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AP Psychology Review

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Title: AP Psychology Review


1
AP Psychology Review
2
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
  • Knowledge
  • Need to know the material of a typical
    Introduction to Psychology course at the college
    level.
  • Typical college course meets for 15 weeks, 3
    times a week for 45 class hours.
  • Textbooks
  • Weiten Text 714 pages
  • Gleitman Text 720 pages
  • Bernstein Text 627 pages
  • Myers Text 794 pages

3
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
  • Understanding of the AP Psychology Test
  • Knowing the basic elements of the AP Psychology
    test including
  • Number of questions in the total test
  • Number of questions from each individual unit
  • Types of questions possible
  • How the questions are arraigned?
  • How is the test scored?
  • Penalty for guessing

4
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
  • Motivation
  • Drive to do well on the test
  • Reasons for a 5
  • Time/Work
  • Willingness to put in the time and effort needed
    to succeed
  • Confidence
  • Feeling you are prepared and have the skills
    needed to pass the test.

5
Success on the AP Psychology Exam







6
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result






7
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X





8
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion





9
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X




10
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency




11
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X



12
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X Half an Attempt



13
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X Half an Attempt
X X X X


14
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X Half an Attempt
X X X X No Attempt


15
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X Half an Attempt
X X X X No Attempt
X X X X

16
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X Half an Attempt
X X X X No Attempt
X X X X Panic

17
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X Half an Attempt
X X X X No Attempt
X X X X Panic
X X X X X
18
Success on the AP Psychology Exam
Knowledge Understanding of the Test Motivation Time/Effort Confidence Result
X X X X Confusion
X X X X Inefficiency
X X X X Half an Attempt
X X X X No Attempt
X X X X Panic
X X X X X Success
19
Test Taking Strategies
  • General Tips for Test Taking
  • Multiple Choice Section
  • Free Response Questions

20
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Know the structure of the test
  • Multiple Choice Section - 100 questions
  • A-E
  • Column format
  • Questions taken
    from every unit
    on a
    percentage

    basis

21
AP Psychology Exam Structure
  • History and Approaches 2-4
  • Research Methods 8-10
  • Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10
  • Sensation and Perception 6-8
  • States of Consciousness 2-4
  • Learning 7-9
  • Cognition 8-10
  • Motivation and Emotion 6-8
  • Developmental Psychology 7-9
  • Personality 5-7
  • Testing and Individual Differences 5-7
  • Abnormal Psychology 7-9
  • Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7
  • Social Psychology 8-10

22
AP Psychology Exam Structure
  • Research Methods 8-10
  • Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10
  • Cognition 8-10
  • Social Psychology 8-10
  • Abnormal Psychology 7-9
  • Developmental Psychology 7-9
  • Learning 7-9
  • Motivation and Emotion 6-8
  • Sensation and Perception 6-8
  • Personality 5-7
  • Testing and Individual Differences 5-7
  • Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7
  • History and Approaches 2-4
  • States of Consciousness 2-4

23
AP Psychology Exam Structure
  • History, Approaches and Research Methods 10-14
  • Biological Bases of Behavior 8-10
  • Cognition 8-10
  • Social Psychology 8-10
  • Abnormal Psychology 7-9
  • Developmental Psychology 7-9
  • Learning 7-9
  • Motivation and Emotion 6-8
  • Sensation and Perception 6-8
  • Personality 5-7
  • Testing and Individual Differences 5-7
  • Treatment of Psychological Disorders 5-7
  • States of Consciousness 2-4

24
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Know the structure of the test
  • Free Response Section - 2 questions
  • No choice
  • Multiple parts

25
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Make good use of your time and be aware of time
    restraints
  • Multiple Choice - 70 minutes (100 questions)
  • Free Response - 50 minutes (2 questions)
  • Bring a watch to the test
  • Directions on exam
    (see next slide)

26
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Make good use of your time and know your time
    restraints
  • Use your time effectively, working as quickly as
    you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend
    too much time on any one question. Go on to
    other questions and come back to the ones you
    have not answered if you have time. It is not
    expected that everyone will know the answers to
    all of the multiple-choice questions.

