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Title: Module 1


1
Module 1
  • Discovering Psychology

2
INTRODUCTION
  • Growing up in a strange world
  • Autism
  • especially abnormal or impaired development in
    social interactions, such as hiding to avoid
    people, not making eye contact, and not wanting
    to be touched
  • Autism is marked by difficulties in
    communicating, such as grave problems in
    developing spoken language or in initiating
    conversations

3
DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY
  • What do psychologists study?
  • Psychology
  • the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and
    mental processes
  • Behaviors
  • refers to observable actions or responses in both
    humans and animals
  • Mental processes
  • not directly observable, refer to a wide range of
    complex mental processes, such as thinking,
    imagining, studying, and dreaming

4
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY
  • Describe
  • Explain
  • Predict
  • Control

5
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY (CONT.)
  • Describe
  • first goal of psychology is to describe the
    different ways that organisms behave
  • Explain
  • second goal of psychology is to explain the cause
    of behavior

6
GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY (CONT.)
  • Predict
  • third goal of psychology is to predict how
    organisms will behave in certain situations
  • Control
  • the fourth goal of psychology is to control an
    organisms behavior

7
ANSWERING QUESTIONS
  • How do psychologists answer questions?
  • Approaches to understanding behavior include
  • Biological
  • Cognitive
  • Behavioral
  • Psychoanalytic
  • Humanistic
  • Cross cultural

8
ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)
  • Biological approach
  • focuses on how our genes, hormones, and nervous
    system interact with our environments to
    influence learning, personality, memory,
    motivation, emotions, and coping techniques
  • Examples
  • Autism
  • Autism runs in families supported by the
    findings in identical twins
  • If one twin has autism, there is a high 90
    chance the other twin will exhibit signs for
    autistic behavior

9
ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)
  • Cognitive approach
  • examines how we process, store, and use
    information and how this information influences
    what we attend to, perceive, learn, remember,
    believe, and feel
  • Cognitive neuroscience
  • Involves taking pictures and identifying the
    structures and functions of the living brain
    during the performance of a wide variety of
    mental or cognitive processes, such as thinking,
    planning, naming, and recognizing objects

10
ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)
  • Behavioral approach
  • studies how organisms learn new behaviors or
    modify existing ones, depending on whether events
    in their environments reward or punish these
    behaviors
  • some behaviorists, such as Albert Bandura,
    disagree with strict behaviorism
  • formulated a theory that includes mental or
    cognitive processes in addition to observable
    behaviors
  • Social Cognitive Approach
  • behaviors are influenced not only by
    environmental events and reinforcers but also by
    observation, imitation, and thought processes

11
ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)
  • Psychoanalytic approach
  • Based on the belief that childhood experiences
    greatly influence the development of later
    personality traits and psychological problems
  • stresses the influence of unconscious fears,
    desires, and motivations on thoughts, behaviors,
    and the development of personality traits and
    psychological problems later in life

12
ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)
  • Humanistic approach
  • emphasizes that each individual has great freedom
    in directing his or her future, a large capacity
    for personal growth, a considerable amount of
    intrinsic worth, and enormous potential for
    self-fulfillment

13
ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)
  • Cross-cultural approach
  • examines the influence of cultural and ethnic
    similarities and differences on psychological and
    social functioning of a cultures members
  • Differences in how countries diagnose autism
  • United States
  • symptoms described 60 years ago
  • first thought to be caused by environmental
    factors, (cold parents)
  • 1960s changed to searching for biological
    problems
  • Diagnoses begins at 2-3 years of age

14
HISTORICAL APPROACHES
  • How did psychology begin?
  • Structuralism Elements of the Mind
  • Functionalism Functions of the Mind
  • Gestalt Approach Sensations versus Perceptions
  • Behaviorism Observable Behaviors

15
Module 2
  • Psychology Science

16
ANSWERING QUESTIONS
  • Research methods
  • Survey
  • Case study
  • Experiment

17
ANSWERING QUESTIONS (CONT.)
  • Researchers use all three methods
  • survey
  • case study
  • experiment
  • each method provides a different kind of
    information

18
SURVEYS
  • Survey
  • way to obtain information by asking many
    individuals
  • answer a fixed set of questions about particular
    subjects

19
SURVEYS (CONT.)
  • Disadvantages
  • information can contain errors
  • results can be biased
  • Advantage
  • efficient way to obtain much information from a
    large number of people

20
CASE STUDY
  • Case study
  • an in-depth analysis of the thoughts, feelings,
    beliefs, experiences, behaviors, or problems of a
    single individual
  • Personal Case Study Testimonial
  • statement in support of a particular viewpoint
    based on detailed observation of a persons own
    personal experience
  • Error and Bias Self-fulfilling Prophecy
  • A strong belief or making a statement (prophecy)
    about a future behavior and then acting, usually
    unknowingly, to fulfill or carry out the behavior

21
CASE STUDY (CONT.)
  • Disadvantage
  • detailed information about a particular person
    may not apply to others
  • Advantage
  • detailed information allows greater understanding
    of a particular persons life

