Therapy 101 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Therapy 101 PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7278f3-YTk2Y



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Therapy 101

Description:

Therapy 101 - Southeast Missouri State University – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:716
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 125
Provided by: KenC57
Learn more at: http://cstl-cla.semo.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Therapy 101


1
Therapy 101
2
Psychotherapy
  • Literally
  • Treatment of the Psyche
  • Minds or personalities in distress

3
Psychotherapy
  • is a process by which you examine your
    thoughts, feelings, actions and relationships,
  • evaluate where problems exist, and
  • learn how to make whatever changes are necessary
    to achieve better life adjustment and satisfaction

4
Therapeutic Relationship
  • Varies with approaches
  • Objective
  • Ethical
  • Confidential
  • Professional

5
  • Patient/Therapist Relationship
  •  Terminology Patient vs. Client
  • How well patients relate to therapists and vice
    versa is important to the progress that they make
    in therapy.
  • According to much of the research on
    psychotherapy, a positive therapeutic
    relationship may even be more important for
    recovery than the type of therapy used.

6
Elements of Counseling Relationship
  • Rapport-the patient and therapist seem to "click
    with one another."
  • Trust-the patient views the therapeutic
    relationship as helpful and the therapist finds
    the patient interested in changing.
  • Confidentiality- a therapist keeps what is said
    in therapy between himself and the patient except
    when the patient or others are in danger.

7
  • Empathy- an empathic therapist tries to
    understand the situations and feelings through
    the patient 's eyes.
  • Insight- the patient is able to understand how
    his/her illness, attitudes and behaviors affect
    his/her life, (i.e. self-understanding).
  • Motivation-the patient has a desire to feel
    better and improve his/her situation.

8
Therapeutic Goals
  • Fostering Insight
  • Encouragement
  • Reducing emotional discomfort
  • Providing new information
  • Facilitating change

9
Continuum of Care
  • Consultation
  • Outpatient

Intensive outpatient
Day Treatment
Residential
Supervised living
Inpatient Hospitalization
10
Individual Therapy
  • One on one delivery of services focused on
    theoretical perspective and client need
  • Brief, solution focused therapy
  • Supportive therapy
  • Match client needs with orientation

11
Group Therapy
  • Simultaneous treatment of serveral individuals
  • Yaloms theory of group therapy
  • Therapists training
  • Screening of candidates
  • Group composition
  • Open, closed, size, other considerations

12
Family Therapy
  • Identifying and changing patterns of family
    interaction
  • Identified client
  • Systems view
  • Structural, strategic view
  • Virginia Satir

13
  • Family Therapy
  • Family therapy focuses on change within the
    family, and recognizes than family relationships
    all have an impact on the feelings and behavior
    of each of the members of a family.
  • Instead of meeting with an individual, all or
    most family members are involved in the therapy
    process.

14
  • Occasionally, the non-custodial parents are also
    involved in family therapy, but this depends on
    the potential for divorced parents working
    together to help their children resolve
    psychological problems. 
  • Family therapy is most frequently used when a
    child or adolescent is identified as having a
    psychological problem
  • For example, a teen with chronic depression or
    substance abuse problems might benefit from
    family therapy to address the impact of their
    problem on family relationships, while also
    receiving individual psychotherapy to directly
    address their personal change issues.

15
Marital Therapy
  • Relationship counseling, couple therapy
  • Focus on interaction, communication
  • Dynamics
  • Legal issues
  • Problem solving
  • Therapists mine field !

16
  • Relationship CounselingCouple Therapy
  • (Marriage Counseling)
  • Couple therapy is often seen as somehow different
    from psychotherapy because one individual is not
    identified as having a specific psychological
    problem.
  • All psychological problems involve both
    individual symptoms and changes in interpersonal
    relationships. 
  • Couple therapy focuses on the problems existing
    in the relationship between two people.