27
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Read the directions carefully
  • Mark the one best answer
  • Mark all correct answers
  • AP Psychology test says
  • Each of the questions or
    incomplete statements below is
    followed by five suggested answers or
    completions. Select the one that is best in each
    case and then fill in the corresponding oval on
    the answer sheet.

28
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Know how the test is graded
  • Multiple Choice
  • 2/3 of overall grade
  • 100 Points
  • Free Response
  • 1/3 of overall grade
  • 50 Points
  • 150 Total Points

29
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Dont waste time with extremely difficult
    questions
  • Don't waste time pondering difficult-to-answer
    questions excessively. If you have no idea at
    all, just guess (if there is no penalty for doing
    so) and go on. If you need to devote a good deal
    of time to the question, skip it and mark it so
    you can return to it later if time permits.

30
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Are charts, graphs, drawings, etc.
    on the test?
  • Are there names on the test?

31
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Keep to the level of the test
  • Adopt the appropriate level of sophistication for
    the test. Don't read things into questions.
    Sometimes students make things more complex that
    they were intended to be. Often, simple-looking
    questions are just what they appear to be.
  • AP Psychology test appears to
    go from easiest questions to
    the hardest questions.

32
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Ask questions if you can
  • Unless it is explicitly forbidden, don't hesitate
    to ask the examiner to clarify a question when
    necessary. Many examiners will graciously
    provide a great deal of useful information.
  • AP Psychology test
    You cannot ask any
    questions.

33
General Tips for Test Taking
  • If possible, review your answers
  • If you complete all of the questions and still
    have some time remaining, review the test. Make
    sure that you have recorded your answers
    correctly, especially when using a scanner sheet.
    If you were unsure of some answers, go back and
    reconsider them.

34
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Multiple Choice Question Structure
  • Stem 1.Which of the following is responsible
    for focusing the image on the retina?
  • Decoys/distracters A. cornea
  • B. optic nerve
  • C. rods
  • D. cones
  • Correct Answer E. lens

35
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Anticipate the answer
  • As you read the stem of each multiple choice
    question, anticipate the answer if you can,
    before looking at the options. If the answer you
    anticipated is among the options, it is likely to
    be the correct one.

36
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Anticipate the answer
  • When Shelly first had cable television service
    installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on
    channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS
    to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble
    remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on
    channel 9. This memory problem represents

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 86)
37
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Anticipate the answer
  • When Shelly first had cable television service
    installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on
    channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS
    to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble
    remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on
    channel 9. This memory problem represents
  • (A) memory decay
  • (B) retrograde amnesia
  • (C) reconstruction errors
  • (D) retroactive interference
  • (E) proactive interference

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 86)
38
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Anticipate the answer
  • When Shelly first had cable television service
    installed, Public Broadcasting (PBS) was on
    channel 9. Her cable company then switched PBS
    to channel 16. Shelly now has trouble
    remembering that PBS is on channel 16 and not on
    channel 9. This memory problem represents
  • (A) memory decay
  • (B) retrograde amnesia
  • (C) reconstruction errors
  • (D) retroactive interference
  • (E) proactive interference

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 86)
39
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Completely read each question and every answer
  • Always read each question completely. Continue
    reading even if you find your anticipated answer
    among the options. There may be a more complete
    option farther down the list.

40
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Completely read each question and every answer
  • Which of the following is evidence of the
    reliability of a new intelligence test?
  • (A) A correlation of 0.90 exists between
    scores on the new test and scores on the
    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
  • (B) The test predicts students ability to
    succeed in college.
  • (C) The correlation between scores for
    identical twins taking the test is 0.90.
  • (D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained
    from a diverse sample of several thousand
    participants.
  • (E) The correlation between scores of
    participants who take two forms of the test
    is 0.90.

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 70)
41
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Completely read each question and every answer
  • Which of the following is evidence of the
    reliability of a new intelligence test?
  • (A) A correlation of 0.90 exists between
    scores on the new test and scores on the
    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
  • (B) The test predicts students ability to
    succeed in college.
  • (C) The correlation between scores for
    identical twins taking the test is 0.90.
  • (D) Baseline data for test norming are obtained
    from a diverse sample of several thousand
    participants.
  • (E) The correlation between scores of
    participants who take two forms of the test
    is 0.90.