22
EXPERIMENT
  • Experiment
  • a method for identifying cause-and-effect
    relationships by following a set of rules and
    guidelines that minimize the possibility of
    error, bias, and chance occurrences

23
EXPERIMENT (CONT.)
  • Disadvantage
  • information obtained in one experimental
    situation or laboratory setting may not apply to
    other situations
  • Advantage
  • has the greatest potential for identifying
    cause-and-effect relationships with less error
    and bias than either surveys or case studies

24
CULTURAL DIVERSITY USE OF PLACEBOS
  • Placebo
  • intervention, such as taking a pill, receiving
    and injection, or undergoing an operation, that
    resembles medical therapy but which in fact, has
    no medical effects
  • Placebo effect
  • change in the patients illness that is
    attributable to an imagined treatment rather than
    to a medical treatment

25
CULTURAL DIVERSITY USE OF PLACEBOS (CONT.)
  • researchers believe that placebos work by
    reducing tension and distress and by creating
    powerful self-fulfilling prophecies
  • individuals think and behave as if the drug,
    actually a placebo, is effective

26
CULTURAL DIVERSITY USE OF PLACEBOS (CONT.)
  • Placebo examples
  • Rhino Horn
  • Bear Gallbladders
  • Tiger Bones
  • Cough Medication

27
CORRELATION
  • Correlation
  • an association or relationship between the
    occurrence of two or more events
  • Correlation coefficient
  • a number that indicates the strength of a
    relationship between two or more events the
    closer the number is to 1.00 or 1.00, the
    greater is the strength of the relationship

28
CORRELATION
29
CORRELATION (CONT.)
  • Perfect positive correlation coefficient
  • 1.00 means that an increase in one event is
    always matched by an equal increase in a second
    event
  • Positive correlation coefficient
  • indicates that as one event tends to increase,
    the second event tends to, but does not always,
    increase
  • increases from 0.01 to 0.99 indicate a
    strengthening of the relationship between the
    occurrence of two events

30
CORRELATION (CONT.)
  • Zero correlation
  • indicates that there is no relationship between
    the occurrence of one event and the occurrence of
    a second event
  • Negative correlation coefficient
  • indicates that as one event tends to increase,
    the second event tends to, but does not always,
    decrease
  • -0.01 to -0.99 indicates a strengthening in the
    relationship of one event increasing and the
    other decreasing

31
CORRELATION (CONT.)
  • Perfect negative correlation coefficient
  • -1.00 means that an increase in one event is
    always matched by an equal decrease in a second
    event
  • correlations such as 1.00 are virtually never
    found in applied psychological research

32
DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH
  • What is the best technique for answering a
    question?
  • Questionnaires and interviews
  • Laboratory experiments
  • Standardized tests
  • Animal models

33
DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.)
  • Interview
  • technique for obtaining information by asking
    questions, ranging from open-ended to highly
    structured, about a subjects behaviors and
    attitudes, usually in a one-on-one situation
  • Questionnaire
  • technique for obtaining information by asking
    subjects to read a list of written questions and
    check off specific answers

34
DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.)
  • Laboratory experiments
  • techniques to gather information about the brain,
    genes, or behavior with the least error and bias
    by using a controlled environment that allows
    careful observation and measurement
  • Standardized tests
  • technique to obtain information by administering
    a psychological test that has been given to
    hundreds of people and shown to reliably measure
    thought patterns, personality traits, emotions,
    or behaviors

35
DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.)
  • Animal Models
  • involves examining or manipulating some
    behavioral, genetic, or physiological factor that
    closely approximates some human problem, disease,
    or condition
  • Example
  • human stem cell transplants in mice with spinal
    cord injuries

36
DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.)
  • Choosing research settings
  • Naturalistic setting
  • Laboratory setting

37
DECISIONS ABOUT DOING RESEARCH (CONT.)
  • Naturalistic setting
  • relatively normal environment in which
    researchers gather information by observing
    individuals behaviors without attempting to
    change or control the situation
  • Laboratory setting
  • involves studying individuals under systematic
    and controlled conditions, with many of the
    real-world influences eliminated

38
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT
  • Advantages of scientific method
  • Scientific Method
  • approach of gathering information and answering
    questions so that errors and biases are minimized

39
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT (CONT.)
  • Conducting an Experiment seven rules
  • Rule 1 Ask
  • Rule 2 Identify
  • Rule 3 Choose
  • Rule 4 Assign
  • Rule 5 Manipulate
  • Rule 6 Measure
  • Rule 7 Analyze

40
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT (CONT.)
  • Rule 1 Ask
  • hypothesis
  • educated guess about some phenomenon stated in
    precise, concrete language to rule out any
    confusion or error in the meaning of its terms

41
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT (CONT.)
  • Rule 2 Identify
  • independent variable
  • a treatment or something that the researcher
    controls or manipulates
  • dependent variable
  • one or more of the subjects behaviors that are
    used to measure the potential effects of the
    treatment or independent variable

