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Personality Psychology

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Title: Personality Psychology


1
Personality Psychology
  • Unit 6

2
Personality
  • A hotly debated topic!
  • Back to Nature vs Nurture Debate again ?

3
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Psychoanalytic Theories study development in
    terms of drives and urges.
  • At each stage in life we have different urges and
    are driven toward different goals.
  • These changing urges lead to development.

4
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Sigmund Freud The founder/father of
    psychoanalytic therapy.
  • Believed development occurred as a result of
    psychosexual changes.
  • Based his theory of personality on inhibited
    sexual drives.
  • Humans are motivated by eros (the instinct of
    life) and thanatos (the instinct of death).

5
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freuds Theory of Consciousness
  • Conscious We are aware of these thoughts at any
    time.

6
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freuds Theory of Consciousness
  • Preconscious Things that we can recall at will,
    but are not continually thought of.

7
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freuds Theory of Consciousness
  • Unconscious Thoughts and feelings that cannot be
    intentionally remembered.

8
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freuds Theory of Personality
  • Id Unconscious portion of the mind that contains
    biological drives.

9
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freuds Theory of Personality
  • Superego The preconscious area of the mind that
    contributes to feelings of extreme guilt for fr
    wrong-doing. This is the area where MORALS are
    stored!

10
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freuds Theory of Personality
  • Ego The conscious area of the mind that is aware
    of reality and helps to express sexual and
    aggressive urges in socially acceptable ways.
  • The Ego is the balance between the Id and the
    Superego.

11
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freuds Theory of Psychosexual Development
    Personality develops based on changes in the
    libido (sexual energy) and fixation on erogenous
    zones.
  • 5 stages of Psychosexual Development
  • Personality is determined by the first 3 stages
    and is fixed by the age of 5

12
Stages of Psychosexual Development
Age Stage Characteristics
Birth to 1 year Oral Stage Infant receives pleasure from oral actions Biting Sucking chewing) Weaning is the single most important behavior associated with this stage.
1-3 years Anal Stage Child receives pleasure from the anus and defecation. The psychological goal of the child is independence and autonomy. The most important behavior in this state is toilet training.
3-6 years Phallic Stage Child receives pleasure from genitals and genital stimulation. Freud also believes that boys are proud of their penis and girls are puzzled about why they dont have one.
7-11 years Latency Stage Child does not have significant psychosexual development. Child focuses on friendships and social skills.
12 years- adulthood Genital Stage Genitals are the focus of pleasurable feelings. Young person seeks sexual satisfaction in relationships.
13
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Oedipal Complex The belief that little boys
    resent the relationship that their fathers have
    with their mothers, and as a result, harbor a
    latent desire to murder their fathers and
    marry/engage in sexual relations with their
    mothers.
  • Electra Complex The belief that little girls
    resent the relationship that their mothers have
    with their fathers, and as a result, harbor a
    latent desire to rebel against their mothers and
    marry their fathers (or someone eerily similar!)

14
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Defense Mechanisms Strategies the psyche uses to
    protect itself from situations or events that may
    be traumatic.

15
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense
  • Repression
  • Unconscious
  • Motivated
  • Forgetting

The process of preventing unacceptable thoughts,
feelings, or urges from reaching conscious
awareness
16
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense
  • Denial
  • Unconscious
  • Motivated
  • Not Perceiving

Perceptual Defense Research
17
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense
  • Rationalization
  • Unconscious
  • Motivated
  • Not Perceiving

Perceptual Defense Research
18
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense
  • Other Defense Mechanisms
  • Reaction Formation
  • Act opposite of impulse
  • Projection
  • Make impulse external

19
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense
  • Other Defense Mechanisms
  • Displacement
  • Channel impulse to non-threatening target
  • Sublimation
  • Channel impulse into socially desired
  • activity

20
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense
  • Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life
  • Useful in coping with unexpected or disappointing
    events
  • Can also make circumstances worse

21
Psychoanalytic Theories
22
Psychoanalytic Theories
  • Freud is widely accepted as a noted theorist,
    even today. However
  • Criticisms
  • Lack of scientific research
  • Subjects Freud observed were often greatly
    disturbed
  • First 2 stages of psychosexual development theory
    still unsupported using studies of children with
    normal development