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 70)
42
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Re-phrase complicated questions
  • If the question is too complex try to re-phrase
    it into a form you can understand.
  • In their deliberations and discussions regarding
    the process of developmental maturation, the
    advocates of the importance of nurture in the
    nature/nurture controversy emphasize which of the
    following concepts?
  • Which of the following do those who believe in
    nurture believe?

43
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Stick to the subject matter
  • Watch for answers that have nothing to do with
    the subject matter of the course or have nothing
    to do with the subject matter of the particular
    unit the question is testing.

44
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Stick to the subject matter
  • Alfred Binets most important contribution to
    psychology was in the area of
  • (A) intelligence testing
  • (B) visual perception
  • (C) psychopathology
  • (D) comparative psychology
  • (E) classical conditioning

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 34)
45
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Stick to the subject matter
  • Alfred Binets most important contribution to
    psychology was in the area of
  • (A) intelligence testing
  • (B) visual perception
  • (C) psychopathology
  • (D) comparative psychology
  • (E) classical conditioning

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 34)
46
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Watch for help
  • Look for answers or help within other questions
    of the test.

47
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Watch for help
  • Which of the following theoretical frameworks
    would argue most strongly that a healthy child
    will choose what is good for his or her growth?
  • (A) Social learning theory
  • (B) Psychoanalytic
  • (C) Behavioral
  • (D) Humanistic
  • (E) Psychodynamic

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 05)
48
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Watch for help
  • Which of the following theoretical frameworks
    would argue most strongly that a healthy child
    will choose what is good for his or her growth?
  • (A) Social learning theory
  • (B) Psychoanalytic
  • (C) Behavioral
  • (D) Humanistic
  • (E) Psychodynamic

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 05)
49
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Watch for help
  • The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests
    that
  • (A) most behavior can be explained by operant
    conditioning principles
  • (B) all humans have peak experiences
  • (C) all humans are by nature good
  • (D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and
    suffering
  • (E) self-actualization can happen only through
    therapy

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 49)
50
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Watch for help
  • The humanistic perspective in psychology suggests
    that
  • (A) most behavior can be explained by operant
    conditioning principles
  • (B) all humans have peak experiences
  • (C) all humans are by nature good
  • (D) humans are doomed to a life of neurosis and
    suffering
  • (E) self-actualization can happen only through
    therapy

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 49)
51
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Use all of the above to your advantage
  • On items that have "all of the above" as an
    option, if you know that just two of the options
    are correct, you should choose "all of the
    above."
  • If you are confident that one of the options is
    incorrect, you should eliminate this option and
    "all of the above" and choose from the remaining
    options.
  • AP Psychology exam has not had any all of the
    above or none of the above questions

52
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Use qualifiers and 100 words
  • Qualifiers often, sometimes, perhaps, may,
    generally, some, seldom, usually, ordinarily,
    etc.
  • Options that use qualifiers tend to be correct.
  • 100 words never, none, no, every, always, all,
    only, entirely, necessarily, completely, totally,
    etc.
  • Options that represent broad, sweeping
    generalizations tend to be incorrect.

53
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Use flaws within the test to your advantage
  • Many writers of test questions make mistakes that
    you can use to help determine the correct answer.

54
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 1
  • The incorrect options are highly implausible
  • The part of the brain responsible for higher
    order thinking is the
  • A. cerebrum
  • B. pupil
  • C. repression
  • D. pituitary gland
  • E. mania

55
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 1
  • The incorrect options are highly implausible
  • The part of the brain responsible for higher
    order thinking is the
  • A. cerebrum
  • B. pupil
  • C. repression
  • D. pituitary gland
  • E. mania

56
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 2
  • Equivalence and/or contradictions among options
    allow one to eliminate the incorrect options.
  • Which of the following is a anxiety disorder?
  • A. manic depression
  • B. bipolar disorder
  • C. phobia
  • D. dissociative amnesia
  • E. psychogenic amnesia

57
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 2
  • Equivalence and/or contradictions among options
    allow one to eliminate the incorrect options.
  • Which of the following is a anxiety disorder?
  • A. manic depression
  • B. bipolar disorder
  • C. phobia
  • D. dissociative amnesia
  • E. psychogenic amnesia

58
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 3
  • Content information in other items provides the
    answer.
  • Flaw 4
  • The correct option is more detailed and/or more
    specific than all the other options.
  • Flaw 5
  • The correct option is longer than all the other
    options.