42
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT (CONT.)
  • Rule 3 Choose
  • random selection
  • each participant in a sample population has an
    equal chance of being selected for the experiment
  • Rule 4 Assign
  • experimental group
  • those who receive the treatment
  • control group
  • participants who undergo all the same procedures
    as the experimental participants except that the
    control participants do not receive the treatment

43
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT (CONT.)
  • Rule 5 Manipulate
  • double blind procedure
  • neither participants nor researchers know which
    group is receiving which treatment
  • Rule 6 Measure
  • by manipulating the treatment so that the
    experimental group receives a different treatment
    than the control group, researchers are able to
    measure how the independent variable (treatment)
    affects those behaviors that have been selected
    as the dependent variables

44
SCIENTIFIC METHOD EXPERIMENT (CONT.)
  • Rule 7 Analyze
  • statistical procedures
  • used to determine whether differences observed in
    dependent variables (behaviors) are due to
    independent variables (treatment) or to error or
    chance occurrence

45
Module 3
  • Brains Building Blocks

46
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN
  • fact that your brain does not develop into a nose
    is because of instructions contained in your
    genes
  • Genes
  • chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs
    on a twisting ladder
  • there are about 20,000-25,000 genes that contain
    chemical instructions that equal about 300,000
    pages of written instructions
  • genes program the development of individual parts
    into a complex body brain

47
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
48
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Insert pictures of
  • Six week old brain
  • Mature brain

49
STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN
  • Human brain
  • is shaped like a small wrinkled melon
  • 1,350 grams (less than 3 pounds)
  • pinkish-white color
  • consistency of firm Jell-O
  • Fueled by sugar (glucose)
  • 1 trillion cells divided into
  • glial cells
  • neurons

50
STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Glial cells
  • 3 Functions
  • guide the growth of developing neurons
  • wrap around neurons and form an insulation to
    prevent interference from other electrical
    signals
  • release chemicals that influence a neurons
    growth and function

51
STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
52
STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Neuron
  • a brain cell with 2 specialized extensions
  • one extension is for receiving electrical signals
  • the other extension is for transmitting
    electrical signals

53
STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
54
STRUCTURE OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Insert video Main Parts of the Neuron,
    Psychology Digital Video Library 3.0. Debra
    Schwiesow, page 17

55
GROWTH OF NEW NEURONS
  • Can a brain grow new neurons?
  • canary brain
  • can grow about 20,000 neurons a day during the
    spring (learns new breeding song)
  • primate and human brain
  • researchers conclude that adult monkey and human
    brains are capable of growing relatively limited
    numbers of neurons throughout adulthood
  • Some new neurons play important role in
    continuing to learn and remember new things
    (hippocampus)

56
GROWTH OF NEW NEURONS (CONT.)
  • Repairing the Brain
  • advances in stem research suggest the human brain
    may be able to grow more neurons
  • repair damages
  • accident
  • disease
  • Alzheimers

57
PARTS OF THE NEURON
  • Cell Body
  • large egg-shaped structure that provides fuel,
    manufactures chemicals, and maintains the entire
    neuron in working order
  • Dendrite
  • branchlike extensions that arise from the cell
    body
  • receive signals from other neurons, muscles, or
    sense organs
  • pass these signals onto the cell body

58
PARTS OF THE NEURON (CONT.)
  • Axon
  • a single threadlike structure that extends from
    and carries signals away from the cell body to
    neighboring neurons, organs, or muscles
  • Myelin Sheath
  • looks like separate tubelike segments composed of
    fatty material that wraps around and insulates an
    axon
  • prevents interference from electrical signals
    generated in adjacent axons

59
PARTS OF THE NEURON (CONT.)
  • End bulbs or Terminal bulbs
  • located at extreme ends of the axons branches
  • miniature container that stores chemicals called
    neurotransmitters (used to communicate with
    neighboring cells)
  • Synapse
  • infinitely small space (20-30 billionths of a
    meter)
  • exists between and end bulb and its adjacent body
    organ, heart, muscles, or cell body

60
ALZHEIMERS DISEASE AND NEURONS
  • Alzheimers disease
  • excessive buildup of gluelike substances
  • gradually destroy neurons
  • Researchers recently discovered an experimental
    vaccine that may help stop the buildup of these
    gluelike, killer substances and they continue to
    search for other interventions

61
PERIPHERAL CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • made up of nerves that are located throughout the
    body, except in the brain spinal cord
  • Central Nervous System
  • made up of neurons located in the brain spinal
    cord

62
PERIPHERAL CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CONT.)
  • Nerves
  • stringlike bundles of axons and dendrites that
    come from the spinal cord and are held together
    by connective tissue
  • carry information from the senses, skin, muscles,
    and the bodys organs to and from the spinal cord
  • nerves in the peripheral nervous system have the
    ability to grow or reattach if severed or damaged

