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General Pathology

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Basic Principles of Cellular and Organ Pathology Infection II & Autoimmune Diseases http://www1.lf1.cuni.cz/~jdusk/ Jaroslava Du kov Inst. Pathol. ,1st Med ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Pathology


1
General Pathology
  • Basic Principles of Cellular and Organ Pathology
  • Infection II
  • Autoimmune Diseases

http//www1.lf1.cuni.cz/jdusk/
Jaroslava Dušková Inst. Pathol. ,1st Med.
Faculty, Charles Univ. Prague
2
Inflammation - causes
  • nonliving
  • physical
  • chemical
  • living
  • prions (?)
  • viral
  • bacterial
  • mycotic
  • parasitic
  • AUTOIMMUNE

3
Infectious Agents of Humans Viruses
  • virion
  • obligate intracellular
  • either DNA (adeno, herpes, pox, cytomegalo, EB,
    papova, HPV, ..
  • or RNA (picorna - entero, polio, coxsackie
    arbo, rhino, arbo, myxo, paramyxo, RS, rubeola,
    rabdo, retro,)

4
Virion
  • capsid
  • helical symmetry
  • icosaedral symmetry
  • genome
  • DNA
  • RNA

5
Host Microorganism Encounter
  • General
  • Natural defenses
  • Inflammation
  • Immune status
  • Successful transmission
  • Site of attack
  • Number of microorg.
  • Pathogenicity

6
Host
  • Inflammation
  • leucocytes
  • macrophages -phagocytosis
  • Immune status
  • immunity (or lack of it)
  • active, passive immunisation, contact
  • lymphocytes
  • immunoglobulins
  • complement
  • General
  • age, race, nutrition, other diseases (diabetes)
  • Natural defenses
  • skin, mucose integrity
  • mucus, cilliary action, unobstructed flow
  • protective secretion (lysosym in tears, gastric
    acid, IgA

7
Microorganism
  • Successful transmission
  • Site of attack
  • Number of microorg.
  • Pathogenicity invasiveness
  • toxin production
  • multiplication
  • resistence to host
    defence mechanisms
  • ability to cause necrosis
  • enzyme release

8
Virus Host Cell Interaction
  • cytocidal
  • stabilised (steady state)
  • transformation ONCOGENS

9
Virus-Induced Injury
  • cell entering - surface ligands viral tropism
  • translocation of the entire virus
  • fusion of the viral envelope with the cell
    membrane
  • receptor mediated endocytosis
  • intracellular replicative phase forming of
    virions using virus specific enzymes
  • virus assembly release extracellular phase

10
Virus Organism Interaction
  • infected cell
  • lysis by antibody and complement
  • cell mediated immunity lymphocytes
    macrophages interferon ?

11
Virus-Induced Injury
  • Host cell responses
  • DNA, RNA and protein synthesis
  • metabolic derangements
  • cell lysis / cell fusion
  • multinuclear formation
  • viral inclusions

12
Infectious Agents of Humans Viruses
  • virion
  • obligate intracellular
  • either DNA (adeno, herpes, pox, cytomegalo, EB,
    papova, HPV, ..
  • or RNA (picorna entero, polio, coxsackie
    arbo, rhino, arbo, myxo, paramyxo, RS, rubeola,
    rabdo, retro,)

13
Inflammation
  • Definition
  • complex reaction of organism to damage
  • (aim homeostasis maintenance)

14
Inflammation - Causes
  • nonliving
  • physical
  • chemical
  • living
  • viral
  • bacterial
  • mycotic
  • parasitic
  • AUTOIMMUNE

15
Inflammation immunity
  • Nonspecific antibodies
  • imunocomplexes on dendritic cells
  • long lasting antigen presentation

16
Mechanisms of Immune Response
  • antigen specific
  • humoral B lymphocytes
  • cellular T lymphocytes
  • INTERACTION
  • B-lymphoTh affinity maturation plasmocyte

17
Autoimmunity
  • Def.
  • lack of self-tolerance

18
Autoimmunity
  • constant activity in
  • organogenesis
  • regeneration
  • metalaxia

19
Autoimmune Diseases
  • loss of self-tolerance resulting into damage of
    organ /tissue

20
Mechanisms Preventing Antiself Reactivity
  • clonal deletion (thymus)
  • clonal anergy (thymus)
  • peripheral clonal supression by
    Tsupressor cells ( B,T helpers)

21
Inflammation autoimmune Systemic autoimmune
diseases
  • DISEASE
  • SLE
  • RA
  • Sjögren dis.
  • Syst. sclerodermia
  • Dermatopolymyositis
  • Prim. vasc. syndromes
  • ANTIBODY
  • ANA, ENA
  • collag. II, Fc Ig
  • (rheum. factor)
  • ANA,ENA
  • ENA (Scl70)
  • ENA (Jo1)
  • ANCA

22
Inflammation autoimmune Organ autoimmune
diseases skin
  • ANTIBODY
  • intercel. epit. matrix
  • basal membrane of epidermis
  • DISEASE
  • pemphigus
  • pemphigoid

23
Inflammation autoimmune Organ autoimmune
diseases endocrine
  • ANTIBODY
  • TGB, microsomes
  • pancreas ? cells
  • insulin
  • ins. receptors
  • adrenal microsomes
  • TSH rec.
  • DISEASE
  • GB, HT
  • DM I
  • Ires. DM
  • Ires. DM
  • Adison dis.
  • GB

24
Inflammation autoimmune Organ autoimmune
diseases GIT
  • ANTIBODY
  • mitochondrie
  • membr. hct., cytosol
  • gliadin
  • DISEASE
  • prim. bill. cirrhosis
  • CAH
  • gluten enteropathy

25
Inflammation autoimmune Organ autoimmune
diseases CNS
  • ANTIBODY
  • acetylcholin rec.
  • basic myelin protein
  • DISEASE
  • myasthenia gravis
  • disseminated sclerosis
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