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The Beginnings of Civilization-One


The Beginnings of Civilization-One Mrs. Cox Paisley IB World History ONE From Villages to Cities First, they are larger and more populated. Second, city populations ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Beginnings of Civilization-One

The Beginnings of Civilization-One
  • Mrs. Cox
  • Paisley IB
  • World History
  • ONE

  • 1. artifacts
  • 2. culture
  • 3. hominids
  • 4.Mary Leakey
  • 5. Donald Johanson
  • 6. Louis Leakey
  • 7. Paleolithic Era
  • 8. nomads
  • 9. hunter-gatherers
  • 10. animism
  • 11. Neolithic Era
  • 12. Neolithic Revolution
  • 13. domestication
  • 14. Pastoralists
  • 15. Megaliths
  • 16. Bronze Age
  • 17. Surplus
  • 18. Division of Labor
  • 19. Traditional economy

Questions for Study 1
  • 1. Name two famous anthropologists and their
  • 2. How did human ancestors cross from one
    continent to another?
  • 3. Give six examples of Stone Age Technology.
  • 4. Describe the art work of hunter-gatherers.

Questions 1
  • 5. What happened during the Neolithic Revolution?
  • 6. What impact did the end of the ice age have on
    early people?
  • 7. Name five kinds of domesticated animals from
    this time period.
  • 8. What was one of the major changes in society
    around 7000 BC?
  • 9. Why did trade increase as food increased?
  • 10. Name three negative effects of agricultural
  • 11.Who is Otzi the iceman and what have scholars
    learned from him?

Questions 1
  • 12. What was the result of irrigation?
  • 13. Name the four ways in which early cities
    differed from villages.
  • 14. Name two main characteristics of early
  • 15. Name four early civilizations.
  • 16. Why did systems of writing develop?
  • 17. What factors led to changes in early

Studying The Distant Past
  • To study prehistory, the time before written
    records, scientists use a wide variety of clues.
  • They look to artifacts such as tools, art, tombs,
    and weapons left behind by ancient people.
  • These scientists include anthropologists, who
    study human culture, or a societys knowledge,
    art, beliefs, customs, and values.

Studying The Distant Past
  • Anthropologists called archaeologists dig into
    settlements to find objects used by early people.
  • Workers then use tools to unearth objects people
    have left behind.
  • By analyzing the remains archaeologists find,
    they can draw conclusions about long-ago peoples
    lives and culture.

Human Origins
  • Based on bones and footprints that have been
    found, many experts believe that hominids are
    early ancestors of humans. Anthropologists made
    several significant discoveries in East Africa.
  • In 1959, Mary Leakey found hominid bones that
    were more than 1.5 million years old.
  • Donald Johanson uncovered an Australopithecine
    skeleton in Ethiopia that he named Lucy.

Human Origins
  • Lucy lived over 3 million years ago and walked
  • Recently, a French team in Central Africa found
    6-7 million-year-old remains with features from
    an Australopithecine and a chimpanzee.
  • Louis Leakey found hominid remains he called Homo
    habilis, which he believed was more closely
    related to modern humans than Lucy.

Human Origins
  • A type of hominids called Homo erectus, or
    upright man, appeared 2 to 1.5 million years
  • More intelligent than earlier hominids, they
    used more advanced tools like flint hand axes.
  • Scientists also think that Homo erectus was the
    first hominid to control fire.
  • Modern humans, Homo sapiens, appeared 200,000
    years ago in Africa.

Human Origins
  • Homo sapiens have larger brains than earlier
    hominids, developed more sophisticated tools and
    shelters, and eventually learned to create fire.
  • Homo sapiens were probably also the first
    hominids to develop language.

Spreading Around The World
  • Early human ancestors began to migrate around the
    world from Africa to Asia and beyond.
  • About 1.6 million years ago, long periods of
    freezing temperatures caused ice sheets to cover
    the land and lower ocean levels.
  • These times were called ice ages. They created
    bridges of land between continents, which
    hominids could cross.
  • In time, hominids died out and early humans began
    to migrate. By at least 9000 BC, humans lived on
    all continents except Antarctica.