17
  • These relationship problems always involve
    individual symptoms and problems, as well as
    relationship conflicts.
  • Changes may be different ways of interacting
    within the relationship, or may be individual
    changes related to other psychological problems.
  • Couple therapy involves learning how to
    communicate more effectively, and how to listen
    more closely.

18
  • Couples must learn how to avoid competing with
    each other, and need to identify common life
    goals and how to share responsibilities within
    their relationship.
  • Sometimes the process is very similar to
    individual psychotherapy, sometimes like
    mediation, and sometimes educational.
  • The combination of the three is what makes it
    effective. 

19
Whos Who in Mental Health?
  • Psychiatrist (MD)
  • College, four years of medical school, four years
    of a psychiatry residency.
  • Diagnose and treat patients with medication
    and/or therapy. Oversee patient care.

20
  • Clinical Psychologist (Ph.D./PsyD)
  • College, five to seven years of graduate study, a
    written dissertation on a specialized topic,
    specialized clinical training.
  • Diagnosis, psychological testing, and therapy.
    May refer people for medication but do not
    prescribe medication.

21
  • Counselor/Therapist (MA/MS)
  • College, two year graduate study in psychology or
    counseling.
  • Counseling or therapy, psychological testing.May
    refer people for medication but do not prescribe
    medication.

22
  • Psychiatric Nurse (RN/BSN) RN Two or three
    year hospital or community college program. BSN
    college degree in nursing. Psychiatric nurse
    certification specialty training in medication
    management and group therapy .
  • Works in inpatient and outpatient settings.
    Plans, implements, and evaluates patient care
    monitors medicationsand provides individual
    and/or group therapy

23
Social Worker (MSW)
  • College, two years of graduate study which
    includes clinical training.
  • Usually works in outpatient settings. Diagnosis,
    therapy, and medication management under the
    supervision of a physician.

24
Therapist Orientations
(APA Data, 1989)
25
Therapy Types
  • Insight Therapies
  • Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive Therapies
  • Biological Therapies

26
  • Not All Psychotherapy Is Psychoanalysis
  • Many people have misconceptions about what
    psychotherapy is. Some people think psychotherapy
    involves laying on a couch and talking with a
    psychoanalyst who just says "tell me more.".
  • Most therapies focus on reducing symptoms quickly
    and returning the patient to a relatively normal
    level of functioning.

27
Insight Therapies
  • Psychodynamic
  • Person-centered Therapy
  • Gestalt Therapy
  • Existential Therapy

28
Comparing Major Therapies
Perceived Cause of Disorder Goals of Therapy Methods used
29
Psychodynamic
Cause Goals Methods
Unconscious sexual and aggressive urges/conflicts Fixations Bring repressed information into conscious mind Dream Interpretation Free Association
30
  • Psychodynamic
  • Usually lengthy
  • Free Association and Dream Analysis
  • Barriers Resistance, Transference
  • Exploring unconscious

31
Psychodynamic
  • Free association
  • Analysis of Resistance
  • Dream analysis
  • Analysis of Transference

32
Psychodynamic
  • Minimizes patient responsibility
  • Neglects conscious motives and the present
  • Fairly costly

33
Psychoanalytic Orientation
  • The Nature of Psychoanalysis
  • Techniques in psychoanalysis
  • Analysis of free associations
  • Analysis of resistances
  • Analysis of dreams
  • Analysis of transference
  • Offshoots of psychoanalysis

34
Freuds Psychoanalysis
  • Psychoanalysis - an insight therapy based on the
    theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of
    unconscious conflicts.
  • Dream interpretation
  • Manifest content the actual content of ones
    dream.
  • Latent content the symbolic or hidden meaning
    of dreams.
  • Free association Freudian technique in which a
    patient was encouraged to talk about anything
    that came to mind without fear of negative
    evaluations.

35
Freuds Psychoanalysis
  • Resistance - occurring when a patient becomes
    reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either
    changing the subject or becoming silent.
  • Transference - in psychoanalysis, the tendency
    for a patient or client to project positive or
    negative feelings for important people from the
    past onto the therapist.

