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Windows Threading

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Windows Threading Colin Roby Jaewook Kim – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Windows Threading


1
Windows Threading
  • Colin Roby
  • Jaewook Kim

2
OS, Process, and Thread
Applications
Programming paradigms
Operating System
Hardware
3
Legacy Window Threading Model (Co-operative
Threading)
4
Co-operative Threading
  • Used by Old 16-bit Window Platform
  • Thread continue execution until
  • Thread terminates
  • Executes instruction causing wait (e.g., IO)
  • Thread volunteering to stop (invoking yield or
    sleep)

5
Architecture for Cooperative Threading Model
6
Advantages Disadvantages
7
Threading Models from Windows NT to 2003
8
Windows NT2003 OS
  • Preemptive multi-processing operating system
  • The OS schedules the CPU time
  • The application can be preempted by OS scheduler

9
Windows Thread
  • The unit of execution (in UNIX, Process is the
    unit)
  • Implements the one-to-one mapping
  • Each thread contains
  • A thread id
  • Register set
  • Separate user and kernel stacks
  • Private data storage area
  • The register set, stacks, and private storage
    area are known as the context of the threads
  • The primary data structures of a thread include
  • ETHREAD (executive thread block)
  • KTHREAD (kernel thread block)
  • TEB (thread environment block)

10
Windows Thread Types
  • Single Threading
  • Each process is started with a single thread
  • Multiple Threading
  • A thread can be created by Win32 Pthread or
    Windows Thread API
  • Hyper Threading
  • Simultaneous multithreading technology on the
    Pentium 4 microarchitecture by Intel
  • Supported by Windows 2000 or more

11
Windows Threading Models
  • Win32 Threading Model
  • Win32 Pthread or Windows Thread API
  • COM (Component Object Model) Threading Model
  • Single Threaded Apartments (STA)
  • Multi Threaded Apartments (MTA)
  • Both Threading Model (STA or MTA)

12
STA MTA
COM Object
COM Object
13
Thread Synchronization
14
Win32 Threading Example
15
Creating a Thread
  • start_servers( )
  • HANDLE thread DWORD id int i
  • for (i0 iltnr_of_server_threads i)
  • thread CreateThread(0, // security attributes
  • 0, // default of stack pages allocated
  • (LPTHREAD_START_ROUTINE) server, // start
    routine
  • (LPVOID)0, // argument
  • 0, // creation flags
  • id) // thread ID
  • ...
  • DWORD WINAPI server(void arg)
  • while(TRUE)
  • // get and handle request
  • return(0)

16
When is it done?
  • rlogind(int r_in, int r_out, int l_in, int l_out)
  • HANDLE in_thread, out_thread
  • two_ints_t inr_in, l_out, outl_in, r_out
  • in_thread CreateThread(0, 0, incoming, in, 0,
    id)
  • out_thread CreateThread(0, 0, outgoing, out,
    0, id)
  • WaitForSingleObject(in_thread, INFINITE)
  • CloseHandle(in_thread)
  • WaitForSingleObject(out_thread, INFINITE)
  • CloseHandle(out_thread)

17
Termination
  • ExitThread((DWORD) value)
  • return((DWORD) value)
  • WaitForSingleObject(thread, timeOutValue)
  • GetExitCodeThread(thread, value)
  • CloseHandle(thread)

18
Threading Model for Multicore System
19
(No Transcript)
20
Additional Slides
21
Processes and Threads (1)
  • Basic concepts used for CPU and resource
    management

22
Processes and Threads (2)
  • Relationship between jobs, processes, threads,
    and fibers

23
Job, Process, Thread Fiber Mgmt. API Calls
  • Some of Win32 calls for managing processes,
    threads and fibers

24
Windows Threading
25
One-to-one model
  • One-to-one model
  • A process in Windows XP is inert it executes
    nothing
  • A process simply owns a 4GB address space that
    contains code and data for an application.
  • In addition, a process owns other resources, such
    as files, memory allocations, and threads.
  • Every process in Windows XP has a primary thread.
  • Threads in Windows XP are kernel-level threads.
  • Per-thread data structures
  • Total user/kernel time, kernel stack,
    thread-scheduling info.,
  • Thread-local storage array, thread environment
    block (TEB),
  • List of objects thread is waiting on,
    synchronization info. Etc.

26
Fibers vs. Threads
  • Fibers vs. Threads
  • Fibers are often called lightweight threads.
  • They allow an application to schedule its own
    threads of execution.
  • Fibers are invisible to the kernel.
  • They are implemented in user-mode in Kernel32.dll
  • Fibers interface
  • ConvertThreadToFiber() converts a thread to a
    running fiber.
  • A new fiber can be created using CreateFiber().
  • The new fiber runs until it exits or until it
    calls SwitchToFiber().
  • Fibers provide a functionality of the
    many-to-many model.

27
Stack Pages
  • HANDLE thread
  • thread CreateThread(0, 161024, startroutine,
    arg, 0, id)

28
Client Script Callbacks
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