59
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 6
  • There is grammatical inconsistency between the
    stem and the incorrect options but not the
    correct option.
  • Flaw 7
  • The incorrect options include certain key words
    that tend to appear in false statements (i.e.
    always, must, never, and so on).

60
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 8
  • There is a resemblance between the stem and
    correct option but not the incorrect options.
  • Skinner and the other behaviorists would promote
    which of the following therapies?
  • A. psychoanalysis
  • B. humanistic therapy
  • C. behavioral therapy
  • D. Gestalt therapy
  • E. cognitive therapy

61
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 8
  • There is a resemblance between the stem and
    correct option but not the incorrect options.
  • Skinner and the other behaviorists would promote
    which of the following therapies?
  • A. psychoanalysis
  • B. humanistic therapy
  • C. behavioral therapy
  • D. Gestalt therapy
  • E. cognitive therapy

62
Common Flaws in Multiple Choice Items
  • Flaw 1 - The incorrect options are highly
    implausible
  • Flaw 2 - Equivalence and/or contradictions among
    options allow one to eliminate the incorrect
    options.
  • Flaw 3 - Content information in other items
    provides the answer.
  • Flaw 4 - The correct option is more detailed
    and/or more specific than all the other options.
  • Flaw 5 - The correct option is longer than all
    the other options.
  • Flaw 6 - There is grammatical inconsistency
    between the stem and the incorrect options but
    not the correct option.
  • Flaw 7 - The incorrect options include certain
    key words that tend to appear in false statements
    (i.e. always, must, never, and so on).
  • Flaw 8 - There is a resemblance between the stem
    and correct option but not the incorrect options.

63
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Eliminate implausible answers
  • Learn how to quickly eliminate options that are
    high implausible. Many questions have only two
    plausible options, accompanied by "throwaway"
    options for filler. You should work at spotting
    these implausible options so that you can quickly
    discard them and narrow your task.

64
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Eliminate implausible answers
  • According to Benjamin Whorfs linguistic
    relatively hypothesis, which of the following is
    true?
  • (A) Individuals have a natural predisposition
    to walk in the first two years of life.
  • (B) Individuals learn positive instances of
    reinforcement faster than they learn negative
    instances.
  • (C) Children learn object permanence much
    sooner than Piaget proposed in his cognitive
    theory.
  • (D) Different languages predispose those
    individuals who speak them to think about the
    world in different ways.
  • (E) Children learn quantifying behaviors
    through their interactions with adults before
    learning qualifying behaviors.

65
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Eliminate implausible answers
  • According to Benjamin Whorfs linguistic
    relatively hypothesis, which of the following is
    true?
  • (A) Individuals have a natural predisposition
    to walk in the first two years of life.
  • (B) Individuals learn positive instances of
    reinforcement faster than they learn negative
    instances.
  • (C) Children learn object permanence much
    sooner than Piaget proposed in his cognitive
    theory.
  • (D) Different languages predispose those
    individuals who speak them to think about the
    world in different ways.
  • (E) Children learn quantifying behaviors
    through their interactions with adults before
    learning qualifying behaviors.

66
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Eliminate implausible answers
  • Which of the following is an example of a
    metacognition?
  • (A) Explaining the significance of the clients
    dreams to their disorder.
  • (B) Protecting the terminal buttons of the
    neuron from destruction by enzymes in the
    spinal cord.
  • (C) Viewing personality disorders as
    adjustments to the environment.
  • (D) Understanding the role of various parts of
    the brain in motor coordination.
  • (E) Knowing the effectiveness of different
    strategies for learning statistical formulas.

67
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Eliminate implausible answers
  • Which of the following is an example of a
    metacognition?
  • (A) Explaining the significance of the clients
    dreams to their disorder.
  • (B) Protecting the terminal buttons of the
    neuron from destruction by enzymes in the
    spinal cord.
  • (C) Viewing personality disorders as
    adjustments to the environment.
  • (D) Understanding the role of various parts of
    the brain in motor coordination.
  • (E) Knowing the effectiveness of different
    strategies for learning statistical formulas.