36
Psychoanalysis Today
  • Psychodynamic therapy - a newer and more general
    term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, with
    an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment
    times, and a more direct therapeutic approach.
  • Nondirective - therapy style in which the
    therapist remains relatively neutral and does not
    interpret or take direct actions with regard to
    the client, instead remaining a calm,
    nonjudgmental listener while the client talks.
  • Directive - therapy in which the therapist
    actively gives interpretations of a clients
    statements and may suggest certain behavior or
    actions. Psychoanalysis today is more directive.

37
_______________ formed a large part of Freuds
psychoanalytic method.a) Reflectionb)
Empathyc) Dream interpretationd) Unconditional
positive regard
38
_______________ formed a large part of Freuds
psychoanalytic method.a) Reflectionb)
Empathyc) Dream interpretationd) Unconditional
positive regard
39
Humanism
  • Only the client can judge if he or she is better
  • No way to independently verify success

40
Person Centered
Causes Goals Methods
Incongruence between real and desired self. Overdependence on positive regard from others Increase self acceptance and self understanding Enhance personal growth Empathy, unconditional Positive regard Reflection of feelings
41
Person-Centered Therapy
  • A Humanistic therapy
  • Founded by Rogers
  • Uses mirroring unconditional positive regard to
    promote self actualization
  • Therapist must genuinely like the client
  • Therapist must have empathy for the client

42
  • Person Centered (Nondirective)
  • Warm, supportive environment
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • Reveal true feelings to achieve self-growth
  • Understand past conditions of worth
  • Need for therapist to identify with client
    (empathy)

43
Gestalt Therapy
  • Founded by Perls
  • Therapist directs client to get in touch with
    feelings, resolve unfinished business

44
  • Gestalt
  • Challenge with questions, activities designed to
    challenge clients to increase self-awareness
  • Role playing
  • Confrontation, but encouraging, supportive

45
Todays View of Humanistic Therapy
  • Humanistic therapies are not based in
    experimental research and work best with
    intelligent, highly verbal persons.

46
Humanistic Orientation
  • Person-Centered Therapy Carl Rogers
  • Reflection of feelings main technique
  • Unconditional positive regard
  • Gestalt Therapy Perls

47
Rogers Person-Centered Therapy
  • Person-centered therapy - a nondirective insight
    therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which
    the client does all the talking and the therapist
    listens.
  • Four Elements
  • Reflection - therapy technique in which the
    therapist restates what the client says rather
    than interpreting those statements.
  • Unconditional positive regard - referring to the
    warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created
    by the therapist for the client in
    person-centered therapy.
  • Empathy - the ability of the therapist to
    understand the feelings of the client.
  • Authenticity - the genuine, open, and honest
    response of the therapist to the client.

48
What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most
personal problems and unhappiness? a)
reinforcement of maladaptive behavior patterns
b) unrealistic modes of thought employed by
many people c) mismatch between an individuals
ideal self and real self d) unresolved
unconscious conflicts occurring between the id
and superego
49
What did Carl Rogers view as a cause of most
personal problems and unhappiness? a)
reinforcement of maladaptive behavior patterns
b) unrealistic modes of thought employed by
many people c) mismatch between an individuals
ideal self and real self d) unresolved
unconscious conflicts occurring between the id
and superego
50
Gestalt Therapy
  • form of directive insight therapy in which the
    therapist helps clients to accept all parts of
    their feelings and subjective experiences, using
    leading questions and planned experiences such as
    role-playing.
  • Try to help clients deal with things in their
    past that they have denied and will use body
    language and other nonverbal cues to understand
    what clients are really saying.

