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Chapter Twelve Mass Media

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Title: Chapter Three Federalism Author: Julie Lester Last modified by: bruce.newman Created Date: 10/3/2009 2:44:28 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Twelve Mass Media


1
Chapter TwelveMass Media
  • American Government and Politics Deliberation,
    Democracy, and Citizenship

2
Chapter Twelve Learning Objectives
  • Identify the major news media and describe how
    they have changed over time
  • Explain various ways in which the media affect
    politics

3
Chapter Twelve Learning Objectives
  • Discuss strengths and weaknesses of the American
    news media
  • Analyze ways in which government regulates and
    influences the news media

4
Chapter Twelve Learning Objectives
  • Understand how public figures seek to shape news
    coverage
  • Appraise ways in which the media foster
    deliberation and citizenship

5
Introduction
  • What are the differences between the mass media
    and the news media?
  • What pressures do journalists face when deciding
    what news stories to cover?

6
A Brief History
  • How has the mass media changed over time?

Evan Vucci/AP Photo
7
A Brief HistoryThe Era of Ink
  • Newspapers had close ties to political parties in
    the early days of the nation.
  • After the Civil War, newspaper circulation
    increased and many newspapers emphasized the
    practice of yellow journalism.

8
A Brief History The Era of Ink
  • By the late 1800s, newspapers became a source of
    information for scholarship and public
    deliberation.
  • In the early 20th century, investigative
    reporters were writing about corruption in
    government and were called muckrakers.

9
A Brief HistoryThe Era of Sight and Sound
  • After WWI, broadcasting networks began to form.
  • During the 1930s and 1940s, radio was a popular
    method to deliver news.
  • By the mid-20th century, television began to
    emerge as a news source.

10
A Brief HistoryThe Era of Sight and Sound
  • Two features of broadcast media that pose
    problems for news broadcasters
  • Public ownership of the airwaves
  • Broadcast television networks primarily in the
    entertainment business

11
A Brief HistoryThe Era of Cable and
Conglomerates
  • By the 1970s, cable television was available to
    many Americans.
  • Talk radio also emerged as a new medium of
    deliberation and debate.
  • Newspaper chains and media conglomerates emerged.

12
A Brief HistoryThe Era of Cable and
Conglomerates
Source Project for Excellence in Journalism,
STATE OF THE NEWS MEDIA 2009 at
http// www.stateofthenewsmedia.org/2009/narrative
_networktv_audience.php?cat2media6.
13
A Brief HistoryThe Era of Cable and
Conglomerates
Source Project for Excellence in Journalism,
STATE OF THE NEWS MEDIA 2009 at
http// www.stateofthenewsmedia.org/2009/narrative
_cabletv.audience.php?cat1media7.
14
A Brief HistoryThe Era of the Internet
  • In the early years of the Internet, there was a
    one-way flow of information but that has changed
    with the emergence of blogs.
  • How may blogs contribute to deliberative
    democracy?

15
Media Impact
  • What role does the media play in the political
    process?
  • How does the media contribute to deliberation?

16
Media Impact Informing
  • Research has shown that Americans are not
    well-informed about politics. Is that the medias
    fault?
  • What are some reasons why Americans may not be
    well-informed about politics?

17
Media Impact Agenda Setting, Priming and
Framing
  • Through agenda setting the media influences what
    issues will be up for public deliberation.
  • Priming is when the media stresses certain issues
    and people use those issues as a basis for
    political judgment.

18
Media Impact Agenda Setting, Priming and
Framing
  • Framing is the way the media defines an issue by
    either emphasizing or deemphasizing certain
    aspects of that issue.
  • When the news media covers elections, they often
    participate in horse race journalism.

19
Media Impact Direct Involvement
  • Media owners have used their organizations to
    promote causes. One common way to do this is
    through editorials.
  • Journalists do try to stay out of politics so as
    to maintain objectivity.

20
Professionalism, Accuracy, and Bias
  • Do you believe the media is fair and accurate in
    portraying current events?
  • What types of standards should the media be held
    to when reporting information?