68
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Eliminate implausible answers
  • A college student experiences a lost of sensation
    in her right arm before exams. Doctors can find
    no physiological basis for her condition. This
    student is most likely experiencing which of the
    following kinds of disorders?
  • (A) Somatoform
  • (B) Dissociative
  • (C) Anxiety
  • (D) Mood
  • (E) Personality

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 64)
69
Tips for Multiple Choice Questions
  • Eliminate implausible answers
  • A college student experiences a lost of sensation
    in her right arm before exams. Doctors can find
    no physiological basis for her condition. This
    student is most likely experiencing which of the
    following kinds of disorders?
  • (A) Somatoform
  • (B) Dissociative
  • (C) Anxiety
  • (D) Mood
  • (E) Personality

(AP Psychology Exam 2004 64)
70
Free Response Section
  • Test Structure
  • 2 Free Response (Essay) Questions
  • Required to do both

71
Free Response Section
  • Time Structure
  • 50 minutes to complete both essays
  • Can break up your time on the essays any way you
    want
  • Watch your time. Dont get caught short on
    essay 2

72
Free Response Section
  • Scoring
  • Essays are 1/3 of the overall score
  • Each essay 1/6 of the overall score
  • Each essay will have a specific number of points
    (6-12)
  • Points are then mathematically changed to equal
    25 for a perfect essay

73
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Section II Free Response (Assumes two 8 point
    and 8 point question)
  • (3.1250 X _______) (2.500 X ________ )
    _____
  • Question 1 Question
    2 Free Response
  • (Out of 8)
    (Out of 10) Score
  • Note The numbers will change dependent on how
    many points each question in a given year is
    worth.

15
18.75
6
33.75
6
74
General Tips for Test Taking
  • Section II Free Response (Assumes two 8 point
    and 8 point question)
  • (4.1667 X _______) (2.083 X ________ )
    _____
  • Question 1 Question
    2 Free Response
  • (Out of 6)
    (Out of 12) Score
  • Note The numbers will change dependent on how
    many points each question in a given year is
    worth.

12.5
25
6
37.5
6
75
Free Response Section
  • Style of the Questions
  • One essay tends to be unit based
  • One essay tends to go across units
  • Questions tend to be relatively specific
  • Application questions with listing of terms

76
Free Response Question 2009 1
  • 1. Dimitri and Linda are trying to learn a new
    routine to compete successfully in a dance
    competition. Give an example of how each of the
    following could affect their performance.
    Definitions without application do not score.
  • Extrinsic motivation
  • Punishment
  • Proactive interference
  • Endorphins
  • Vestibular system
  • Divergent thinking
  • Introversion

7 points
77
Free Response Question 2009 2
  • 2. James is in a drivers education course
    preparing to take his driving test. The course
    includes both book work and driving on the road
    to prepare students for a written test and a road
    test.
  • (a) Describe how each of the following might
    influence his ability to drive a car during the
    road test. Definitions without application do not
    score.
  • Cognitive map
  • Cerebellum
  • Observational learning
  • Human factors
  • (b) Describe how each of the following are
    related to the results of the written test.
    Definitions without application do not score.
  • Reticular formation
  • Predictive validity
  • Semantic memory

7 points
78
Free Response Question 2008 1
  • 1 The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first
    baby. Both parents-to-be have had a psychology
    course and are looking forward to applying the
    principles they learned from theories and
    research that address child development.
  • A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each
    of the following four researchers.
  • Skinners operant conditioning
  • Banduras social learning theory
  • Ainsworths attachment research
  • Baumrinds research on parenting styles
  • B. Provide a specific example of actions the
    Smith-Garcias might take to raise their child to
    produce positive outcomes using each of the
    theories below to address the corresponding
    psychological concept.
  • Skinners operant conditioning
    tantrum management
  • Banduras social learning theory sharing
    behavior
  • Ainsworths attachment research
    self-reliance
  • Baumrinds research on parenting styles
    self-esteem