51
Which of the following is a key component of
Rogerss person-centered therapy?a)
cognitionb) resistancec) dream
interpretationd) unconditional positive regard
52
Which of the following is a key component of
Rogerss person-centered therapy?a)
cognitionb) resistancec) dream
interpretationd) unconditional positive regard
53
Behavioral
Causes Goals Methods
Learning maladaptive behaviors, failure to learn appropriate behaviors Help acquire needed social skills, Extinguish maladaptive behaviors, Replace with Positive behaviors Based on classical and operant conditioning Exposure, Reinforcement Flooding Modeling
54
  • Behavioral
  • Use learning principles to reduce or eliminate
    maladaptive behaviors
  • Ignores unconscious conflicts
  • Systematic desensitization, flooding, modeling,
    token economy, aversive conditioning

55
Behavioral Therapy
  • Problems arise from failure to learn adaptive
    behavior or learning of maladaptive behavior
  • Change through operant and classical conditioning
    techniques

56
Systematic Desensitization
  • Teach relaxation
  • Create a hierarchy ranging from least to most
    feared stimulus
  • Work through hierarchy while maintaining calm

57
Exposure Response Prevention
  • Exposing the person to the situation producing
    anxiety
  • Preventing the person from performing their
    rituals

58
Modeling
  • Providing a role model lacking the anxiety
  • Participant modeling works best

59
Behavioral Therapy and Classical Conditioning
  • Behavior therapies - action therapies based on
    the principles of classical and operant
    conditioning and aimed at changing disordered
    behavior without concern for the original causes
    of such behavior.
  • Behavior modification or applied behavior
    analysis the use of learning techniques to
    modify or change undesirable behavior and
    increase desirable behavior.

60
Behavioral Therapy and Classical Conditioning
  • Systematic desensitization - behavior technique
    used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked
    to make a list of ordered fears and taught to
    relax while concentrating on those fears.
  • Counterconditioning - replacing an old
    conditioned response with a new one by changing
    the unconditioned stimulus.

61
Behavioral Therapy and Classical Conditioning
  • Aversion therapy - form of behavioral therapy in
    which an undesirable behavior is paired with an
    aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the
    behavior.
  • Flooding - technique for treating phobias and
    other stress disorders in which the person is
    rapidly and intensely exposed to the
    fear-provoking situation or object and prevented
    from making the usual avoidance or escape
    response.

62
LO 15.8 Behavior therapists use of classical
conditioning
Menu
63
  • Modeling - learning through the observation and
    imitation of others.
  • Participant modeling - technique in which a model
    demonstrates the desired behavior in a
    step-by-step, gradual process while the client is
    encouraged to imitate the model.
  • Reinforcement - the strengthening of a response
    by following it with a pleasurable consequence or
    the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.

64
  • Token economy - the use of objects called tokens
    to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be
    accumulated and exchanged for desired items or
    privileges.
  • Contingency contract a formal, written
    agreement between the therapist and client (or
    teacher and student) in which goals for
    behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties
    are clearly stated.

65
  • Extinction the removal of a reinforcer to
    reduce the frequency of a behavior.
  • Time-out - an extinction process in which a
    person is removed from the situation that
    provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior,
    usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room
    away from possible attention and reinforcement
    opportunities.

66
Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy
  • Behavior therapies can be effective in treating
    specific problems, such as bedwetting, drug
    addictions, and phobias.
  • Can help improve some of the more troubling
    behavioral symptoms associated with more severe
    disorders.

67
Cognitive
Causes Goals Methods
Irrational, negative assumptions and ideas about self and others Change faulty, irrational, negative thinking Identify negative thoughts and replace with rational thinking
68
Cognitive Therapies
  • Rational Emotive Therapy (Ellis)
  • Beck's cognitive therapy

69
  • Cognitive
  • Uses learning principles to challenge irrational
    thoughts
  • Cognitive distortions overgeneralization,
    black/white thinking, mind reading
  • Rational Emotive
  • Self defeating behaviors/thoughts
  • Substitute more positive

70
Rational Emotive Therapy
  • Attempts to modify the irrational beliefs that
    cause distress
  • Confrontational and directive

71
Common Irrational Beliefs
  • I must be perfect
  • Everyone must love me
  • The past determines the future
  • It is catastrophic when things don't go as planned