Spreading Around The World
  • Two early groups of Homo sapiens that developed
    as people moved around the world were
    Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons. Neanderthals lived
    about 35,000 to 150,000 years ago.
  • Cro-Magnons appeared about 45,000 years ago.
  • They were physically identical to modern humans.
  • They left behind fine tools, figurines, and cave

Life In The Stone Age
  • Early humans lived during the Stone Age, which is
    divided into three sections based on the kinds of
    tools used at the time.
  • The first part of the Stone Age is called the
    Paleolithic Era, a time in which people used
    tools made of stone.
  • People lived as nomads, moving from place to
    place following migrating animal herds.

Life In The Stone Age
  • As the Stone Age continued, new technology helped
    early humans survive and improve life.
  • People made tools from chipped stones, wood, and
  • They invented spears for easier hunting.
  • Other technological developments included the bow
    and arrow, fishing hooks, canoes, needles for
    sewing clothes from animal skins, and shelters
    called pit-houses.

Life In The Stone Age
  • Scholars call these people hunter-gatherers
    because they hunted animals and gathered the
    fruit, seeds, and nuts of wild plants for food.
  • People also made art as well as musical
  • Elaborate images of people and animals were
    painted on rocks and in caves.
  • They may have been created to honor the spirits
    of the people and animals, a belief called
  • Figures were also carved out of many different
    materials such as animal teeth and bone.

The New Stone Age
  • After the Paleolithic Era came the Neolithic Era,
    or New Stone Age.
  • People learned to make tools and weapons with
    sharper edges, which led to the development of
    chisels, drills, and saws.

Development of Agriculture
  • The lives of early people changed dramatically
    about 10,000 years ago.
  • People began to grow crops. By growing their food
    instead of just hunting animals and gathering
    food, early people greatly improved their chances
    of survival and forever changed history.
  • The shift to farming is called the Neolithic

Development of Agriculture
  • Farming started around the time the last ice age
  • Wild grains such as barley and wheat appeared due
    to the warmer weather.
  • People began to gather the wild grains for food.
  • This new food source caused the populations to
    grow and need even more food.
  • In time, people experimented with planting seeds
    and learned to farm.

Development of Agriculture
  • Then, people began to practice domestication, the
    selective growing or breeding of plants and
    animals to make them more useful to humans.
  • Animals such as dogs, cattle, goats, pigs, and
    sheep were also domesticated.

Development of Agriculture
  • Farming spread around the world at different
  • Some areas had plants and animals that were
    easier to domesticate than those in other places.
  • Locations with similar climates transitioned to
    farming at about the same time, such as China and
    Central America.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • Agriculture allowed the world population to grow
    by providing a better food supply.
  • It also change peoples way of life.
  • Some people became pastoralists, ranging over
    wide areas and keeping herds of livestock to use
    for food and other materials.
  • Others began staying in the same place and
    settling into permanent villages.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • By about 7000 BC some settlements grew into
  • Now, instead of hunting and gathering food, many
    people worked in the fields and tended livestock.
  • Since more food was available, some people could
    spend more time doing activities other than food
  • For example, some people became skilled at
    making crafts or tools.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • As people produced extra food and products,
    trade increased.
  • Settlements traded with each other to obtain
    materials and products they lacked.
  • Societies became more complex and prosperous,
    and differences in social status began to emerge.
  • Some people gained more wealth and influence
    than others.
  • Others rose to positions of authority such as
    overseeing the planting and harvesting or running
    building projects.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • Because men performed the heavier work in
    farming, they often held positions of authority.
  • As a result, men began to gain dominance and
    status over women in many agricultural societies.
  • Societies began to build structures such as
    megaliths for religious purposes.
  • Megaliths are huge stone monuments that some
    Neolithic people in Europe built for burial or
    spiritual purposes.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • Agricultural societies also had some negative
  • Warfare increased as societies fought over land
    and resources.
  • Crop failures made life difficult for people
    dependent on farming.
  • Disease increased and spread rapidly among groups
    of people.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • Technology continued to develop.
  • Animals pulled plows to produce larger fields of
  • Pestles and grindstones were used to prepare
  • Pottery was used for cooking and storing food.
  • Wool from goats and sheep was weaved into cloth.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • When people began to use metal the Stone Age gave
    way to the Bronze Age.
  • Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin that
    produces objects that are stronger and harder
    than copper alone.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • Catal Huyuk in present-day Turkey is an example
    of a Neolithic village.
  • Some 5,000 to 6,000 people lived there around
    6000 BC.
  • The village covered more than 30 acres, making
    it the largest Neolithic site that archaeologists
    have found.