8 points
79
Free Response Question 2008 2
  • Abstract
  • 2. We conducted a variation of Ashs (1951)
    conformity study in which participants made
    judgements about the length of lines. We
    randomly assigned participants to one of two
    conditions and told them that the study involved
    perceptual abilities. In the first condition,
    participants estimated the length of lines after
    hearing five people pretending to be participants
    (confederates) give inaccurate estimates. In the
    second condition, participants estimated the
    length of lines without hearing estimates of
    confederates. As we expected, participants in
    the first condition were less accurate in their
    estimates in line length, demonstrating the
    tendency to conform to majority influence.
  • A. How would each element below be related to
    the specific content of the experiment reported
    in the abstract?
  • Control group
  • Deception
  • Operational definition of the dependent
    variable
  • Hypothesis
  • Debriefing
  • B. How might participants estimates on line
    length in the study be related to the following?
  • Cognitive dissonance
  • Maslows hierarchy of needs

7 points
80
Free Response Question 2007 1
  • 1. Ellie, a new student at Skinner High School,
    is determined to make friends. When she attends
    the first psychology club meeting she finds
    herself in the room with twenty strangers who
    seem to know each other well. She plans to
    attend a few more meetings before deciding
    whether she will join.
  • A. Demonstrate how each of the following could
    HELP play a role in Ellies quest for friendship.
    You may use a different example for each
    concept. Definitions will not score.
  • The mere-exposure effect
  • Mnemonic device
  • Schachter two-factor theory
  • Locus of control
  • B. Demonstrate how each of the following could
    HINDER Ellies quest for friendship. You may use
    a different example for each concept. Definitions
    will not score.
  • In-group bias
  • Regression
  • Operant conditioning
  • Circadian rhythm.

8 points
81
Free Response Question 2007 2
  • 2. Often misunderstood, schizophrenia is a
    psychological disorder affecting one percent of
    the population. In addition, to treating the
    disorder, psychologists work to identify its
    nature and origins.
  • Identify two characteristics symptoms used to
    diagnose schizophrenia.
  • Discuss a research finding that supports a
    genetic basis for schizophrenia.
  • What is the dopamine hypothesis regarding the
    origins of schizophrenia?
  • Describe how medications used to treat
    schizophrenia affect the actions of
    neurotransmitters at the synapses.
  • Identify a risk inherent in using medications
    in the treatment of schizophrenia.
  • People sometimes confuse schizophrenia with
    dissociative identify disorder (DID). Identify
    two key characteristics that differentiate DID
    from schizophrenia.

8 points
82
Free Response Section
  • Scoring
  • Points are given for correct responses
  • Points are not removed unless you contradict
    yourself
  • Points for not removed for Handwriting/Spelling/G
    rammar

83
Free Response Section
  • Helpful Hints Before Writing
  • Read both essays
  • Think through your answer before you start
    writing
  • Try to determine the point values for the
    question
  • Write an outline/notes on the essay question
    sheet
  • If you are not sure take a logical guess.

84
Free Response Section
  • Writing the Essays
  • Format of the Answer
  • Write your answers in essay form.
  • DO NOT outline, write bullets, etc.
  • Follow the format of the the question.
  • Use paragraphs to separate the different sections
  • Underline key points and concepts
  • Define and give examples

85
Free Response Section
  • Writing the Essays
  • Do not worry if you cannot answer all of the
    question
  • Try to avoid compound or complex sentences.
    Style does not get you points
  • Avoid circular definitions
  • Be complete but to the point
  • DO NOT restate the question.

86
Free Response Section
  • Writing the Essays
  • Introductions and conclusions are NOT needed.
  • DO NOT concept bomb the answer
  • Answer the question Dont try to be cute
  • Define any concepts in the question

87
Free Response Question 1992 1
  • 1. Classical conditioning and operant
    conditioning are different learning methods.
  • Their differences lie in
  • A. the extent to which reinforcement depends
    on the behavior of the learner
  • B. the type of behavior to which each method
    applies.
  • Their similarities are that they both produce
    the following basic phenomena.
  • A. Acquisition
  • B. Extinction
  • C. Spontaneous recovery
  • D. Generalization
  • E. Discrimination
  • Describe these differences and similarities,
    giving examples to illustrate your answer.