72
Common Irrational Beliefs
  • I have no control over my happiness
  • Perfect solutions must be found for life's
    problems
  • Happiness just happens

73
Becks Cognitive Therapy
  • Automatic Thoughts Thoughts people have about
    life and the self that may be unreasonable but
    are accepted as accurate
  • Automatic thoughts create depression and anxiety
  • Goal teach patients to stop the thoughts

74
Becks Cognitive Therapy
  • Also involves negative views of past, present,
    and future experiences
  • Highly effective treatment for depression
    anxiety

75
Cognitive Orientation
  • Rational-Emotive Therapy Albert Ellis
  • Goal is changing irrational beliefs
  • A-B-C Theory of Emotion
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • Goal is changing negative beliefs about the
    world, the self and the future

76
The A-B-C Theory of Emotion
77
Cognitive Therapy
  • Cognitive therapy - therapy in which the focus is
    on helping clients recognize distortions in their
    thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic
    beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts.
  • Cognitive Distortions based on Becks Cognitive
    Therapy
  • Arbitrary inference distortion of thinking in
    which a person draws a conclusion that is not
    based on any evidence.
  • Selective thinking - distortion of thinking in
    which a person focuses on only one aspect of a
    situation while ignoring all other relevant
    aspects.

78
  • Cognitive Distortions
  • Overgeneralization - distortion of thinking in
    which a person draws sweeping conclusions based
    on only one incident or event and applies those
    conclusions to events that are unrelated to the
    original.
  • Magnification and minimization - distortions of
    thinking in which a person blows a negative event
    out of proportion to its importance
    (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive
    events (minimization).
  • Personalization - distortion of thinking in which
    a person takes responsibility or blame for events
    that are unconnected to the person.

79
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) - action
    therapy in which the goal is to help clients
    overcome problems by learning to think more
    rationally and logically.
  • Three goals
  • Relieve the symptoms and solve the problems.
  • To develop strategies for solving future
    problems.
  • To help change irrational, distorted thinking.

80
Rational-Emotive Therapy
  • Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) -
    cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are
    directly challenged in their irrational beliefs
    and helped to restructure their thinking into
    more rational belief statements.

81
Success of CBT
  • CBT has seemed successful in treating depression,
    stress disorders, and anxiety.
  • Criticized for focusing on the symptoms and not
    the causes of disordered behavior.

82
Biomedical
Causes Goals Methods
Genetic inheritance, Biochemical abnormality within the brain Eliminate or control biological causes. Restore balance of neurotransmitters Medication, Psychosurgery ECT
83
  • Biomedical
  • Drug therapies
  • Antianxiety agents
  • Antipsychotic agents
  • Antidepressants
  • Electro convulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Psychosurgery

84
Biological Therapies
  • Psychoactive drugs highly successful in reducing
    in-patient population

85
Antipsychotic Drugs
  • Neuroleptics -- phenothiazine, butyrophenones
  • Neuroleptics may cause Tardive dyskinesia
  • Clozapine and risperidone
  • Clozapine has a risk of producing blood clots

86
Antidepressants
  • Tricyclics
  • Serotonin Selective Reuptake Inhibitors
  • SSRIs (Prozac, Anafranil) have fewer side effects
  • MAO inhibitors
  • MAO inhibitors can't be taken with certain foods

87
Antimania Drugs
  • Lithium Carbonate evens out the mood swings of
    bipolar patients
  • Must be carefully monitored

88
Tranquilizers
  • Benzodiazapines (Librium, Valium, Xanax)
  • Xanax more effective but somewhat addictive

89
Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • An effective treatment for depression mania
    not responsive to drugs
  • May cause temporary memory loss
  • Works by altering neurotransmitter balance

