears, robins, raccoons,
    and humans.

40
Lesson 2-2
Consumers (cont.)
  • Carnivores eat herbivores, omnivores, and other
    carnivores and include scorpions, octopuses,
    sharks, tuna, frogs, insect-eating bats, moles,
    and owls.
  • Detritivores consume the bodies of dead organisms
    and wastes produced by living organisms and
    include termites, wood lice, and earthworms.

41
Lesson 2-2
Consumers (cont.)
  • Scavengers are detritivores that eat the bodies
    of animals killed by carnivores or omnivores.
  • Examples of scavengers include hyenas, jackals,
    and vultures.

42
Lesson 2-3
The Flow of Energy
  • Once energy from the environment is converted
    into food energy, it can be transferred to other
    organisms.
  • In an ecosystem, the food energy is transferred
    from one organism to another through feeding
    relationships.

43
Lesson 2-3
The Flow of Energy (cont.)
  • A food chain is a simple model that shows how
    energy moves from a producer to one or more
    consumers through feeding relationships.

44
Lesson 2-3
  • A food web is a model of energy transfer that can
    show how the food chains in a community are
    interconnected.

45
Lesson 2-3
The Flow of Energy (cont.)
How does energy move through an ecosystem?
46
Lesson 2-3
  • An energy pyramid is a model that shows the
    amount of energy available in each link of a
    food chain.
  • The loss of energy at each level of an energy
    pyramid helps explain why there are always
    more producers than carnivores in a community.

47
Lesson 2-4
Cycling Materials
  • The law of conservation of matter states that
    matter cannot be created or destroyed, but it can
    change form.
  • Matter is recycled through ecosystems, changing
    form along the way.

48
Lesson 2-4
Cycling Materials (cont.)
  • Three of the most important pathways of matter
    moving through an ecosystem are described by the
    nitrogen cycle, the water cycle, and the
    oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle.

cycle from Greek kyklos, means circle or wheel
49
Lesson 2-4
Cycling Materials (cont.)
How does matter move through an ecosystem?
50
Lesson 2-4
  • The nitrogen cycle describes how nitrogen moves
    from the atmosphere to the soil into the bodies
    of living organisms and back to the atmosphere.

51
Lesson 2-4
  • All the freshwater on Earths surface and in the
    bodies of living organisms is recycled through
    the water cycle.

52
Lesson 2-4
  • Photosynthesis and cellular respiration cycle
    carbon dioxide and oxygen through the ecosystems.

53
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Organisms are classified as producers or
    consumers.

54
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Energy is transferred from one organism to
    another through feeding relationships.

55
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Matter can be changed into different forms and
    cycles through ecosystems. It cannot be destroyed.

56
Lesson 2 LR1
Which model of energy transfer shows how the food
chains in a community are interconnected?
A. energy pyramid B. food web C. nitrogen
cycle D. water cycle
57
Lesson 2 LR2
Which consumes the bodies of dead organisms and
wastes produced by living organisms?
A. carnivore B. detritivore C. herbivores D. omniv
ore
58
Lesson 2 LR3
Which term describes organisms that cannot make
their own food?
A. consumers B. omnivores C. producers
D. scavengers
59
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. Sunlight provides the energy at the base of
all food chains on Earth. 4. A detritivore is a
type of carnivore.
60
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Humans and Ecosystems
  • In what ways do humans affect ecosystems?
  • What can humans do to protect ecosystems and
    their resources?

61
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Humans and Ecosystems
  • renewable resource
  • nonrenewable resource
  • resource depletion

62
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment
  • All organisms change the environment in some way.
  • Humans change ecosystems by replacing wildlife
    habitats with buildings, roads, farms, and mines.
  • Humans use of energy resources such as coal and
    natural gas can create pollutants that affect
    plant and animal life in the air, the water, and
    on land.

63
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment (cont.)
  • Renewable resources are resources that can be
    replenished by natural processes at least as
    quickly as they are used.
  • Nonrenewable resources are natural resources that
    are used up faster than they can be replaced by
    natural processes.

64
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment (cont.)
  • Any resource becomes nonrenewable if it is used
    up faster than it can be replaced.
  • Resource depletionthe exhaustion of one or more
    resources in an areais happening in the United
    States and throughout the world.

65
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment (cont.)
depletion from Latin deplere, means to empty
66
Lesson 3-1
  • The water in the Ogallala Aquifer is pumped out
    faster than it is replaced.

67
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment (cont.)
  • The more people can learn about how their actions
    affect the environment, the better their ability
    to make good environmental choices in the future.
  • The invention of chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs,
    had the unintended consequence of damaging
    Earths ozone layer.

68
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment (cont.)
  • Potential further damage to the ozone layer was
    avoided by an international treaty called the
    Montreal Protocol which phased out CFC use
    worldwide.

69
Lesson 3-1
  • This simulation shows what could have happened to
    Earths ozone layer without the Montreal Protocol.