88
Free Response Question 1992 2
  • 2. Briefly discuss the cause(s) and treatment(s)
    of depression from the perspective of each of the
    following psychological approaches.
  • A. Psychodynamic/psychoanalytical
  • B. Biological/medical
  • C. Cognitive

89
Free Response Question 1993 1
  • 1. Design and describe an experiment to measure
    the relationship between rehearsal/repetition of
    a list of words and later recall of that same
    list of words. In your answer you should
    formulate a hypothesis and include a description
    of each of the following.
  • A. Population
  • B. Subject selection
  • C. Independent variable
  • D. Dependent variable
  • E. Experimental group
  • F. Control group
  • G. Potential confounding variables
  • H. A method of reducing experimenter bias

90
Free Response Question 1993 2
  • 2. Describe the therapeutic procedure called
    systematic desensitization. Select a specific
    disorder for which this therapy is effective and
    explain how the basic phenomena listed below play
    a part in successful treatment.
  • A. Anxiety hierarchy
  • B. Relaxation
  • C. Generalization
  • D. Extinction

91
Free Response Question 1994 1
  • 1. Design an experiment to determine whether a
    new drug that is supposed to reduce hyperactivity
    in children actually does. Your essay should
    include an identification and description of all
    of the components of your experimental design,
    including sampling, independent and dependent
    variable, controls, and the method that you would
    employ to evaluate the outcome.

92
Free Response Question 1994 2
  • 2. One of the most useful generalizations in
    psychology is that behavior is adaptive.
    Explain this generalization and then identify
    each of the following and describe how each could
    be adaptive.
  • A. Repression
  • B. Conformity
  • C. Imprinting
  • D. Displaced aggression
  • E. Lost of information from short-term memory

93
Free Response Question 1995 1
  • 1. Compare and contrast the experimental method
    and the survey method in terms of their
    suitability for investigating the hypothesis that
    frustration leads to aggressive behavior.
  • In comparing and contrasting the two methods, be
    sure to identify and discuss each of the
    following.
  • A. Independent variable
  • B. Dependent variable
  • C. Control
  • D. Experimenter and response bias
  • E. Ethical issues

94
Free Response Question 1995 2
  • 2. Define each of the following concepts and
    explain how each contributes to the phenomena of
    prejudice.
  • A. Stereotyping
  • B. Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • C. Fundamental attribution error
  • D. Projection
  • E. Schema

95
Free Response Question 1996 1
  • 1. Discuss how social and biological factors
    have an impact on each of the following in the
    individual.
  • A. Body weight
  • B. Perception
  • C. Alcoholism
  • D. Extraversion
  • E. Schizophrenia

96
Free Response Question 1996 2
  • 2. Professor Jackson believes that frustration
    increases the need for achievement. She decides
    to test her hypothesis with her introductory
    psychology class of about 100 students. The
    first 50 students who arrive for class one day
    are taken to a separate room and given a series
    of easy puzzles to complete. Professor Jackson
    then asks each student about his or her
    professional goals. She rates the statement of
    each on a 7-point scale for strength of
    achievement motivation.
  • When they arrive, the remaining students are
    taken to another room and given a series of
    difficult puzzles by Professor Jacksons teaching
    assistant, Jim. Jim also asks each student about
    his or her professional goals and, like Professor
    Jackson, then rates the statement of each on a
    7-point scale.
  • The group given the difficult puzzles has, on
    the average, higher achievement motivation scores
    than the group given the easy puzzles. Professor
    Jackson concludes that her hypothesis is
    supported.
  • Show how each of the following aspects of
    Professor Jacksons experimental design is
    flawed. Indicate how you would correct each
    problem.
  • A. Sampling
  • B. Assignment of participants
  • C. Dependent variable
  • D. Control for experimenter bias
  • E. Control of confounding variables (You need
    cite only one.)

97
Free Response Question 1997 1
  • 1. Many people are concerned about the effects
    of the use of physical punishment to modify the
    undesirable behavior of children.
  • A. Basing your answer on psychological
    knowledge, apply each of the following in an
    argument against the use of physical punishment.
  • Modeling
  • Classical conditioning of fear
  • Displacement
  • B. How would psychologists use the following
    processes to modify childrens undesirable
    behavior?
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Extinction

98
Free Response Question 1997 2
  • 2. Although personality is generally consistent
    throughout the life span, some people exhibit
    personality changes.
  • A. How do each of the following help to explain
    BOTH continuity and change in personality?
  • Biological factors
  • Learning factors
  • Situational factors
  • Cognitive factors
  • B. How would any TWO of the above interact to
    produce changed in the trait of shyness?

