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Philosophy is:

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As a philosophy of Education ... (427-347 B.C.) Augustine (354-430) Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Idealism As A Philosophy of Education Aim of Education ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Philosophy is:


1
Philosophy is
  • A search for meaning(s) and truth(s)
  • the general beliefs and attitudes of an
    individual or group
  • the body of principles underlying a branch of
    learning or major discipline

2
Definitions
  • Love of Wisdom
  • Philo love of
  • Sophia wisdom
  • The systematic development of theories of
  • Knowledge
  • Truth
  • Existence
  • Cause
  • Good

3
Organizational Strategies for studying
Educational Philosophies
  • Subjective
  • Begin with the personal
  • Systematic
  • Schools of philosophy
  • Philosophical Approach
  • Branches of philosophy
  • Relationship between Theory and Practice

4
Subjective
  • Everyone has a philosophy of Life
  • Usually at a tacit level (metaphorical)
  • Often fails the three Cs
  • clarity
  • coherence
  • consistency
  • A Philosophy of Education should grow out of a
    personal philosophy or a personal set of beliefs

5
Systematic
  • Idealism
  • Realism
  • Eastern
  • Pragmatism
  • Reconstructionism
  • Existentialism
  • Marxism
  • Postmodernism

6
Philosophical Approach
  • The Traditional Branches of Philosophy
  • Ontology
  • What is real?
  • What is truth?
  • Epistemology
  • What does it mean to know?
  • Logic
  • What are the rules of reasoning?
  • Axiology
  • How do we know the good? right from wrong?
    (Ethics)
  • How do we make judgments about beauty?
    (Aesthetics)

7
Ontology
  • Concerned with theories of the nature of reality.
  • What is the nature of existence?
  • Is reality limited to what we can experience?
  • Can reality be pursued through the application of
    intellect and reason?
  • Is reality subjective or objective?
  • Is truth eternal and unchanging?
  • Is truth situational and contextual?

8
Epistemology
  • Concerned with theories of the nature of
    knowledge
  • Epistemological questions
  • How do people learn?
  • What knowledge is of utmost value?
  • What are the different types of knowledge?
  • What are the educational goals of schools?

9
Axiology
  • Concerned with theories of value
  • Two major divisions of axiology
  • ethics
  • What is right and wrong?
  • What is evil and good?
  • aesthetics
  • What is beautiful and ugly?

10
Relationship Between Theory and Practice
  • What are the educational aims of a philosophy?
  • What are the educational methods of a philosophy?
  • What curriculum fits the philosophy?
  • What is the Role of the Teacher?

11
Idealism
  • As a philosophy of Education

12
Plato (427-347 B.C.)
  • Ontology
  • reality is a duality.
  • The world of ideas (world of forms) and the
    ever-changing world of matter

13
Plato (427-347 B.C.)
The Divided Line
14
Plato (427-347 B.C.)
  • Epistemology
  • truth is perfect and eternal
  • Knowledge is obtained through the dialectic.
  • The most important attributes of thought are
    clarity and consistency. How do we learn?
  • The doctrine of remembrance
  • We do not create knowledge. Rather, we discover
    it. The Meno

15
Plato (427-347 B.C.)
  • Axiology
  • a search for the Good.
  • (Philosopher-King) "Know thyself" the search is
    inward (Socrates)

16
Plato (427-347 B.C.)
Allegory of the Cave
17
Augustine (354-430)
  • God is transcendent
  • The City of God and the City of Man
  • Christ is the model for behavior

18
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
  • Subjective reality "I think, therefore I am
  • Scientific skepticism (doubt) the criteria (clear
    and distinct)
  • Deduction- build a system
  • Christianity is the given

19
Idealism As APhilosophy of Education
  • Society /Civilization not of central importance.
  • HUMAN VALUES
  • In a purposeful, spiritual environment, the
    individual personality develops.
  • Thus society is a means to a higher goal (i.e.
    The Republic)

20
Aim of Education
  • Absolutist- The search for TRUTH- True Ideas
  • Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational
    process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason
    effectively.
  • Subjectivist- Individuals should strive for
    self-realization
  • Character Development
  • Wisdom
  • Moral conviction
  • Good will
  • Loyalty

21
Methods of Education
  • Depth over breadth
  • Concepts over specific facts
  • Confront problems that arise from the human
    condition.
  • Self-Directed learning
  • Lecture to stimulate thought, not to convey
    information

22
Curriculum
  • Materials that promote critical thinking.
  • Focus on reading and writing.
  • Reading materials should foster discussion of
    big ideas.
  • Classic works are favored because they have
    passed the test of time.
  • Student writing should emphasize both personal
    expression and clear reasoning.