90
Psychosurgery
  • Lobotomies done from 1935-1955
  • Cingulotomies and other microsurgeries sometimes
    done today

91
Lobotomy Site
  • Portions of the frontal lobe
  • are separated from the thalamus

92
Psychosurgery
  • Negatives
  • Results are unpredictable
  • Consequences are irreversible

93
Biopsychological Orientation
  • Psychosurgery
  • Prefrontal lobotomy
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Brief electric current induces brain seizures
  • Produces retrograde amnesia

94
  • Drug Therapy
  • Antianxiety Drugs
  • e.g., Valium, Xanax
  • Work by stimulating GABA
  • Antidepressant Drugs
  • e.g., tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs
  • Antimania drugs
  • e.g., lithium
  • Can produce dangerous side effects
  • Antipsychotic drugs
  • e.g., thorazine
  • Motor side effects

95
Drug Treatments
  • Biomedical therapies therapies that directly
    affect the biological functioning of the body and
    brain.
  • Psychopharmacology - the use of drugs to control
    or relieve the symptoms of psychological
    disorders.
  • Antipsychotic drugs - drugs used to treat
    psychotic symptoms such as delusions,
    hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior.

96
  • Antianxiety drugs - drugs used to treat and calm
    anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers.
  • Antimanic drugs - used to treat bipolar disorder
    and include lithium and certain anticonvulsant
    drugs.
  • Antidepressant drugs - drugs used to treat
    depression and anxiety.

97
(No Transcript)
98
Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) - form of
    biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in
    which electrodes are placed on either one or both
    sides of a persons head and an electric current
    is passed through the electrodes that is strong
    enough to cause a seizure or convulsion.
  • Bilateral ECT - electroconvulsive therapy in
    which the electrodes are placed on both sides of
    the head.
  • Unilateral ECT - electroconvulsive therapy in
    which the electrodes are placed on only one side
    of the head and the forehead.

99
Psychosurgery
  • Psychosurgery - surgery performed on brain tissue
    to relieve or control severe psychological
    disorders.
  • Prefrontal lobotomy - psychosurgery in which the
    connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain
    to the rear portions are severed.
  • Bilateral cingulotomy - psychosurgical technique
    in which an electrode wire is inserted into the
    cingulated gyrus area of the brain with the
    guidance of a magnetic resonance imaging machine
    for the purpose of destroying that area of brain
    tissue with an electric current.

100
Danger of Treating Children with Antidepressants
  • All but one antidepressant drug has been
    associated with an increased risk of suicide when
    used to treat depression in children and
    adolescents.
  • Prozac, the one safe antidepressant for children
    and adolescents, has been found to be more
    effective when combined with psychotherapy.

