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The Industrial Revolution


The Industrial Revolution Changes in the Textile Industry The Domestic System Before the Industrial Revolution, the production of Woollen Cloth was Britain s most ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
  • Changes in the Textile Industry

The Domestic System
  • Before the Industrial Revolution, the production
    of Woollen Cloth was Britains most important
    manufacturing industry
  • Cloth making was centred in areas where sheep
    farming was common Yorkshire, the Cotswolds,
  • The main processes carding, spinning and
    weaving were carried out in the cottages of
  • This was known as the domestic system or cottage

How did the Domestic System work?
  • A merchant delivered wool to the workers homes
  • Children carded (untangled) the wool
  • Women and girls spun the wool into yarn using a
    spinning wheel
  • Men wove the yarn into cloth on a loom
  • The merchant took the cloth to other workers for
    stretching, dyeing, and cropping

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Domestic
  • Advantages
  • It was convenient for workers who could stay at
    home, work at their own pace and mind the
  • Their earnings from spinning and weaving were
    extra to the living they were making from working
    the land (open field system)
  • Some workers were quite skilled and produced a
    good quality product
  • Disadvantages
  • The quality of cloth varied from worker to worker
  • The system wasted the merchants time
  • Production was slow
  • Workers could cheat the merchant
  • The merchant could cheat the workers
  • Piece-rates could be very low
  • Cottages were often dirty, badly-lit and poorly

Why was there a Revolution in the textile
  • The population was growing rapidly
  • There was an increase in the demand for better
    quality cloth
  • The price of raw cotton fell as more was imported
    from the slave plantations of USA (after 1776)
  • New machines were invented which speeded up the
    working of cotton

New Technology
  • Spinning
  • 1764 James Hargreaves invented Spinning Jenny
  • 1769 Sir Richard Arkwright invented Water Frame
  • 1779 Samuel Crompton invented Spinning Mule
    (so-called because it combined the best of the
    Jenny and the Frame) became the most important
    spinning machine
  • Weaving
  • 1733 John Kay invented Flying Shuttle

Hand power Water power leads to building of first mills or Factories James Watts Steam Engine- form 1770s
1785 Edmund Cartwright invented Power Loom
James Hargreaves and the Spinning Jenny 1764
  • This was the first of the new spinning machines
  • The first models produced thread on 8 spindles at
    once (instead of 1)
  • Probably called Jenny meaning Gin,or Ginny
    short for engine (not after his wife!)
  • Angry spinners smashed up Hargreaves home in
  • Designed for use in domestic system

Sir Richard Arkwright 1732-92
  • One of the great entrepreneurs of the Industrial
  • His Water Framewas the first machine to be
    designed as a factory machine driven by water
  • The Factory Age began with Arkwrights mill at
    Cromford, Derbyshire
  • He devised the Factory System
  • Employed thousands of workers
  • Patented his machine
  • Made a huge fortune

The Factory System
  • Other entrepreneurs were quick to copy
    Arkwrights system
  • Many spinning factories were built
  • For a while weaving remained a domestic craft
  • The wages of hand loom weavers soared as great
    quantities of spun yarn were produced
  • However, by the 1820s Power Looms were being
    introduced and weavers incomes fell

The Luddites
  • Many skilled craftsmen lost out to the new
  • The firstLuddites were croppers in Yorkshire
  • They formed a secret society and smashed machines
  • The mill owners and the government reacted
  • Britain was at war with France
  • Luddites were captured by use of spies
  • Several machine-breakers were hanged, others

The Importance of Manchester(and Southern
  • Manchester and Southern Lancashire became the
    main location for the Cotton Industry because-
  • The climate was damp ideal for working cotton
  • It was close to the port of Liverpool the main
    port for trade with the USA and imports of raw
  • There were skilled spinners and weavers just
    across the Pennines in the Yorkshire woollen
  • The Pennines supplied fast-flowing streams for
    water power
  • There was a local coalfield for steam power

  • The development of the Factory System massively
    increased the amount of cotton cloth produced
  • A new class of entrepreneurs made great
  • Towns and cities grew up around the new factories
    the process of Urbanisation- living
    conditions and public health worsened
  • Working conditions were very different in the
    factories to the old Domestic System child
    labour, long hours, harsh discipline