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Poetry Notes

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Title: Poetry Notes


1
Poetry Notes
2
Figurative Language
3
Figurative Language
  • A Figure of Speech is always based on a
    comparison.
  • Figurative Language Expressions which put aside
    literal language in favor of imaginative
    connections.

4
Simile
  • Simile A comparison between two unlike things
    using the words like or as, and sometimes than
    and resembled.
  • Life is like a box of chocolates
  • Forest Gump

5
Metaphor
  • Metaphor a comparison between two unlike things
    without using like, as, than, or resembles.
  • Direct Metaphor Compares using is.
  • Life is a journey
  • Implied Metaphor Compares without using is.
  • The city sleeps peacefully.

6
Personification
  • Personification Giving human characteristics to
    something non-human an animal, an object, or
    idea.
  • The car coughed and hiccupped.

7
Hyperbole
  • Hyperbole - A figure of speech in which
    deliberate exaggeration is used for emphasis.
    Many everyday expressions are examples of
    hyperbole.
  • tons of money, waiting for ages, a flood of
    tears, etc.

8
Understatement
  • Understatement - The opposite of hyperbole,
    understatement is used to make something appear
    smaller or less important than it really is.It
    can be used to entertain or to reduce the
    importance of the truth.
  • It only hurts a little bit after getting an
    arm chopped off

9
Oxymoron
  • Oxymoron - a figure of speech that combines two
    normally contradictory terms.
  • "deafening silence", quick stop,jumbo shrimp

10
The Sounds of Poetry
11
Alliteration
  • Alliteration The repetition of consonant sounds
    at the beginnings of words or accented syllables.
  • Tongue Twisters Peter Piper picked a peck of
    pickled peppers.

12
Assonance
  • Assonance The repetition of vowel sounds in
    adjoining words.
  • The molten golden notes E. A. Poe

13
Consonance
  • Consonance repetition of consonant sounds
    within words.
  • And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each
    purple curtain" E. A. Poe

14
Onomatopoeia
  • Onomatopoeia The use of words that sound like
    what they are describing.
  • Snap, Crackle, and Pop.

15
Rhymeand Rhyme Scheme
16
Rhyme
  • RHYME - the associating of two words in a poem
    through the way they sound.
  • Rhyme usually occurs at the end of a line in a
    poem, but it is not a rule or law. There are many
    kinds of rhyme

17
True Rhyme
  • True Rhyme - two words whose last syllables sound
    the same.
  • True Blue

18
Assonant Rhyme
  • Assonant Rhyme - the rhyming of vowels only.
  • Bought and Sock

19
Consonant Rhyme
  • Consonant Rhyme - the rhyming on consonants only.
  • Tick and Tock

20
Sight Rhyme
  • Sight Rhyme - words that are spelled similarly,
    but do not rhyme. (sight rhymes are frequently
    also assonant or consonant rhymes)
  • Thought and Though

21
Rhyme Scheme
  • Rhyme scheme The pattern of rhyme, usually
    indicated by assigning a letter of the alphabet
    to each rhyme at the end of a line of poetry.

22
Rhyme Scheme
  • Shall I compare thee to a Summer's day?
  • Thou art more lovely and more temperate
  • Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
  • And Summer's lease hath all too short a date
  • Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
  • And oft' is his gold complexion dimm'd
  • And every fair from fair sometime declines,
  • By chance or nature's changing course untrimm'd
  • But thy eternal Summer shall not fade
  • Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest
  • Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade,
  • When in eternal lines to time thou growest
  • So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
  • So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
  • William Shakespeare - Sonnet 18

23
Rhythm and Meter
24
Rhythm and Meter
  • All languages consist of words with both stressed
    (louder) and unstressed (softer) syllables, and
    all words with more than one syllable will only
    stress one of those syllables.

25
Rhythm
  • English poetry employs five basic rhythms or
    patterns of stressed (/) and unstressed (U)
    syllables. Each unit of rhythm is called a "foot"
    of poetry.

26
Two-Syllable Rhythms
  • The meters with two-syllable feet are
  • IAMBIC (U /) ta TUM
  • That time of year thou mayst in me behold
  • TROCHAIC (/ U) TUM ta
  • Tell me not in mournful numbers
  • SPONDAIC (/ /) TUM TUM
  • Break, break, break
  • On thy cold gray stones, O Sea!