63
SENDING INFORMATION ACTION POTENTIAL SEQUENCE
  • axon membrane has chemical gates that can open to
    allow electrically charged particles to enter or
    can close to keep out these particles
  • ions are chemical particles that have electrical
    charges
  • opposite charges attract and like charges repel

64
SENDING INFORMATION ACTION POTENTIAL SEQUENCE
(CONT.)
65
SENDING INFORMATION ACTION POTENTIAL SEQUENCE
(CONT.)
  • Resting state
  • the axon has a charge
  • the charge results from the axon membrane
    separating positive ions on the outside from
    negative ions on the inside

66
SENDING INFORMATION ACTION POTENTIAL SEQUENCE
(CONT.)
  • Action potential
  • tiny electric current that is generated when the
    positive sodium ions rush inside the axon
  • enormous increase of sodium ions inside the axon
    causes the inside of the axon to reverse its
    charge
  • inside becomes positive and outside becomes
    negative

67
SENDING INFORMATION ACTION POTENTIAL SEQUENCE
(CONT.)
68
The Action Potential
PLAY VIDEO
69
SENDING INFORMATION NERVE IMPULSE
  • Sending information
  • action potential is a tiny electrical current
    that is generated when the positive sodium ions
    rush inside the axon
  • the enormous increase of Na ions inside the axon
    causes the inside to reverse its charge
  • the inside becomes positive the outside becomes
    negative

70
SENDING INFORMATION NERVE IMPULSE (CONT.)
  • All-or-None law
  • if an action potential starts at the beginning of
    the axon, the action potential will continue at
    the same speed segment to segment to the very end
    of the axon
  • Nerve impulse
  • nerve impulse is made up of 6 action potentials,
    with the first occurring at the beginning of the
    axon

71
SENDING INFORMATION NERVE IMPULSE (CONT.)
72
TRANSMITTERS
  • A transmitter is a chemical messenger that
    transmits information between nerves and body
    organs, such as muscles and heart
  • Excitatory and Inhibitory
  • excitatory transmitters
  • open chemical locks and turn on neurons
  • inhibitory transmitters
  • block chemical locks and turn off neurons

73
NEUROTRANSMITTER
  • Neurotransmitters
  • dozens of different chemicals that are made by
    neurons and then used for communication between
    neurons during the performance of mental or
    physical activities

74
ALCOHOL
  • Alcohol (ethyl alcohol)
  • A psychoactive drug that is classified as a
    depressant, which means that it depresses the
    activity of the central nervous system

75
ALCOHOL
76
REFLEX
  • Reflex
  • unlearned, involuntary reaction to some stimulus
  • neural connections underlying a reflex are
    prewired by genetic instructions

77
REFLEX (CONT.)
  • Reflex sequence
  • sensors
  • sensors trigger neurons that start the withdrawal
    effect
  • afferent neurons
  • carry information from the senses to the spinal
    cord

78
REFLEX (CONT.)
  • Interneuron
  • relatively short neuron whose primary task is
    making connections between other neurons
  • Efferent neuron
  • carry information away from the spinal cord to
    produce responses in various muscles and organs
    throughout the body

79
Module 4
  • Incredible Nervous System

80
GENES EVOLUTION (CONT.)
  • Fertilization
  • human life has its beginnings when a fathers
    sperm, which contains 23 chromosomes, penetrates
    a mothers egg, which contains 23 chromosomes

81
GENES EVOLUTION (CONT.)
82
GENES EVOLUTION (CONT.)
  • Zygote
  • the largest human cell, about the size of a grain
    of sand
  • a zygote is a cell that results when an egg is
    fertilized
  • a zygote contains 46 chromosomes arranged in 23
    pairs

83
GENES EVOLUTION (CONT.)
  • Genes and proteins
  • Gene
  • a specific segment on the long strand of DNA that
    contains instructions for making proteins
  • Proteins
  • chemical building blocks from which all the parts
    of the brain and body are constructed

84
GENES EVOLUTION (CONT.)
  • Genome
  • The Human Genome Project
  • began in 1995 and cost over 2.7 billion
  • reached its first goal in 2003 of mapping all the
    human genes
  • researchers found only about 30,000 human genes
    instead of the estimated 100,000

85
EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BRAIN
  • Evolution of the human brain
  • 1859 Charles Darwin published the Origin of
    Species
  • Theory of Evolution
  • says that different species arose from a common
    ancestor and that those species that survived
    were best adapted to meet the demands of their
    environment
  • humans and chimpanzees share at least 98 of
    their DNA

86
STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.)
  • MRI
  • magnetic resonance imagery
  • involves passing nonharmful radio frequencies
    through the brain
  • fMRI
  • functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • measures the activity of specific neurons that
    are functioning during cognitive tasks, such as
    thinking, listening

87
STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Brain scans and Cognitive Neuroscience
  • PET scan
  • positron emission tomography
  • involves injecting a slightly radioactive
    solution into the blood and then measuring the
    amount of radiation absorbed by brain cells
    called neurons