99
Free Response Question 1998 1
  • 1. Read the following abstract of a student
    research project on bystander intervention and
    then answer the questions that follow.
  • The ten participants in the study were unaware
    of its purpose. The first five who signed up to
    be tested were assigned to the Alone condition
    and the next five were assigned to the With
    Others condition. The Alone condition was run in
    the morning and the With Others condition in the
    afternoon.
  • In the Alone condition, each of the five
    participants was asked to wait alone in a room.
    While the participant waited, a female voice in
    the next room screamed out, asking for help. In
    the With Others condition, each one of the five
    participants was asked to wait in a room with
    several confederates of the researcher. During
    this waiting period, a male voice in the next
    room screamed out, asking for help.
  • In each condition, the percentage of
    participants who responded to the cry for help
    was recorded.
  • A. Identify the independent and dependent
    variables in this study.
  • B. Identify four flaws in the design of this
    study and the recommendations you would make to
    correct these flaws.
  • C. Discuss the ethical issue raised by the
    design of this study.
  • D. Use you knowledge of research in social
    psychology to describe the likely results of
    this study if correct methodology had been used.

100
Free Response Question 1998 2
  • 2. A. Describe fully the distinctive emphasis
    of the cognitive approach to human behavior and
    mental processes. In your essay, by sure to
    specify how the cognitive approach differs from
    the following psychological approaches.
  • Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic
  • Behavioral
  • Biological
  • B. Give an example of the contribution of
    cognitive theory to the understanding of each of
    the following.
  • Memory
  • Depression

101
Free Response Question 1999 1
  • 1. A. Describe the role of each of the
    following mechanisms in determining an
    individuals eating habits and body weight.
  • Biological Mechanisms Learning Mechanisms
  • Body or brain chemistry Reinforcement
  • Brain structure Modeling
  • Genetics Cultural factors
  • B. Select one biological and one learning
    mechanism and discuss the implications of each
    for weight management.

102
Free Response Question 1999 2
  • 2. In a study, researchers use a photograph
    taken in a public park to examine how people
    perceive, learn, and remember information. In
    the photograph, a woman is standing near a man
    who is seated on a park bench. The woman appears
    to be shouting at the man.
  • Participants in the study are exposed to the
    photograph for ten seconds and then are shown,
    each for ten second, several other photographs of
    people interacting. When all the photographs
    have been shown, the participants are asked about
    what they saw in the public park photograph. A
    significant number of participants describe the
    man as being the aggressor in an apparent
    disagreement with the woman.
  • Describe how each of the following concepts
    helps explain the perception of these
    participants. Be sure to begin by defining each
    concept in psychological terms.
  • schema
  • retroactive interference
  • representativeness heuristic
  • confirmation bias
  • framing

103
Free Response Question 2000 1
  • 1. Your high school is proposing moving to a
    system in which grades are not longer given or
    used to evaluate student progress.
  • Define each of the following concepts and state
    how each might either positively or negatively
    change student behavior under such a system.
  • a. Extrinsic motivation
  • b. Arousal theory (Yerkes-Dodson Law)
  • c. Learned Helplessness
  • d. Self-fulfilling prophecy

104
Free Response Question 2000 2
  • 2. The police chief of New City states publicly
    that she sees a direct relationship between
    teenage arrests in New City for violent crimes
    and the popularity among New City teens of
    especially violent television shows.
  • A. Design a correlational study to research
    this claimed relationship, being sure to address
    how each of the following design elements would
    apply to your study.
  • - operational definition of variables
  • - selection of participants
  • - generalizability
  • - two ethical considerations
  • B. The police chief concludes that watching
    violent television shows leads to teens
    committing violent crimes in New City. Do you
    support her conclusion? Explain your response.

105
Free Response Question 2001 1
  • 1. Discuss the cause of anxiety from each of the
    following perspectives.
  • Behavioral
  • Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic
  • Biological
  • Cognitive
  • b. Discuss a specific treatment technique for
    reducing anxiety used by professionals
    representing each of the four perspectives.

106
Free Response Question 2001 2
  • 2. Describe the psychological concept of
    expectancy or set. Discuss a specific example of
    how expectancy or set affects each of the
    following.
  • Human perception
  • The effects of a psychoactive drug on a human
  • A students performance in the classroom
  • Human problem solving
  • