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Development

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Physical Development Your body s change from Womb to Tomb – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Development


1
Physical Development
Your bodys change from Womb to Tomb
2
Prenatal Development
  • Conception begins with the drop of an egg and the
    release of about 200 million sperm.
  • The sperm seeks out the egg and attempts to
    penetrate the eggs surface.

Prenatal Period the time between conception and
birth
3
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4
  • Once the sperm penetrates the egg- we have a
    fertilized egg called

The Zygote
The first stage of prenatal development. Lasts
about two weeks and consists of rapid cell
division.
5
The Zygote Stage
  • Less than half of all zygotes survive first two
    weeks.
  • About 10 days after conception, the zygote will
    attach itself to the uterine wall.
  • The outer part of the zygote becomes the placenta
    (which filters nutrients).

6
After two weeks, the zygote develops into a
Embryo
7
The Embryo Stage
  • Lasts about 6 weeks.
  • Heart begins to beat and the organs begin to
    develop.

8
By nine weeks we have something that looks
unmistakably human
A Fetus
9
The Fetal Stage
  • Beginning after week 12
  • By about the 6th month, the stomach and other
    organs have formed enough to survive outside of
    mother.
  • At this time the baby can hear (and recognize)
    sounds and respond to light.

10
Things that can go wrong in the womb
  • Unfortunately, there are many things that can go
    wrong when a baby is developing in the womb or
    prenatal environment.
  • Your placenta should act as a filter but
    sometimes dangerous chemicals can travel through
    the placenta and harm the child

11
Teratogensharmful agents to the prenatal
environment
12
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Physical and cognitive abnormalities caused by a
    pregnant womens heavy drinking.
  • Severe cases symptoms include facial
    disproportions.
  • Can lead to behavior and learning problems

13
So what will a healthy newborn do?
We are not blank slates- we have some basic
programming called reflexes
  • Rooting Reflex
  • a babies tendency, when touched on the cheek, to
    open mouth and search for a nipple.
  • Sucking Reflex
  • the baby will suck on anything put in their mouth
  • Grasping Reflex
  • when something is placed in the palm of the hand
    or foot, the baby will try to grab hold of it
  • Moro Reflex
  • when startled, the baby will flail out its arms
    and legs, then retract them, making herself as
    small as possible
  • Babinski Reflex
  • when babys foot is stroked, he or she will
    spread their toes

14
Reflexes cont.
  • Now, if the person next to you sticks their
    finger in your mouth, are you going to begin
    sucking?
  • Probably not, because reflexes go away with brain
    development.
  • Just as a side note these reflexes are different
    from the ones you have when you touch a burning
    pot

15
What else do babies do???
Babies also will turn towards human voices.
Gaze longer at human face like images.
16
Physical Developmental
  • Infancy and Childhood

17
How do brain and motor skills develop in infants?
  • Good News
  • While in the womb, you produce almost ΒΌ million
    brain cells per minute.
  • Bad News
  • That is basically all you are ever going to
    develop.

18
The Brain and Infancy
  • Although the brain does not develop many new
    cells, the existing cells begin to work more
    efficiently- forming more complex neural networks.

19
Brain cells is an impoverished environment.
20
Brain cells in an enriched environment.
21
What does this mean for humans?
  • If children from impoverished environments given
    stimulating infant care, they score better on
    intelligence tests by age 12 than counterparts.
  • Use it or lose it

22
Maturation
  • Growth processes that enable changes in behavior,
    relatively uninfluenced by environment.
  • Such as walking or toilet training
  • To a certain extent we all maturate similarly,
    but the time can vary depending on the person.

23
Motor Development
  • Sequence is the same- but once again timing
    varies.
  • First learn to roll over, sit up unsupported,
    crawl, walk etc

24
Walking
  • In US 25 learn by 11 months, 50 within a week
    of 1st birthday, 90 by 15 months.
  • Varies by culture
  • if the culture emphasizes walking then babies can
    walk at younger ages (NURTURE).
  • But identical twins tend to learn to walk on the
    same day (NATURE).

25
Toilet Training
  • NO MATTER WHAT, THE BABY NEEDS THE PHYSICAL
    MATURATION TO HOLD HIS OR HER BLADDER OR BOWEL
    MOVEMENTS BEFORE TOILET TRAINING.
  • NO TRAINING WILL WORK IF THE CHILD IS NOT
    PHYSICALLY READY.

26
AdolescencePhysical Development
  • The transition period from childhood to adulthood.

27
Physical Development
  • It all begins with
  • Puberty
  • The period of sexual maturation, during which a
    person becomes capable of reproducing.

28
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29
Primary Sexual Characteristics
  • The body structures that make sexual reproduction
    possible

I dont believe I need to mention or show
pictures of these
30
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
  • Nonreproductive sexual characteristics

Deepening of male voice
Female breasts
Widening of Hips
Body hair
31
Puberty
  • Sequence is way more predictable than the timing.

How might timing differences effect an adolescent
socially?
32
AdulthoodPhysical Development
33
Physical Changes
  • All physical abilities essentially peak by our
    mid to late twenties (this is why I just miss
    being the perfect female specimen)

34
Physical Milestones
  • Menopause
  • the natural ending of a womans ability to
    reproduce.
  • Physical symptoms led by a lack of estrogen.

What psychological effects can menopause have?
Men do not experience anything like menopause.
Men can pretty much produce sperm forever.
35
Life Expectancy
  • Life Expectancy keeps increasing- now about 75.
  • Women outlive men by about 4 years.
  • But more men are conceived 126 to 100.

36
Health
  • Bad news
  • is as we get older our immune system weakens,
    thus we become more susceptible to life
    threatening ailments (cancer).
  • BUT
  • Good News
  • Is as we get older we build up a collection of
    antibodies throughout the years, and get minor
    colds less often.

37
Sensory Abilities
38
Age and Driving
  • The brain processes information at slower speeds.

39
Alzheimers Disease
  • A progressive and irreversible brain disorder
  • characterized by gradual deterioration of memory,
    language and physical functioning.
  • Runs its course in 5 to 20 years.
  • Deterioration of neurons that produce the
    neurotransmitter.

Acetylcholine
Estrogen supplements may stop the onset of
Alzheimers Disease.
40
5 Stages of Dying
  • Psychiatrist Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
  • 5 stages before dying
  • Denial no freaking way this is happening to me
  • Anger how dare god let this happen this is
    BS!!!
  • Bargaining just let me live to see my sons get
    married
  • Depression I cant deal with this, what is my
    family going to do without me??
  • Acceptance I am ready, I dont want to fight
    this anymore

41
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42
Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • Turners Syndrome
  • A baby is born with just a single X chromosome
    (girls)
  • Shortness, webbed neck and unusual sexual
    development
  • Klinefelters Syndrome
  • A baby is born with and extra X (XXY) (boys)
  • Minimal sexual development and extreme
    introversion
  • Downs Syndrome
  • A baby is born with an extra chromosome on the
    21st pair
  • Rounded face, shorter fingers, low cognitive
    ability

43
Turners Syndrome
Klinefelters Syndrome
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