88
STUDYING THE LIVING BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Brain scans and Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neuroimaging
  • PET and fMRI scans are used to identify and map
    the living brains neural activity as a person
    performs complex behavioral and cognitive tasks,
    such as
  • seeing
  • moving
  • thinking
  • speaking
  • empathizing
  • trusting
  • even reacting to TV violence

89
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Central nervous system - CNS
  • made up of the brain and spinal cord

90
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Peripheral nervous system - PNS
  • includes all the nerves that extend from the
    spinal cord and carry messages to and from
    various muscles, glands, and sense organs located
    throughout the body
  • Subdivisions of the PNS
  • somatic nervous system
  • autonomic nervous system - ANS
  • sympathetic division
  • parasympathetic division

91
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Somatic nervous system
  • network of nerves that connect either to sensory
    receptors or to muscles that you can move
    voluntarily, such as muscles in your limbs, back,
    neck, and chest
  • nerves contain two kinds of fibers
  • Afferent
  • sensory fibers carry information to the brain
  • Efferent
  • motor fibers carry information from brain or
    spinal cord to the muscles

92
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Autonomic nervous system - ANS
  • regulates heart rate, breathing, blood pressure,
    digestion, hormone secretion, and other functions
  • Sympathetic division
  • triggered by threatening or challenging physical
    or psychological stimuli, increases physiological
    arousal and prepares the body for action
  • Parasympathetic division
  • returns the body to a calmer, relaxed state and
    is involved in digestion

93
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Major Parts of the Brain
  • Forebrain
  • Midbrain
  • Hindbrain
  • pons
  • medulla
  • cerebellum

94
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Forebrain
  • largest part of the brain
  • has right and left sides called hemispheres
  • hemispheres are responsible for a number of
    functions, including learning and memory,
    speaking and language, emotional responses,
    experiencing sensations, initiating voluntary
    movements, planning, and making decisions

95
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Midbrain
  • has a reward or pleasure center, which stimulated
    by food, sex, money, music, looking at attractive
    faces, and some drugs (cocaine)
  • has areas for visual and auditory reflexes
  • contains the reticular formation, which arouses
    the forebrain so that it is ready to process
    information from the senses

96
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Hindbrain
  • Has three distinct structures
  • Pons
  • Medulla
  • Cerebellum

97
ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Pons
  • functions as a bridge to interconnect messages
    between the spinal cord and brain
  • Medulla
  • located on top of the spinal cord
  • includes a group of cells that control vital
    reflexes, such as respiration, heart rate, and
    blood pressure
  • Cerebellum
  • located in the very back and underneath the brain
  • involved in coordinating motor movements but not
    in initiating voluntary movements

98
CONTROL CENTERS FOUR LOBES (CONT.)
  • Frontal lobe
  • involved with personality, emotions, and motor
    behaviors
  • Parietal lobe
  • involved with perception and sensory experiences
  • Occipital lobe
  • involved with visual processing
  • Temporal lobe
  • involved with hearing and speaking

99
CONTROL CENTERS FOUR LOBES (CONT.)
  • Temporal lobe functions
  • primary auditory cortex
  • located on top edge of each temporal lobe,
    receives electrical signals from receptors in the
    ears and transforms these signals into meaningful
    sound sensations, such as vowels and consonants

100
CONTROL CENTERS FOUR LOBES (CONT.)
  • Temporal lobe functions
  • auditory association area
  • located directly below the primary auditory
    cortex
  • transforms basic sensory information, such as
    noises or sounds, into recognizable auditory
    information, such as words or music

101
CONTROL CENTERS FOUR LOBES (CONT.)
  • Occipital lobe functions
  • vision
  • primary visual cortex
  • located at the very back of the occipital lobe
  • receives electrical signals from receptors in the
    eyes and transforms these signals into
    meaningless basic visual sensations, such as
    lights, lines, shadows, colors, and textures

102
CONTROL CENTERS FOUR LOBES (CONT.)
  • Occipital lobe functions
  • visual association area
  • transforms basic sensations, such as lights,
    lines, colors, and textures, into complete,
    meaningful visual perceptions, such as persons,
    objects, or animals

103
CONTROL CENTERS FOUR LOBES (CONT.)
  • Visual agnosia
  • individual fails to recognize some object,
    person, or color
  • has ability to see and even describe pieces or
    parts of some visual stimulus

104
CONTROL CENTERS FOUR LOBES (CONT.)
  • Neglect Syndrome
  • refers to the failure of a patient to see objects
    or parts of the body on the side opposite the
    brain damage
  • may dress only on one side of body
  • may deny that opposite body parts are theirs

105
LIMBIC SYSTEM OLD BRAIN
  • group of about half a dozen interconnected
    structures that make up the core of the forebrain
  • involved with regulating many motivational
    behaviors such as obtaining food, drink, and sex
  • organizing emotional behaviors such as fear,
    anger, and aggression storing memories
  • Structures and functions
  • Hypothalamus
  • Amygdala
  • Thalamus
  • Hippocampus

