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SPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES: The Lymphatic and Immune System

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SPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES: The Lymphatic and Immune System – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES: The Lymphatic and Immune System


1
SPECIFIC BODY DEFENSES The Lymphatic and Immune
System
2
I. Basics
  • A.  Functions
  •   1.   Absorption and return of excess
    fluid the blood stream
  •   2.  Absorption of fat (in the villi of the
    small intestine)
  • 3.   Immune System Function

3
I. Lymphatic System Basics
  • B. Composed of
  • 1. Lymph interstitial fluid
  • 2. Lymph vessels
  • a.  Closely associated with circulatory
    system
  • b.  Similar to veins
  • c.  Contraction of skeletal mscl causes
    movement of lymph fluid through valves

4
I. Basics
  • B. Composed of
  • 3. Lymph Organs
  • a. Lymph nodes
  • Areas of Concentrated lymphocytes and macrophages
    along the lymphatic vessels
  • Filter lymph

5
I. Basics
  • B. Composed of
  • 3. Lymph Organs
  • b. Bone Marrow produces
  • lymphocytes
  • c. Spleen Serves as
  • Blood reservoir
  • Purifies blood and lymph

6
I. Basics
  • B. Composed of
  • 3. Lymph Organs
  • c.  Thymus
  • causes pre-T cells to mature to T-cells
  • d.  Tonsils
  • e.  Pyers Patches

7
II. Immune Response
  • A. Basics
  • 1. The body's 3rd line of defense
  • 2. Amplifies inflammatory response
  • B. Important Aspects
  • 1. Antigen specific
  • 2. Systemic
  • 3. Has memory

8
II. Immune Response
  • C. Kinds of Immune Response
  • 1. Specific Immunity
  • a. Antibodies bind only to antigen
  • b. B-lymphocytes antibody prod.
  • c. T-lymphocytes produce
    lymphokines
  • 2.  Nonspecific Defense
  • a. Physical barriers
  • b. Tears
  • c. Phagocytes
  • d. Fever / Inflammation

9
D. Kinds of Immune Response
  • 1. Humoral Immunity
  • a. Provided by antibodies in the bodies
    humors (fluids)
  • b. Antibodies.
  • 1)    Are produced by lymphocytes
  • 2)    Circulate freely in the blood and lymph
  • 3) Bind primarily to bacteria, toxins,
    free viruses
  • inactivates marks for destruction

10
D. Kinds of Immune Response
  • 2. Cell Mediated Immunity
  • a. Provided by nonantibody- producing
    lymphocytes
  • b. Directly attack and lyse body cells.
  • 1)    containing viruses or parasite
  • 2)    Cancer cells
  • 3) Foreign grafts
  • c. Release chemical mediators
  • 1)   enhances inflammatory resp.
  • 2)   Help activate lymphocytes or macrophages

11
III. Cells of the Immune Sys.
  • B. Natural Killer Cells
  • 1. Similar to the killer T cell
  • 2. Function as effector cells that directly
    kill certain tumors and viral-infected cells
  • 3. kill their targets without a prior
    "conference" in the lymphoid organs.
  • 4.  More efficient if 1st activated by T-cells

12
III. Cells of the Immune Sys.
  • C. B Cells
  • 1. production of antibodies
  • 2.  Antibody production and binding to a
    foreign substance or antigen, often is critical
    as a means of signaling other cells to engulf,
    kill or remove that substance from the body

13
III. Cells of the Immune Sys.
  • D. Granulocytes or Polymorphonuclear
    (PMN) Leukocytes
  • 1. neutrophils
  • 2.  Important in the removal of bacteria and
    parasites

14
III. Cells of the Immune Sys.
  • E. Macrophages and Dendritic Cells
  • 1. regulate immune responses
  • 2.  antigen-presenting cells (APC)
  • 3. Functions
  • Phagocytes
  • Secretion of cytokines
  • Antigen presentation

15
III. Cells of the Immune Sys.
  • F. Dendritic Cells
  • 1. antigen-presenting cells
  • 2. More efficient APC than macrophages
  • 3. capture antigen or bring it to the lymphoid
    organs where an 4. bind high amount of HIV, and
    may be a reservoir of virus

16
III. OTHER
  • A. Active, Passive and Acquired Immunity
  • 1. Active Immunity
  • achieved by responses of ones immune
    system
  • 2. Passive Immunity
  • achieved with exogenous immune cells or
    products

17
III. OTHER
  • A. Active, Passive and Acquired
    Immunity
  • 3. Acquired Immunity
  • comes from infection or from a new borns
    mothe 4. Artificial Immunity
  • comes from immunizations

18
III. OTHER
  • C. Autoimmune diseases
  • 1. diseases caused by failure of the immune
    system to recognize self
  • 2. Examples
  • a.    rheumatoid arthritis (joints)
  • b.    lupus erythematosus (connective
    tissue)
  • c.     Graves disease (thyroid)

19
III. OTHER
  • D. AIDS - Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • 1. Causes death
  • 2.    Caused by Human Immunodeficiency
    Virus (HIV)
  • 3. kills T-4 lymphocytes
  • 4. T-4 lymphocytes induce
  • B-lymphocytes to fight infection
  • 5. Debilitated immune system

20
III. OTHER
  • D. AIDS - Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • 6. no cure for HIV
  • 7. HIV infection causes AIDS, and AIDS
    allows other infections to kill the person
    with the HIV infection

21
D. Kinds of Immune Response
  • 2. Cell Mediated Immunity
  • a. Provided by nonantibody- producing
    lymphocytes
  • b. Directly attack and lyse body cells.
  • 1)    containing viruses or parasite
  • 2)    Cancer cells
  • 3) Foreign grafts
  • c. Release chemical mediators
  • 1)   enhances inflammatory resp.
  • 2)   Help activate lymphocytes or macrophages
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