23
Neo-Freudians
  • Consider parts of Freud's theory valid
  • Modified other aspects
  • Karen Horney Postulated that Freud exaggerated
    the role of sex drive in human behavior
  • Misunderstood sexual motivation of women
  • Conflict between parents and child due to
    parental hostility and intimidation instead of
    sexual desires manifested

24
Carl Jung
  • Swiss Physician
  • More emphasis on search for life and spiritual
    meaning continuity of past and present human
    experiences
  • Conscious Mind
  • A Personal Unconscious- Freud's unconscious
  • Collective Unconscious - Present at birth
  • Represents cumulative experience of previous
    generations
  • Archetypes- Images inherited from the experience
    of ancestors is contained in collective
    unconscious

25
Alfred Adler
  • Austrian Physician
  • Founded school of thought known as individual
    psychology
  • Individual Psychology- Indivisible Psychology
  • Psychology of the whole person- not id, ego,
    super ego
  • Conscious goal-directed behavior I
  • Inferiority Complex- exaggerated feeling of
    failure and helplessness
  • Striving for Superiority- Personal Excellence and
    fulfillment
  • Social Concern and interest for others

26
Learning Approach
  • Personality is a result of learning in various
    situations
  • Specific Behaviors
  • Specific Experiences
  • Some Experiences are a persons own and some are
    imitated

27
Humanistic Psychology
  • 1950s
  • Protest against Behaviorism and Psychoanalysis
  • Not based on determinism or reductionism like
    behaviorism and Psychoanalysis
  • Deals with consciousness, values, and abstract
    beliefs that include spiritual experiences
  • Personality depends how individual perceive the
    world and on what they believe

28
Carl Rogers and Self-Actualization
  • American
  • Most influential Psychologists
  • Human Nature Basically Good
  • Natural Drive toward self-actualization
  • Self concept and image of what they are
  • Ideal Self
  • Unconditional Positive Regard Unqualified
    acceptance for another person just as they are

29
Abraham Maslow
  • Hierarchy of needs must be met before proceeding
    top next level
  • Final Stage Self Actualization
  • Accurate perceptions of reality
  • Showed independence
  • Creativity and spontaneity
  • Accepted themselves and others
  • Enjoyed Life
  • Good sense of humor

30
Personality Traits and States
  • Individual Personalities differ in two ways
  • 1. Nomothetic Researchers seek generalities
  • Personalities affect behavior
  • Based on statistical comparisons of large groups
  • 2. Idiographic Focus on intensive studies of
    individuals
  • Life goals affect moods and their reactions to
    various events
  • Conclusions that apply to more than one person
  • Not meant to generalize the whole population

31
Personality Traits and States
  • Trait Long lasting behavioral tendency
  • Shyness is trait
  • State Temporary expression of behavior
  • Stage fright is a state
  • Traits and States are behavioral descriptions
  • They dont provide explanations of behavior

32
Personality Traits and States
  • The Trait Approach
  • Consistent Personality Characteristics
  • Honesty, Friendliness, and Nervousness
  • Studied and measured
  • Internal Locus of Control Internal forces
    credited for success
  • External Locus of Control External forces blamed
    for failure

33
Personality Traits and States
  • Gordon Alport Trait Psychologist
  • Said there are 4,500 trait-like words
  • 3 Central Trait Components
  • Cardinal Trait Dominates and shapes a persons
    behavior
  • Central Trait General Characteristic found in
    some degree in every person
  • Basic Building blocks that shape most of our
    behavior not as overwhelming as cardinal traits
    ex honesty
  • Secondary Trait Particular likes or dislikes
    that a very close friend may know

34
Personality Traits and States
  • Raymond B Cattell
  • 35 personality traits
  • The Big Five
  • 1. Neuroticism Tendency to experience unpleasant
    emotions
  • 2. Extraversion Seeks simulation and enjoys
    company of others people
  • 3.Agreeableness Compassionate toward others
  • 4.Conscientiousness Shows self discipline
  • 5.Openess Tendency to enjoy new intellectual
    experiences open to new ideas, people and
    exploring new ideas
  • Hardest to observe!