106
LIMBIC SYSTEM OLD BRAIN
  • Structures and functions
  • Hypothalamus
  • Amygdala
  • Thalamus
  • Hippocampus

107
LIMBIC SYSTEM OLD BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Sympathetic
  • Parasympathetic

108
LIMBIC SYSTEM OLD BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Sympathetic
  • triggered by threatening or challenging physical
    or psychological stimuli
  • Physiological responses
  • increased heart rate, increased blood pressure,
    and dilated pupils
  • fight or flight

109
LIMBIC SYSTEM OLD BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Parasympathetic
  • decreases physiological arousal
  • returns the body to a calmer, more relaxed state
  • stimulates digestion during eating
  • Physiological responses
  • decreases heart rate
  • lowers blood pressure
  • stimulate digestion
  • body returns to more relaxed state

110
LIMBIC SYSTEM OLD BRAIN (CONT.)
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Homeostasis
  • sympathetic and parasympathetic systems work
    together to keep the bodys level of arousal in
    balance for optimum functioning

111
Module 5
  • Sensation

112
THREE DEFINITONS
  • Adaptation
  • the decreasing response of the sense organs, the
    more they are exposed to a continuous level of
    stimulation
  • Sensation versus perception
  • relatively meaningless bits of information that
    result when the brain processes electrical
    signals that come from the sense organs
  • perceptions
  • meaningful sensory experiences that result after
    the brain combines hundreds of sensations

113
THREE DEFINITONS (CONT.)
  • eyes, ears, nose, skin, and tongue are complex,
    miniaturized, living sense organs that
    automatically gather information about your
    environment
  • Transduction
  • process in which a sense organ changes, or
    transforms, physical energy into electrical
    signals that become neural impulses, which may be
    sent to the brain for processing

114
EYE VISION
  • Structure and function
  • eyes perform two separate processes
  • first gather and focus light into precise area
    in the back of eye
  • second area absorbs and transforms light waves
    into electrical impulses
  • process called transduction

115
EYE VISION (CONT.)
  • Structure and function
  • Vision 7 steps
  • Image reversed
  • Light waves
  • Cornea
  • Pupil
  • Iris
  • Lens
  • Retina

116
EYE VISION (CONT.)
  • rods
  • photoreceptor that contain a single chemical,
    called rhodopsin
  • activated by small amounts of light
  • very light sensitive
  • allow us to see in dim light
  • see only black, white and shades of gray

117
EYE VISION (CONT.)
  • cones
  • photoreceptors that contain three chemicals
    called opsins
  • activated in bright light
  • allow us to see color
  • cones are wired individually to neighboring cells
  • allows us to see fine detail

118
EYE VISION (CONT.)
  • Visual pathways eye to brain
  • Primary visual cortex
  • the back of the occipital lobes is where primary
    visual cortex transforms nerve impulses into
    simple visual sensations
  • Visual association areas
  • the primary visual cortex sends simple visual
    sensations to neighboring association areas

119
EYE VISION (CONT.)
  • Color Blindness
  • inability to distinguished two or more shades in
    the color spectrum
  • Monochromatic
  • total color blindness
  • black and white
  • result of only rods and one kind of functioning
    cone
  • Dichromatic
  • trouble distinguishing red from green
  • two kinds of cones
  • inherited genetic defect
  • mostly in males
  • See mostly shades of green

120
EAR AUDITION
  • Stimulus
  • Sound waves
  • stimuli for hearing (audition)
  • ripples of different sizes
  • sound waves travel through space with varying
    heights and frequency
  • Height
  • distance from the bottom to the top of a sound
    wave
  • called amplitude
  • Frequency
  • number of sound waves occurring within one second

121
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Loudness
  • subjective experience of a sounds intensity
  • brain calculates loudness from specific physical
    energy (amplitude of sound waves)
  • Pitch
  • subjective experience of a sound being high or
    low
  • brain calculates from specific physical stimuli
  • speed or frequency of sound waves
  • measured in cycles (how many sound waves in one
    second)

122
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Outer, middle, and inner ear
  • Outer ear
  • consists of three structures
  • external ear
  • auditory canal
  • tympanic membrane

123
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Outer, middle, and inner ear
  • Outer ear
  • external ear
  • oval shaped structure that protrudes from the
    side of the head
  • function
  • pick up sound waves and then send them down the
    auditory canal

124
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Outer, middle, and inner ear
  • Outer ear
  • auditory canal
  • long tube that funnels sound waves down its
    length so that the waves strike the tympanic
    membrane (ear drum)

125
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Outer, middle, and inner ear
  • Outer ear
  • tympanic membrane
  • taut, thin structure commonly called the eardrum
  • Sound waves strike the tympanic membrane and
    cause it to vibrate

126
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
127
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Outer, middle, and inner ear
  • Middle ear
  • bony cavity sealed at each end by membranes.
  • the membranes are connected by three tiny bones
    called ossicles
  • hammer, anvil and stirrup
  • hammer is attached to the back of the tympanic
    membrane
  • anvil receives vibrations from the hammer
  • stirrup makes the connection to the oval window
    (end membrane)