101
Clicker Review
  • Therapy

102
Lulu sees a professional once a month to manage
the medication she is taking to help alleviate
the symptoms of her anxiety disorder. The type of
therapy Lulu is undergoing is called
______________.a) psychotherapyb) biomedical
therapyc) physical therapyd) electroconvulsive
shock therapy
103
Lulu sees a professional once a month to manage
the medication she is taking to help alleviate
the symptoms of her anxiety disorder. The type of
therapy Lulu is undergoing is called
______________.a) psychotherapyb) biomedical
therapyc) physical therapyd) electroconvulsive
shock therapy
104
The psychoanalytic patient who lets her thoughts
flow without interruption or fear of negative
criticism from her therapist is using
______. a) dream interpretation b)
positive transference c) regression d)
free association
105
The psychoanalytic patient who lets her thoughts
flow without interruption or fear of negative
criticism from her therapist is using
______. a) dream interpretation b)
positive transference c) regression d)
free association
106
The therapists feeling of respect and affection
for the client that exists without any strings
attached, no matter what the client may say or
do, is called __________.a) conditions of
worthb) empathyc) catharsisd) unconditional
positive regard
107
The therapists feeling of respect and affection
for the client that exists without any strings
attached, no matter what the client may say or
do, is called __________.a) conditions of
worthb) empathyc) catharsisd) unconditional
positive regard
108
56. What do behavior therapists see as the cause
of abnormal or undesirable behaviors? a)
learning b) unconscious conflicts c)
distortions in thinking d) discrepancy between
the real self and ideal self
109
56. What do behavior therapists see as the cause
of abnormal or undesirable behaviors? a)
learning b) unconscious conflicts c)
distortions in thinking d) discrepancy between
the real self and ideal self
110
67. Every time Jarrad opens his cigarette case or
uses his lighter, he gets a painful electric
shock. Jarrads friends and family have been
asked not to give him any cigarettes or light any
cigarettes for him, so he must use his own
lighter if he wants to smoke. Eventually, Jarrad
loses his desire to smoke, thanks to ______.a)
negative transference b) behavioral
contractingc) systematic desensitizationd)
aversion conditioning
111
67. Every time Jarrad opens his cigarette case or
uses his lighter, he gets a painful electric
shock. Jarrads friends and family have been
asked not to give him any cigarettes or light any
cigarettes for him, so he must use his own
lighter if he wants to smoke. Eventually, Jarrad
loses his desire to smoke, thanks to ______.a)
negative transference b) behavioral
contractingc) systematic desensitizationd)
aversion conditioning
112
61. Which method of treating phobias involves
progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared
object?a) extinction b) punishment c)
token economy d) systematic desensitization
113
61. Which method of treating phobias involves
progressive relaxation and exposure to the feared
object?a) extinction b) punishment c)
token economy d) systematic desensitization
114
Estella is afraid of cats. To help her overcome
her fear, her mother calmly pets and strokes a
cat while Estella is watching. Her mother
encourages her to imitate her behavior. Estellas
mother is using_________.a) reinforcementb)
token economy c) modelingd) punishment
115
Estella is afraid of cats. To help her overcome
her fear, her mother calmly pets and strokes a
cat while Estella is watching. Her mother
encourages her to imitate her behavior. Estellas
mother is using_________.a) reinforcementb)
token economy c) modelingd) punishment
116
Which of the following is one of the criticisms
of behavior therapy?a) It focuses on the
underlying cause of behavior and not the
symptoms.b) Therapy typically lasts for several
years and is very expensive.c) It focuses too
much on the past.d) It only relieves some
symptoms but does not treat the overall
disorder.
117
Which of the following is one of the criticisms
of behavior therapy?a) It focuses on the
underlying cause of behavior and not the
symptoms.b) Therapy typically lasts for several
years and is very expensive.c) It focuses too
much on the past.d) It only relieves some
symptoms but does not treat the overall
disorder.
118
Therapy that depends on identifying and changing
distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs is
______ therapy. a) cognitiveb)
psychoanalytic c) behavior d)
person-centered
119
Therapy that depends on identifying and changing
distorted thinking and unrealistic beliefs is
______ therapy. a) cognitiveb)
psychoanalytic c) behavior d)
person-centered
120
Which of the following is a basic goal of
cognitive-behavioral therapy?a) to help clients
uncover unconscious conflicts and sexual
urgesb) to help clients develop a closer match
between real and ideal selvesc) to help clients
change irrational thoughts to rational
thoughtsd) to help clients complete unfinished
business and become whole
121
Which of the following is a basic goal of
cognitive-behavioral therapy?a) to help clients
uncover unconscious conflicts and sexual
urgesb) to help clients develop a closer match
between real and ideal selvesc) to help clients
change irrational thoughts to rational
thoughtsd) to help clients complete unfinished
business and become whole
122
Which of the following is an advantage of
cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies?a)
Clients do not need to be verbal.b) They treat
the underlying cause of the problem.c) They are
less expensive and short term than typical
insight therapies.d) The therapist decides which
of the clients beliefs are rational and which
are irrational.
123
Which of the following is an advantage of
cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies?a)
Clients do not need to be verbal.b) They treat
the underlying cause of the problem.c) They are
less expensive and short term than typical
insight therapies.d) The therapist decides which
of the clients beliefs are rational and which
are irrational.
124
The End
About PowerShow.com