Agriculture Changes Society
  • Our knowledge of Neolithic societies continues to
    increase due to recent discoveries.
  • In 1991 in the Italian Alps a 5,300 year-old
    frozen hunter nicknamed Otzi the Iceman was found
    by hikers.
  • The cold had preserved his clothing and
    belongings, adding to scholars information about
    this time period.

From Villages to Cities
  • Over time, farmers worked to increase the food
    production of their farms.
  • Their most important advance was the irrigation
    system, a network of canals or ditches linking
    crop fields to streams or to water storage
  • Irrigation enabled people to farm more land in
    drier conditions, producing more food.
  • Some farmers began to produce a surplus, or
    excess, of food.
  • Surplus food allowed villages to support larger

From Villages To Cities
  • Now that fewer people were needed to produce
    food, some people could devote all of their time
    to specialized jobs like making tools or weapons.
  • Others became weavers, potters, or religious
  • Division of labor refers to the economic
    arrangement that allows workers to specialize in
    a particular job or task.

From Villages to Cities
  • Division of labor is different than the system of
    traditional economies that early farming villages
    had used.
  • In a traditional economy, custom, tradition, or
    ritual is the basis of economic decisions.
  • Having surplus food allowed villages to grow into
    cities because not everyone had to farm.
  • Cities differ from early villages in four ways.

From Villages to Cities
  • First, they are larger and more populated.
  • Second, city populations usually included many
    unrelated people who came from a wide area.
  • Third, most early cities had a defined center
    containing palaces, temples, government
    buildings, marketplaces, and defined boundaries,
    often marked by defensive walls.
  • Fourth, early cities served as centers of trade
    for merchants and farmers from the surrounding
  • The first known city was Uruk, located between
    the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what is now

The First Civilizations
  • Civilizations, or complex cultures, grew out of
    early cities.
  • The first civilizations grew up along river
    valleys that had enough fertile land to produce
    food to support a growing population.
  • Civilizations use record keeping and have social
    classes, specialization of labor, government,
    religion, and arts.
  • Major cities in early river valley civilizations
    include Ur and Uruk near the Tigris and Euphrates
    rivers in Mesopotamia, Memphis on the Nile River
    in Egypt, Mohenjo-Daro on the Indus River in
    India, and Anyang near the Huang He in China.

The First Civilizations
  • Governments in the first civilizations created
    laws and systems of justice, gathered taxes, and
    organized defense.
  • Religious institutions included priests who
    performed rituals, such as sacrificing animals,
    to try to gain the gods favor.
  • Priests often became powerful and closely
    connected with governments.

The First Civilizations
  • As cities grew, the division of labor increased,
    and many new jobs developed.
  • Skilled craft workers, or artisans, created
    useful everyday objects such as baskets and
  • Over time, clear social classes emerged.
  • Rulers and priests had the highest positions,
    followed by merchants, artisans, farmers and
    unskilled workers.
  • Slaves often formed the bottom of the social

The First Civilizations
  • Systems of writing developed about 5,000 years
    ago in order to keep records such as tax records.
  • Calendars developed to help farmers keep track of
    the changing seasons.
  • Most public buildings in large cities featured
    elaborate statues of gods and rulers.
  • Art and architecture reflected the wealth and
    power of the city and its leaders.

Changes in Civilizations
  • Civilizations constantly changed once they were
  • Something as simple as the weather could help a
    city growor destroy it with drought.
  • People still had to deal with disease and
  • Early civilizations met challenges with new
    technologies and knowledge from other societies.
  • Trade, migration, and invasion led to cultural
  • For example, artisans adopted styles from other
    civilizations and traders learned multiple

Changes in Civilization
  • Civilizations went to war to control rich
    farmland, important sea ports, or regions with
    valuable resources.
  • Through conquest, civilizations expanded their
    control over land and people.
  • Conflicts also arose between civilizations and
    nomadic groups, who sometimes launched raids on
    villages and cities.
  • Further conflicts also arose as nomads and
    farmers competed over land.
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