128
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Outer, middle, and inner ear
  • Inner ear
  • contains two structures sealed by bone
  • cochlea involved in hearing
  • vestibular system involved in balance

129
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Cochlea
  • bony coiled exterior that resembles a snails
    shell
  • contains receptors for hearing
  • function is transduction
  • transforms vibrations into nerve impulses that
    are sent to the brain for processing into
    auditory information

130
EAR AUDITION (CONT.)
  • Auditory brain areas
  • sensations and perceptions
  • two step process occurs after the nerve impulses
    reach the brain
  • primary auditory cortex
  • top edge of temporal lobe
  • transforms nerve impulses into basic auditory
    sensations
  • auditory association area
  • combines meaningless auditory sensations into
    perceptions, which are meaningful melodies,
    songs, words, or sentences

131
VESTIBULAR SYSTEM BALANCE
  • Position and balance
  • vestibular system is located above the cochlea in
    the inner ear
  • includes semicircular canals
  • bony arches set at different angles
  • each semicircular canal is filled with fluid that
    moves in response to movements of your head
  • canals have hair cells that respond to the fluid
    movement
  • function of vestibular system
  • include sensing the position of the head, keeping
    the head upright, and maintaining balance

132
CHEMICAL SENSES
  • Taste
  • chemical sense because the stimuli are various
    chemicals
  • tongue
  • surface of the tongue
  • taste buds

133
CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
  • Tongue
  • Five basic tastes
  • sweet
  • salty
  • sour
  • bitter
  • umami meaty-cheesy taste

134
CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
  • Surface of the tongue
  • chemicals, which are the stimuli for taste, break
    down into molecules
  • molecules mix with saliva and run into narrow
    trenches on the surface of the tongue
  • molecules then stimulate the taste buds

135
CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
  • Taste buds
  • shaped like miniature onions
  • receptors for taste
  • chemicals dissolved in saliva activate taste buds
  • produce nerve impulses that reach areas of the
    brains parietal lobe
  • brain transforms impulses into sensations of
    taste
  • Flavor
  • combination of taste and smell

136
CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
137
CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
  • Smell, or olfaction
  • Steps for olfaction
  • Stimulus
  • Olfactory cells
  • Sensation and memories
  • Functions of olfaction

138
CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
  • Smell, or olfaction
  • Olfactory cells
  • receptors for smell are located in a
    I-inch-square patch of tissue in the uppermost
    part of the nasal passages.
  • olfactory cells are covered in mucus
  • which dissolve volatile molecules and stimulate
    the cells
  • the cells trigger nerve impulses that travel to
    the brain
  • which interprets the impulses as different smells

139
CHEMICAL SENSES (CONT.)
  • Smell, or olfaction
  • Sensations and memories
  • nerve impulses travel to the olfactory bulb
  • impulses are relayed to the primary olfactory
    cortex
  • cortex transforms nerve impulses into olfactory
    sensations
  • can identify as many as 10,000 different odors
  • we stop smelling our deodorants or perfumes
    because of decreased responding
  • called adaptation

140
TOUCH
  • Touch
  • includes pressure, temperature, and pain

141
TOUCH (CONT.)
142
TOUCH (CONT.)
  • Receptors in the skin
  • skin
  • hair receptors
  • free nerve endings
  • Pacinian corpuscle

143
TOUCH (CONT.)
  • Skin
  • outermost layer
  • thin film of dead cells containing no receptors
  • just below, are first receptors which look like
    groups of threadlike extensions
  • middle and fatty layer
  • variety of receptors with different shapes and
    functions
  • some are hair receptors

144
TOUCH (CONT.)
  • Hair receptors
  • free nerve endings wrapped around the base of
    each hair follicle
  • hair follicles fire with a burst of activity when
    first bent
  • if hair remains bent for a period of time, the
    receptors will cease firing
  • sensory adaptation
  • example wearing a watch

145
TOUCH (CONT.)
  • Brain areas
  • somatosensory cortex
  • located in the parietal lobe
  • transforms nerve impulses into sensations of
    touch temperature, and pain

146
Module 6
  • Perception

147
PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS
  • Threshold
  • a point above which a stimulus is perceived and
    below which it is not perceived
  • threshold determines when we first become aware
    of a stimulus

148
PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS (CONT.)
  • Becoming aware of a stimulus
  • Gustav Fechner
  • defined the absolute threshold as the smallest
    amount of stimulus energy (such as sound or
    light) that can be observed or experienced
  • Absolute threshold
  • the intensity level of a stimulus such that a
    person will have a 50 chance of detecting it

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150
PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS (CONT.)
  • Subliminal stimulus
  • has an intensity that gives a person less than a
    50 chance of detecting the stimulus
  • breast cancer
  • accuracy problems
  • looking for ways to lower the threshold for
    detecting cancerous tumors and thus save patients
  • recently, use of digital mammograms (allows for
    images to be enhanced or magnified) is better in
    detecting cancerous tumors in women

151
PERCEPTUAL THRESHOLDS (CONT.)
  • E. H. Weber
  • worked on the problem of how we judge whether a
    stimulus, such as loud music, has increased or
    decreased in intensity
  • concept of just noticeable difference (JND)
  • refers to the smallest increase or decrease in
    the intensity of a stimulus that a person is able
    to detect
  • Webers law
  • The increase in intensity of a stimulus needed to
    produce a just noticeable difference grows in
    proportion to the intensity of the initial
    stimulus.