35
Personality Traits and States
  • Raymond B Cattells The Big 5 Personality Traits

36
Criticism of the Big Five
  • The Big Five cite 9 overlooked personality traits
    that dont emerge as clusters
  • 1.Religiousness
  • 2. Manipulativeness
  • 3. Honesty
  • 4. Sexiness
  • 5. Thriftiness
  • 6. Conservatives
  • 7. Masculinity and Femininity
  • 8. snobbishness
  • 9. Sense of Humor

37
Criticism of the Big Five
  • Hans Eysenck
  • German Behaviorist
  • Personality differences grow out of our genetic
    inheritance
  • Primarily interested in temperament Suggested
    three biologically based categories of
    temperament
  • 1. Neuroticism or its opposite, stability
  • 2. Extraversion or introversion
  • 3. Agreeableness, or oppositehostility

38
Origins of Personality
  • Studies of twins and adopted children
  • Heredity does contribute to some observable
    differences in personality
  • Family environment contributes a little
  • Special Experiences could contribute to a
    variation in personalities from one person to
    another even in a family

39
Assessing Traits An Example
  • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
    (MMPI)
  • The most widely researched and clinically used of
    all personality tests
  • Developed to identify emotional disorders

40
MMPI Examples
  • Nothing in the newspaper interests me except the
    comics.
  • I get angry sometimes.

41
Personaility Assesment
  • MMPI-1940s
  • Series of true and false questions
  • Measure personality dimensions
  • Depression
  • Paranoia and Schizophrenia
  • MMPI-550 items
  • MMPI-2 567 items
  • Both exams contain certain test questions
    identify dishonest answers
  • Both tests are widely used to measure personality
    dont provide as much accuracy as one might
    expect
  • Very useful in correlating personality traits
    with others traits, in testing theories of
    personality development, and in assessing a
    client before beginning therapy

42
Personaility Assesment
  • 16PF-Test
  • Standardized test
  • Personality Factors Schizophrenia,, Depression,
    Alcoholism
  • Measured 16 factors or personality traits
    various aspects of normal personality
  • Ego
  • Strength
  • Dominance
  • Trust
  • Intelligence
  • Self-sufficency
  • Printed out as a personality profile
  • Should be cautiously used with people from
    different ethnic and cultural backgrounds

43
Personaility Assesment
  • MMPI and 16-PF
  • Easy to score
  • Calculate
  • Objective nature limits the test takers responses
  • Projective techniques
  • Helps people reveal themselves more fully than
    they would to a stranger or even to themselves

44
Personaility Assesment
  • Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • Projective test
  • Herman Rorschach Swiss Psychiatrists
  • Interpretations of Ambiguous Inkblot
  • Everything revealed in a poorly defined situation
    gives clues to your personality
  • Valuable personal information

45
Personaility Assesment
  • Rorschach Inkblot Test

46
Personaility Assesment
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  • Test Taker makes up a story for each picture,
    describe what is occurring, what events led up to
    the scene, what will occur in the future
  • TAT-Clinical setting, induce clients to discuss
    their problems and for research purposes
  • More accurate in assessing what a person has done
    rather than what he or she will do in the future

47
Personaility Assesment
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

48
Uses and Misuses of Personality Tests
  • Aid in assessing personality
  • Results interpreted cautiously
  • Job selection
  • Results valid for employment screening

49
Personality Tests Review
  • Test MMPI
  • Purpose T or F questions intended to measure
    different personality dimensions depression,
    paranoia, and schizophrenia
  • Usefulness Helps correlate personality traits
    with other traits. Helps to test theories of
    personality development. Helps to assess a client
    before beginning therapy
  • Weaknesses Not very accurate

50
Personality Tests Review
  • Test 16-PF Test
  • Purpose Measures various aspects of normal
    personality. Test measures 16 factors or
    personality traits
  • Usefulness Helps clinicians ID abnormalities
    such as schizophrenia, alcoholism and depression
  • Weaknesses Has to be used with caution on people
    of different cultural backgrounds

51
Personality Tests Review
  • Test Rorschach Inkblot Test
  • Purpose Projective test based on an individuals
    interpretations of ten ambiguous ink blots
  • Usefulness Gives clues into someones
    personality by showing how they deal with a
    poorly defined situation
  • Weaknesses Information may be misinterpreted,
    too subjective

52
Personality Tests Review
  • Test TAT
  • Purpose Through storytelling clients are forced
    to discuss their problems. Also helps in research
  • Usefulness Results are more accurate in
    assessing what a person has done recently rather
    than what they will do in the future
  • Weaknesses Information may be misinterpreted,
    too subjective
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