A.3 Special Issues in Human Nutrition (Assessment statements) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 28
About This Presentation

A.3 Special Issues in Human Nutrition (Assessment statements)


A.3 Special Issues in Human Nutrition(Assessment statements) A.3.1 Distinguish between the composition of human milk and . artificial milk . used for bottle-feeding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:158
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 29
Provided by: pbwo327


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: A.3 Special Issues in Human Nutrition (Assessment statements)

A.3 Special Issues in Human Nutrition(Assessment
  • A.3.1 Distinguish between the composition of
    human milk and
  • artificial milk used for bottle-feeding
  • A.3.2 Discuss the benefits of breastfeeding.
  • A.3.3 Outline the causes and symptoms of Type II
  • A.3.4 Explain the dietary advice that should be
    given to a patient
  • who has developed Type II Diabetes.
  • A.3.5 Discuss the ethical issues concerning the
    eating of animal
  • products, including honey, eggs, milk
    and meat.
  • A.3.6 Evaluate the benefits of reducing dietary
    cholesterol in lowering
  • the risk of coronary heart disease.
  • A.3.7 Discuss the concept of food miles and the
    reasons for
  • consumers choosing foods to minimize
    food miles.

Human Breast Milk vs. Powdered Baby Formula
  • There are fundamental differences between breast
    milk and powdered formula.
  • Powdered formulas are usually made from cows
    milk. The baby formula market is big business.
  • Breast milk contains substances that formulas do
    not (the enzymes amylase/lipase), white blood
    cells such as macrophages, antibodies and
    hormones) - (see next slide).
  • Human milk has about 50 more lactose than cows
    milk. Additionally, human milk has more
    cholesterol for building new cell membranes and
    nerve cells.
  • Some babies are naturally lactose intolerant
    (although very rare). Baby formulas that are
    lactose-free are available. Acquired lactose
    intolerance can develop (are before age 5 and
    unusual before age 10) while secondary lactose
    intolerance can result from some common
    intestinal disorder in babies (this condition is
    far less frequent in breastfed babies).
  • The symptoms of lactose intolerance include
    vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rashes.

Human Breast Milk vs. Powdered Baby Formula
  • In terms of protein, human milk has lower levels
    of protein than cows milk. This is primarily
    because humans do not need to grow as fast as
    calves during the first year of life.
  • Human milk contains higher levels of the amino
    acid taurine than in cows milk. Taurine has been
    linked to brain development.
  • Milk protein comes in two varieties (1) An
    easily digestible, liquid form called whey and,
    (2) A more difficult to digest, solid form called
    curd (made of a protein called casein).
  • Human milk contains 65 whey and 35 casein.
  • Cows milk contains 18 whey and 82 casein.
  • Animal milk is heat-treated before being
    marketed. This process denatures protein and may
    cause allergic reactions in infants.