23
Role of the Teacher
  • Socrates might serve as the prototype
  • Socratic questioning
  • Teachers serve as role models
  • Intellectual
  • Moral
  • An Idealist teacher tends to see teaching as a
    calling- more than just an occupation

24
Realism
  • As a Philosophy of Education

25
Classical Realism
  • Aristotle
  • 384-322 B.C.
  • He was a student at Platos Academy
  • He opened his own school, The Lyceum.

26
Aristotles Ontology
  • Prime Matter
  • Principle of Potentiality
  • Pure Form
  • Principle of Actuality
  • FORM and MATTER are separate concepts, but they
    are never found alone

27
Aristotles Ontology
PURE FORM Actuality Mind Rationality Law
PURE MATTER Potentiality Body Materiality Examples of behavior
28
Aristotles Epistemology
  • The Universe is one of orderly design
  • All things exist according to a rational design
  • All things have a rational function or purpose.
  • Acorns become Oak trees, not Elm trees
  • Mans defining characteristic is Rationality.
  • Homo Sapiens- the rational animal.
  • Syllogistic Logic
  • All men are mortal
  • Socrates is a man
  • Therefore, Socrates is Mortal

29
Aristotles Epistemology
THEORY OF CASUATION
Material Matter Wood,nails
Formal Design Blueprint
Efficient Agent Carpenter
Final Purpose House
30
Aristotles Axiology
  • The Golden Mean is described as "the smaller is
    to the larger, what the larger is to the whole.
  • It's also known as the Golden Section or the
    Divine Proportion. It divides a line in such a
    way as to create an ideal relationship between
    the parts.

31
Aristotles Axiology
  • Mans purpose is to lead a rational life of
    moderation.
  • The Good life is one of avoiding extremes

32
Modern Realism
  • Francis Bacon
  • Argued against Syllogistic logic. Deductive A
    priori reasoning is flawed because you have TRUTH
    in hand before you begin.
  • For Bacon, the proper method is Induction
  • You begin with observation, then you reason to
    general statements

33
Modern Realism
The IDOL of the DEN Limited experience
The IDOL of the TRIBE Follow the Majority
The IDOL of the MARKETPLACE Current (faddish) language
The IDOL of the THEATER Emotion
34
Modern Realism
John Locke
  • Empiricism
  • What we know is what we experience
  • Tabula Rasa
  • We are born as blank tablets and experience
    writes upon us

35
Religious Realism
  • St. Thomas Aquinas
  • GOD is PURE REASON
  • The UNMOVED MOVER- FINAL CAUSE- who gives meaning
    and purpose to the universe
  • Man can use his reason to reach GOD through a
    study of the material world.
  • Faith and Reason are one
  • TELEOLOGY the Universe (and Man) is moving toward
    a Destiny

36
Realism as a Philosophy of Education
Aims of Education
  • Absolutist- Education should focus on the truth
    of the natural and physical world
  • Empiricist- Teach students the scientific method
    of problem solving by exploring the material
    world
  • Objectivist- Emphasize basic skills and basic
    facts- 3Rs There are objective skills and facts
    that all students should learn.
  • Character Development
  • Establish high standards and increased rigor and
    hold students accountable
  • Emphasize practical knowledge that will prepare
    students for the world of work

37
Realism as a Philosophy of Education
Methods of Education
  • Direct teaching techniques are preferable.
  • Students should be presented information in an
    organized, efficient and logical format.
  • Given the information overload in todays
    society, it is important that non-essential
    learning should be eliminated.
  • Students should be taught based upon their
    strengths and abilities.
  • Scientific testing should be used to diagnose and
    place students in settings most appropriate to
    their needs
  • Technology should be utilized whenever
    appropriate in schools

38
Realism as a Philosophy of Education
Curriculum
  • Curricula should be practical and useful
  • Curricula should concentrate on the Basics and
    avoid fads and frills.
  • Curricula should be highly organized, correlated
    and aligned throughout the scope and sequence
    offered by schools
  • Curricula should be based upon pre-established
    standards and criteria.
  • Curricula should be experiential whenever
    possible

39
Realism as a Philosophy of Education
Role of the Teacher
  • A Realist teacher should be a subject matter
    expert.
  • A Realist teachers should be able to present
    material in an organized and systematic way.
  • A Realist teacher should be able to explain the
    lesson objectives in a way that is understandable
    to the learner.
  • A Realist teacher should be able to effectively
    assess students in such a way that all students
    are challenged and motivated to learn.
  • A Realist teacher should understand current
    research and technology and be able to utilize it
    in the classroom.
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