21
Professionalism, Accuracy, and BiasThe
Standards of the Profession
  • Journalists often face dangers in doing their
    jobs.
  • People continue to enter journalism school
    because they see it as an opportunity to make a
    difference and serve society as journalists may
    be watchdogs against corruption.

22
Professionalism, Accuracy, and Bias Mistakes
  • Flaws do occur in news coverage, especially as
    journalists are competing to be the first to
    break a news story.
  • With the emergence of 24-hour cable news networks
    and the Internet, journalists are facing more
    pressure.

23
Pledges and Promises
  • Journalism standards
  • The Society of Professional Journalists has
    developed an ethics code.
  • What types of standards do you believe
    journalists should follow?

24
Professionalism, Accuracy, and Bias Dishonesty
  • While news organizations strive for honesty,
    there are sometimes lapses and false stories make
    it to the public.
  • Reporting false stories may lead to the loss of
    jobs for journalists and loss of credibility for
    news organizations.

25
Professionalism, Accuracy, and Bias The Depths
and the Shallows
  • Many Americans have recently criticized the media
    for cutting back on the scope of coverage or the
    lack of coverage of complex issues.
  • Do you believe the media does an effective job
    covering political events and information?

26
Professionalism, Accuracy, and Bias Ideological
Bias in the News
  • Do you believe there is an ideological bias in
    the news? If so, is that bias liberal or
    conservative?
  • How may media bias affect deliberation?

27
Professionalism, Accuracy, and Bias Ideological
Bias in the News
Source surveys of 673 journalists, March 7May
2, 2005 and 1,500 adults March 3April 5, 2005,
Annenberg Public Policy Center, Public and Press
Differ About Partisan Bias, Accuracy and Press
Freedom, New Annenberg Public Policy Center
Survey Shows, May 24, 2005, at
www .annenbergpublicpolicycenter.org/Downloads/IoD
_Survey_Findings_ Summer2005/Partisan_Bias_2005052
4.pdf, accessed April 12, 2009.
28
Myths and Misinformation
  • Journalism in the movies
  • How has journalism been portrayed in the movies?
  • Has that portrayal been accurate?

29
Government and Media
  • How has government curbed or protected political
    expression in the media?

Mark Wilson/Getty Images
30
International Perspectives
  • Freedom of the press
  • As compared to other liberal democracies, the
    United States is more likely to protect free
    speech.
  • Why do you believe that is so?

31
Government and Media Press Freedom, the Law,
and the Courts
  • Congress passed a Sedition Act in 1918, but
    repealed it in 1921.
  • Two important court cases
  • Gitlow v. New York (1925)
  • New York Times Co. v. U.S. (1971)

32
Government and MediaControl of the Broadcast
Media
  • The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was
    created in 1934 to regulate broadcast media.
  • The federal government limits ownership of
    broadcast media.

33
Government and Media Balance
  • In order to ensure balance and access to media,
    the equal time rule and the fairness doctrine
    were put into place by the FCC.
  • The fairness doctrine was repealed in 1987.

34
Government and MediaGovernment Information
  • The government relies on the media to deliver
    information to citizens, but we must be aware of
    how much influence the government has over the
    media.
  • During the war with Iraq, the Defense Department
    has allowed embedded reporters with the troops.

35
Influencing the Media Media Leaders
  • A few news organizations influence the rest of
    the news organizations through wire services.
  • Where do you believe journalists get their ideas
    for stories? Do you believe that journalists and
    news organizations have influence over other
    journalists?

36
Influencing the Media Pictures, Attacks,
Mistakes, and Spin
  • Newsmakers try to influence news coverage through
    spin.
  • Tools for spinning include
  • News conferences and news releases
  • Talking points
  • Leaking stories

37
Mass Media and Deliberative Democracy
  • What are potential remedies for restoring public
    deliberation in the media?
  • Civic journalism
  • Self-criticism
  • Differentiating between amateurs and professionals

38
Deliberation, Citizenship, and You
  • Forms of citizen journalism include
  • Contributing materials to professional media
  • Community funded journalism
  • Television stations recruiting college students
    to be citizen journalists

39
Summary
  • News media influences knowledge
  • Critics concerned about corporate control of
    media
  • Media may show political bias
  • Media help set political agenda
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