Human Breast Milk Vs. Powdered Milk (Baby Formula)
Breast-Milk Baby Formula (usually made from cows milk)
Colostrum Present. A thick, sticky and yellowish form of milk produced in late pregnancy and the first few days after birth. More info HERE. Colostrum has high concentrations of carbs, proteins, antibodies, macrophages, beneficial bacteria, growth modulators and a mild laxative to clear excess bilirubin and encourage the babys first stool (meconium). Not Present
Antibodies Present in colostrum in high concentrations but low volume. Not Present
Proteins Present in lower amounts than baby formula but is easily digested/absorbed. The enzymes amylase and lipase. Hormones are present. Taurine (amino acid) present in high amountslinked to brain development. Higher concentrations but harder to digest/absorb. Derived from bovine (cow) sources.
Carbohydrates Present. High in lactose. Linked to brain development. Lower in lactose. May come from glucose.
Lipids, Cholesterol Fatty Acids Present. Human fatty acids. Newborns need substantial quantities of lipids and lipid content in breast milk can vary depending on the babys needs. Lipids are required to build phospholipids for new cells and the help build nerve cells. Palm, corn, coconut, soy or safflower oils.
Vitamins and Minerals In lower concentrations than baby formula but easier to absorb. Iron is present but in lower concentrations than baby formula. In higher concentrations, but harder to absorb.
(No Transcript)
How to Breastfeed(Caution Some Nudity)
Arguments for Breastfeeding Over Formula
Immunity Colostrum and early breast milk contain high concentrations of antibodies macrophages, protecting the infant from infections until immunity develops. The Child
Digestive Function Colostrum stimulates digestive tract function of baby and eases defecation. Easier to digest than formula milk. The Child
Cost Breast milk is both free and readily available so long as both mother and child are healthy. The Child
Nutrition More complete than baby formula. Composition of breast milk can change depending on the needs of the baby. The Child
Mother and Child Bonding Aids in mother/child bonding and communication. The Mother Child
The Mothers Health Aids in weight-loss, reduces breast cancer risk,/Type II Diabetes, and post-partum depression risks. The Mother
Continued on Next Page
Arguments for Breastfeeding Over Formulas
Sleep Some of the proteins in breast milk help to induce sleep in infants. Not present in cow or soy milk. Mother Child
Contamination No need to prepare, wash or sterilize glass or plastic bottles and synthetic nipples, as in the case with infant formula. In the preparation of bottle milk, there is a risk of water being polluted /bottle contamination with bacteria. Child
Allergies The risk of allergies is not present, whereas cows milk in particular carries multiple risks of inducing allergies. Child
Specificity Human milk is species-specific. It is designed to meet a human babys nutritional needs at each developmental stage w/out upsetting the delicate digestive system. The high percentage of whey and lower levels of casein make human milk more digestible than cows milk. The overall lower protein level is better suited to humans. Child
Menstruation Breastfeeding causes the uterus of the mother to return to normal after delivery. It also inhibits the onset of menstrual cycles, acting as a natural contraceptive , encouraging space between babies. The Mother
Nutrients The nutrients in human milk are more easily digestible into the childs blood stream (particularly iron and vitamins. Child
Post-partum depression
Arguments Against Breastfeeding
  • Breastfeeding can be painful for the mother
    (sensitive or infected nipples). The pain can be
    while the baby feeds or it can be from
    engorgement (the breasts are full of milk).
  • Women who carry certain pathogens are advised not
    to breastfeed because of the risk of passing them
    to the child. HIV can be passed from mother to
    child through breast milk. The benefits of breast
    milk would be outweighed by the dangers of the
    2nd BABY.
  • Some cultures do not accept breastfeeding in
  • In exclusive breastfeeding, the father of the
    child may feel left out whereas in bottle
    feeding, he can share a certain bond with the
  • Although some countries have laws which allow the
    mother to take breaks to breastfeed during her
    work day, many countries do not.

Type II Diabetes
  • Type II diabetes is the most common form of
    diabetes worldwide and develops as a result of
    the complex interplay between genetics and .
  • (Also known as adult-onset diabetes or diabetes
    mellitus type II or non-insulin dependent
    diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)).
  • Type II diabetes results from the body developing
    an insensitivity to insulin over a period of
    years. While it is most common in overweight or
    obese adults over age of 40, it is now being
    observed in overweight children.
  • Some groups have a higher incidence of Type II
    diabetes than others (1) Native Australians
    (Aborigines) (2) Native Americans and (3)

Type II Diabetes (Animations)
Reminder Beta cells in the pancreas produce
insulin while Alpha cells produce glucagon.
Statistics and Symptoms(can be mild and develop
over a period of years)
  • Symptoms (1) being more thirsty than usual (2)
    urinating more than usual (3) feeling tired and
    fatigued all the time (4) more infections than
    usual (skin infections in particular) (5)
    elevated blood glucose levels and glucose in the

Dietary Advice for Type II Diabetics(gaining
Control of blood Glucose levels)
  1. Decreasing body mass and maintaining a healthy
    BMI through exercise and a proper, well-balanced
  2. Eating foods rich in fiber and complex carbs,
    cutting down on saturated fat. Complex carbs
    release their energy slowly. Fiber allows
    nutrients to be absorbed slowly over time.
  3. Eating small, regular meals throughout the day.
  4. Eat lots of fresh fruits and vegetables. Low GI
  5. Exercise.

The Benefits of Reducing Cholesterol (LDL)
  • Cholesterol is an essential component (lipid) of
    the human body. It is considered a steroid and
    often is the basis for various hormones and cell
  • There are two main types of cholesterol (HDL vs.
    LDL). High LDL (low-density lipoproteins) levels
    are associated with increased risk coronary heart
    disease. Research has shown that a 10 rise in
    blood cholesterol plasma levels is associated
    with a 30 increase in the risk of death from
    CHD. It appears as though total blood cholesterol
    levels are less important the LDL levels.
  • Diets that are high in saturated are linked
    (positively correlated) with high LDL and total
    blood cholesterol levels, along with CHD.
  • Cholesterol levels do have a genetic component
    and high cholesterol levels tend to run in
  • High LDL levels promote inflammation and plaques.
  • Reducing saturated fat consumption and high
    animal product consumption is a first step in
    lowering cholesterol. Diet and exercise are
    critical. Medications may be necessary.