27
Three-Syllable Rhythms
  • Meters with three-syllable feet are
  • ANAPESTIC (UU/) ta ta TUM
  • And the sound of a voice that is still
  • DACTYLIC (/UU) TUM ta ta
  • This is the forest primeval, the murmuring pines
    and the hemlock (a trochee replaces the final
    dactyl)

28
Meter
  • Meter is the number of times the rhythm pattern
    (or foot) repeats itself in a line of poetry.

29
Meter Names
  • The following are the terms used for every foot
  • monometer a line of 1 foot
  • dimeter 2 feet
  • trimeter 3 feet
  • tetrameter 4 feet
  • pentameter 5 feet
  • hexameter 6 feet
  • heptameter 7 feet
  • octameter 8 feet

30
Practice
  • In the still of the night
  • ________________ _______________
  • Rhythm Meter
  • In times of old when I was newAnd Hogwarts
    barely startedThe founders of our noble
    schoolThought never to be parted
    Sorting Hats Song
  • ________________ _______________
  • Rhythm Meter

31
Stanza Structure
32
Stanza
  • Stanza - Two or more lines of poetry that
    together form one of the divisions of a poem. The
    stanzas of a poem are usually of the same length
    and follow the same pattern of meter and rhyme.

33
Couplet
  • Couplet - In a poem, a pair of lines that are
    the same length and usually rhyme and form a
    complete thought.
  • Heroic Couplet - A stanza composed of two rhymed
    lines in iambic pentameter.
  • Shakespearean sonnets usually end in a couplet.

34
Quatrain, Sextain, Octave
  • Tercet- A stanza or poem of three lines.
  • Quatrain - four lines
  • Quintain- five lines
  • Sextain- six lines (sometimes sestet)
  • Septet- seven lines
  • Octave- eight lines

35
Refrain
  • Refrain - A phrase, line, or group of lines that
    is repeated throughout a poem, usually after
    every stanza.

36
Types of Poetry
37
Free Verse
  • Free Verse - No Rules! It doesn't have to rhyme,
    it doesn't have to be in any sort of meter, or
    about anything in particular- just write what you
    feel.

38
Acrostic
  • Acrostic - A poem in which certain letters of the
    lines, usually the first letters, form a word or
    message relating to the subject
  • Waits quietly
  • On his prey
  • Living Only
  • For the next Meal.
  • Zach Hume Former Student

39
Concrete
  • Concrete Where the poem is arranged to look
    like, or suggest something about, its subject

40
Diamante
  • Diamante- a seven line poem, shaped like a
    diamond
  • Line 1 one word(subject/noun that is
    contrasting to line 7)
  • Line 2 two words(adjectives) that describe line
    1
  • Line 3 three words(action verbs) that relate to
    line 1
  • Line 4 four words (nouns)first 2 words relate
    to line 1last 2 words relate to line 7
  • Line 5 three words(action verbs) that relate to
    line 7
  • Line 6 two words(adjectives) that describe line
    7
  • Line 7 one word( subject/noun that is
    contrasting to line 1)

Teenager Powerful, noisy Dancing, dating,
consuming Explosion, energetic, maturity,
senility Working, earning, saving Quiet,
peaceful Retired
41
Haiku
  • Haiku a Japanese poem with three unrhymed lines
    in a 5-7-5 syllabic meter- the first line has 5
    syllables, the second seven, and the last 5.
  • ?? ?
  • ?  ???
  • ?  ? ?
  • fu/ru/i/ke ya 5
  • ka/wa/zu to/bi/ko/mu 7
  • mi/zu no o/to 5

Translated Old Pond Frog jump In Sound of Water
42
Narratives
  • Narrative - Telling a story. Ballads and epics
    are different kinds of narrative poems.
  • Ballad - a poem that tells a story, usually about
    a hero, that can be passed down through
    generations, most are suitable for singing.
  • Epic - a long narrative poem usually about the
    adventures and bravery of a hero.
  • The Iliad and the Odyssey are Epic poems.

43
Lyric Poems
  • Lyric A poem that expresses the thoughts and
    feelings of the poet.
  • A lyric poem may resemble a song in form or
    style.
  • Ode - a long, serious lyric poem which is focused
    on a single subject.

44
Lyric Poems contSonnet
  • Sonnet - A lyric poem that is 14 lines long.
  • Italian (or Petrarchan) sonnets are divided into
    two quatrains and a six-line "sestet," with the
    rhyme scheme abba abba cdecde (or cdcdcd).
  • English (or Shakespearean) sonnets are composed
    of three quatrains and a final couplet, with a
    rhyme scheme of abab cdcd efef gg. English
    sonnets are written generally in iambic pentameter

45
Elegy
  • Elegy - A poem that laments the death of a
    person, or one that is simply sad and thoughtful.

46
Limerick
  • Limerick A 5-line anapestic poem with a rhyme
    scheme of (aabba) that is often humorous in
    nature.
  • There was an old man from Peru, (A)
  • Who dreamed he was eating his shoe.
  • He awoke in the night
  • With a terrible fright,
  • 5.and found out that it was quite true.
  • The first line explains the situation, the second
    tells what happened, the third and fourth tell
    what went wrong, and the the fifth tells the
    significance (the so what?!)
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