70
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment (cont.)
In what ways do humans affect ecosystems?
71
Lesson 3-1
Affecting the Environment (cont.)
  • The amount of greenhouse gases emitted by a
    person, an organization, an event, or a product
    is called its carbon footprint.
  • An increase in greenhouse gases is contributing
    to global warminga rise in Earths average
    surface temperature.

72
Lesson 3-2
Protecting the World
  • Scientists are working to develop renewable
    energy resources that can reduce pollution and
    peoples dependence on fossil fuels.

VisionsofAmerica/Joe Sohm/Photodisc/Getty Images
73
Lesson 3-2
Protecting the World (cont.)
  • The U.S. government passes laws, enforced by the
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to
    help protect the environment.
  • The EPA also monitors environmental health, looks
    for ways to reduce human impacts, develops plans
    for cleaning up polluted areas, and supports
    environmental research at universities and
    national laboratories.

74
Lesson 3-2
Protecting the World (cont.)
  • The 5Rsrestore, rethink, reduce, reuse, and
    recycleare actions everyone can take to help
    keep the environment healthy and to make sure
    that future generations of life on Earth have the
    resources they need to survive.

75
Lesson 3-3
Protecting the World (cont.)
How can people protect ecosystems and conserve
resources?
76
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Organisms affect their environment in both
    positive and negative ways.
  • Making and enforcing environmental laws can
    protect the environment from further damage.

77
Lesson 3 - VS
  • More industries and people are turning to
    renewable resources rather than using
    nonrenewable resources.

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./John Flournoy,
photographer
78
Lesson 3 LR1
Which had the unintended consequence of damaging
Earths ozone layer?
A. CFCs B. the EPA C. the Montreal
Protocol D. the Ogalla Aquifer
79
Lesson 3 LR2
Which resources are used up faster than they can
be replaced by natural processes?
A. CFCs B. nonrenewable C. renewable D. unlimited

80
Lesson 3 LR3
Which term describes the amount of greenhouse
gases emitted by a person, an organization, an
event, or a product?
A. carbon footprint B. global warming C. ozone
layer depletion D. resource depletion
81
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Human actions can have unintended effects on
the environment. 6. The only job of the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency is to enforce
environmental laws.
82
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
83
The BIG Idea
  • Organisms interact with each other and the
    environment around them to obtain food, shelter,
    living space, and other resources needed for life.

84
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Ecosystems
  • An ecosystem consists of all the living and
    nonliving parts of the environment in a given
    area and the interactions among them.
  • Organisms cooperate with, compete with, or feed
    on one another to obtain the resources they need
    for survival.
  • Populations that grow larger than an ecosystems
    carrying capacity are overpopulated.
    Overpopulation can harm the ecosystem by
    depleting resources. Extinctionthe complete
    disappearance of a population from a
    communitycan alter the ways in which remaining
    populations interact.

85
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Energy and Matter
  • Energy, usually from the Sun, moves through an
    ecosystem by being transferred from one organism
    to another.
  • Matter changes form as it cycles through an
    ecosystem.

86
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Humans and Ecosystems
  • Human actions contribute to loss of habitat for
    plants and wildlife, pollution, and climate
    change.
  • People can educate themselves about environmental
    issues conserve resources by restoring,
    rethinking, and reducing resource use reusing
    instead of replacing and recycling.

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./John Flournoy,
photographer
87
Chapter Review MC1
Which refers to all the populations living in an
ecosystem at the same time?
A. community B. habitat C. niche D. population
density
88
Chapter Review MC2
In which type of symbiosis does one species
benefit from the relationship and the other
species is neither harmed nor benefited?
A. commensalism B. competition C. mutualism
D. parasitism
89
Chapter Review MC3
Which term refers to organisms that use an
outside energy source and make their own food?
A. consumers B. detritivores C. herbivores D. prod
ucers
90
Chapter Review MC4
Which type of detritivore eats the bodies of
animals killed by carnivores or omnivores?
A. herbivore B. omnivore C. producer D. scavenger
91
Chapter Review MC5
Which term describes the exhaustion of one or
more resources in an area?
A. carbon footprint B. global warming C. renewable
resource D. resource depletion
92
Chapter Review STP1
Which is the way a species interacts with abiotic
and biotic factors to obtain food, find shelter,
and fulfill other needs?
A. community B. niche C. predation D. symbiosis
93
Chapter Review STP2
Which is a close, long-term relationship between
two species that usually involves an exchange of
food or energy?
A. depletion B. niche C. predation D. symbiosis
94
Chapter Review STP3
In which process is a chemical such as hydrogen
sulfide or methane used to produce glucose?
A. photosynthesis B. nitrogen cycle
C. chemosynthesis D. cellular respiration
95
Chapter Review STP4
Which consumes the bodies of dead organisms and
wastes produced by living organisms?
A. carnivores B. detritivores C. herbivores
D. omnivores
96
Chapter Review STP5
Which resources can be replenished by natural
processes as quickly as they are used?
A. CFCs B. fossil fuels C. nonrenewable D. renewa
ble
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