The Importance of Fiber
  • Fiber is plant material, made up of the
    polysaccharide cellulose, that cannot be digested
    by the small intestine. Cellulose from plant
    cells walls is the main component of dietary
    fiber (although fungi and crustaceans have cell
    walls made up of the polysaccharide chitin.
  • Fiber helps to prevent constipation, by
    increasing the bulk of material in the large
  • Fiber might help to prevent obesity by increasing
    bulk in the stomach, reducing the desire to eat.
  • Fiber may reduce the risks of appendicitis, colon
    cancer, and hemorrhoids.
  • Fiber might slow the rate of sugar absorption,
    helping to prevent and treat diabetes.

Food Miles
  • The term food miles was coined to express the
    distance from where food was produced to where it
    is consumed. The longer the distance food has to
    travel, the greater the environmental impact.

(No Transcript)
Food Miles(the controversy)
  • Some consumers now refuse to buy foods with high
    food miles, preferring to buy food that is
    local. Other consumers are not concerned about
    food miles and, instead, want continuity of
    supply throughout the year and maximum choice of
    world foods.
  • Environmentalists point out that there are other
    energy costs in food production, including the
    use/abuse of cheap labor, pesticides and
    fertilizers, increased air pollution, traffic
    congestion, and release of greenhouse gases.

Ethical Issues of Meat Consumption
  • Many people choose what to eat, based on likes
    and dislikes, availability, choice and cost. Some
    people also have ethical reasons for not eating
    certain foods.
  • Background
  • Vegetarians do not eat the flesh of any animals
    no red meat, no poultry, and no fish.
  • Some vegetarians (vegans) do not eat ANY animal
    products (eggs, milk, dairy, honey) or any
    product that contains animal products.
  • For some vegetarians and vegans, vegetarianism
    goes even further . . . They will not wear/use
    leather, fur, wool or silk.

Ethics of Eating animal Products
  • Meat Animals have to be killed to obtain meat,
    usually after rearing them on a farm or In a
  • Is it right for one animal to take the life of
    another animal to obtain food?
  • Is the pain caused to animals during
    transport/slaughter justified?
  • Is the suffering of animals reared for meat in
    unnatural and crowded conditions justifiable.
  • What are the consequences of land deforestation,
    antibiotic/hormone use?
  • Milk Cows and other mammals produce milk after
    giving birth. This milk can be used for human
    consumption if the calf or young mammal is
    separated from its mother soon after birth.
  • Is the huge milk production of cows acceptable,
    given that it is associated with health problems
    and a short life expectancy?
  • Is the suffering of cows whose claves are taken
    away soon after birth justifiable?
  • Is it acceptable to make cows have calves in
    order to stimulate milk production, when these
    calves will only be killed?
  • Eggs Most eggs come from hens (female birds)
    that have been specially bread for prolific egg
  • Is it acceptable to breed and keep kens that
    produce far greater numbers of eggs than their
    wild relatives?
  • Is the suffering of egg-laying hens kept in
    unnatural conditions justifiablesmall cages or
    large groups.
  • Is it acceptable to kill male chicks at 1-3 days
    old because they do not lay eggs.
  • Honey Bees are kept alive in hives and surplus
    honey is removed when available.
  • Is it justifiable to take honey from bees that
    have stored it for their own use within the bee
  • Is it acceptable to keep bees in an area where
    the bees will compete with wild insects that
    forage on nectar from flowers?

The Stats Shocking Facts
Ethical issues and meat consumption
  • Arguments for a Vegetarian Lifestyle
  • Killing sentient beings is wrong, especially if
    it is not necessary for survival. Sentient
    means having a nervous system, implying the
    organisms can perceive sensations like pleasure
    or pain.
  • Raising animals for the sole purpose of
    slaughtering them for human consumption is wrong.
  • Intensive livestock production is a wasteful
    industry which misuses valuable resources and
  • Mass production/factory industrial farming uses
    practices that are unnecessarily cruel including
    penning up animals, restricting their movements,
    cutting/burning off beaks, exposing animals to
    artificial light only, transporting them in
    uncomfortable conditions over long distances.
  • Arguments Against Vegetarianism
  • Farm animals such as cows, sheep, pigs and
    chickens would not exist if not raised for food.
  • Without meat production and fishing industries,
    thousands of jobs would be lost.
  • Meat and fish can be grown in decent conditions
    as in free-range, free-from-cruelty, and
    organic practices.

Factory Farming Animation
Documentaries/LecturesWarning Some of these
videos are Graphic/Disturbing
Option A Documentaries/Lectures
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com