152
SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION
  • Basic Differences
  • Sensations
  • our first awareness of some outside stimulus
  • outside stimulus activates sensory receptors,
    which in turn produce electrical signals that are
    transformed by the brain into meaningless bits of
    information
  • Perceptions
  • the experience we have after our brain assembles
    and combines thousands of individual sensations
    into a meaningful pattern or image

153
SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  • Changing sensation into perception
  • Stimulus
  • change of energy in the environment, such as
    light waves, sound waves, mechanical pressure, or
    chemicals
  • Transduction
  • change physical energy into electrical signals
  • electrical signals are changed into impulses that
    travel into the brain
  • Brain
  • impulses from senses first go to different
    primary areas of the brain

154
SENSATION VERSUS PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  • Changing sensation into perception
  • brain association areas
  • sensation impulses are sent to the appropriate
    association area in the brain
  • Personalized perceptions
  • each of us has a unique set of personal
    experiences, emotions, and memories that are
    automatically added to our perceptions by other
    areas of the brain

155
RULES OF ORGANIZATION
  • Structuralist versus Gestalt psychologists
  • Structuralists
  • believed that you add together hundreds of basic
    elements to form complex perceptions
  • Gestaltists
  • believe our brains follow a set of rules that
    specify how individual elements are to be
    organized into a meaningful pattern, or
    perception

156
RULES OF ORGANIZATION (CONT.)
  • Organizational rules
  • rules of organization identified by Gestalt
    psychologists
  • specify how our brains combine and organize
    individual pieces or elements into a meaningful
    perception
  • Figure-ground
  • states in organizing stimuli, we tend to
    automatically distinguish between a figure and a
    ground
  • Similarity
  • states in organizing stimuli, we group together
    elements that appear similar

157
RULES OF ORGANIZATION (CONT.)
  • Closure
  • states in organizing stimuli, we tend to fill in
    any missing parts of a figure and see the figure
    as complete
  • Proximity
  • states in organizing stimuli, we group together
    objects that are physically close to one another
  • Simplicity
  • states stimuli are organized in the simplest way
    possible
  • Continuity
  • states in organizing stimuli, we tend to favor
    the smooth or continuous paths when interpreting
    a series of points or lines

158
PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY
  • Size, shape, brightness color constancy
  • Size constancy
  • refers to our tendency to perceive objects as
    remaining the same size even when their images on
    the retina are continually growing or shrinking
  • Shape constancy
  • refers to our tendency to perceive an object as
    retaining its same shape even though when we view
    it from different angles, its shape is
    continually changing its image on the retina

159
PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY (CONT.)
  • Size, shape, brightness color constancy
  • Brightness constancy
  • refers to the tendency to perceive brightness as
    remaining the same in changing illumination
  • Color constancy
  • refers to the tendency to perceive colors as
    remaining stable despite differences in lighting

160
DEPTH PERCEPTION
  • Binocular (two eyes) depth cues
  • Depth perception
  • refers to the ability of your eye and brain to
    add a third dimension, depth, to all visual
    perceptions, even though images projected on the
    retina are in only two dimensions, height, and
    width
  • Binocular depth cues
  • depends on the movement of both eyes
  • Convergence
  • refers to a binocular cue for depth perception
    based on signals sent from muscles that turn the
    eyes

161
DEPTH PERCEPTION
162
DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
163
DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  • Monocular depth cues
  • produced by signals from a single eye
  • Linear perspective
  • monocular depth cue that results as parallel
    lines come together, converge, in the distance
  • Relative size
  • monocular depth cue that results when we expect
    two objects to be the same size and they are not
  • Interposition
  • monocular depth cue that comes into play when
    objects overlap

164
DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  • Monocular depth cues
  • Light and shadow
  • monocular depth cues where brightly lit objects
    appear closer, while objects in shadows appear
    farther away
  • Texture gradient
  • monocular depth cue in which areas with sharp,
    detailed texture are interpreted as being closer
    and those with less sharpness and poorer detail
    are perceived as more distant

165
DEPTH PERCEPTION (CONT.)
  • Monocular depth cues
  • Atmospheric perspective
  • monocular depth cue that is created by the
    presence of dust, smog, clouds, or water vapor
  • Motion parallax
  • monocular depth cue based on the speed of moving
    objects

166
ILLUSIONS
  • Strange perceptions
  • Illusion
  • a perceptual experience in w
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