Immune System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Immune System PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 72b189-YzE1N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Immune System

Description:

Immune System Chapter 21 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:504
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 29
Provided by: Xel8
Category:
Tags: cells | immune | system

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Immune System


1
Immune System
  • Chapter 21

2
(No Transcript)
3
Nonspecific Defenses
  • Species resistance - docking sites on cells only
    allow certain pathogens to attach. Ex you cant
    get
  • Tobacco mosaic virus
  • Dutch elm disease
  • Distemper

4
  • Mechanical Chemical Barriers
  • 1st Line of Defense
  • Skin and mucous membranes
  • Stomach - HCl
  • Tears - lysozyme
  • Hair

5
  • 2nd Line of Defense
  • Inflammation chemotactic proteins
  • Phagocytosis macrophages and neutrophils

6
  • Natural Killer Cells tumor cells and cells with
    viral infections
  • Interferon anti-viral proteins
  • Complement Proteins causes lysis of antigen
  • Fever

7
2nd line of defense Inflammatory Process
  • White blood cells (WBC) are released
  • Monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils,
    natural killer cells
  • Blood vessels expand near the wound or entry.
  • Swelling occurs (caused by histamine) which
    increases body temperature to kill off pathogens
  • Basophils released

8
Specific Cellular Defenses
  • Overview of Immune Response
  • Humoral Immunity
  • Provided by antibodies
  • Produced by lymphocytes
  • Bind to bacteria and free floating viruses

9
  • Cell Mediated Immunity
  • Special lymphocytes direct the attack of infected
    cells
  • Attack cancer cells, parasites, transplants
  • Release chemicals to mediate OR stimulate other
    parts of the immune system

10
  • Antigens
  • Large molecules that interact and respond to
    cells and immune chemicals
  • Antibodies
  • Native antigens immunoglobulins

11
  • Humoral Immunity (B-Cell Immunity)
  • Produced in the bone marrow
  • Produce antibodies
  • Stimulated by antigens and/or lymphokines

12
  • 2 types of B cells
  • Plasma cells make antibodies (2000/sec) and
    memory cells
  • Memory cells remain for a lifetime to produce
    more antibodies if antigen returns

13
  • Antibodies
  • 5 classes
  • IgD attached to B cells act as a receptor
    sites
  • IgM RBC, food and bacterial markers stimulates
    complement proteins agglutinating agent

14
  • IgG main antibody tissue marker, virus,
    bacteria and toxin antibody
  • IgA found in milk, tears, urine, sweat
    prevents attachment of pathogens to epithelial
    tissues
  • IgE associated with allergies cause release of
    histamine

15
(No Transcript)
16
  • Responsible for 1o and 2o immune response
  • 1o - initial exposure to antigen, plasma cells
    produce antibodies lag time
  • 2o subsequent exposure to previous antigen
    produce 1000s of antibodies within hours

17
  • Types of Antibody Immunity
  • Acquired Immunity
  • Active artificial vaccine of the antigen
    (measles) requires boosters
  • Passive artificial vaccine of antibodies from
    another infected animal (rabies)

18
  • Natural Immunity
  • Active natural get the disease lifetime
    immunity
  • Passive natural mothers antibodies are passed
    to fetus prior to birth short-term

19
  • Cell-Mediated Immunity
  • T cells
  • Originate and mature in the thymus
  • Must become tolerant to bodys own proteins so
    as not to react to them
  • Can only recognize an antigen when it is bound
    to another immune cell

20
  • Secrete lymphokines to stimulate cloning of
    other immune cells
  • 4 types
  • Cytotoxic (killer) T cells secrete perforin
    which lyses target cells
  • Helper T cells direct cloning of other T B
    cells through secretion of lymphokines

21
  • Suppressor T cells dampens activity of killer
    helper cells
  • Delayed hypersensitivity T cells play role in
    allergies and chronic inflammation

22
Organ Transplants
  • 4 Types of transplants (grafts)
  • Autografts self to self always successful
  • Isografts identical twins always successful

23
  • Allografts same species used most often
    complications due to tissue typing
  • Xenografts different species rarely successful

24
  • Following transplantation
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Cytotoxic drugs
  • Radiation
  • Cyclosporin to suppress production of
    interleukins, Helper T and Cytotoxic T cells
    without stopping production of already sensitized
    B cells

25
  • Rejection
  • Early inadequate blood supply to graft
  • Late burst of unexplained antibodies

26
Homeostatic Imbalances
  • Immunodeficiencies
  • Autoimmunity

27
  • Hypersensitivities body responds to a harmless
    antigen
  • Immediate hypersensitivity- within minutes
  • Cytotoxic hypersensitivity transfusion reactions

28
  • Immune-complex hypersensitivity strep, malaria,
    chronic viral infections cause rashes, swollen
    lymph nodes
  • Delayed hypersensitivity poison ivy, cosmetics
About PowerShow.com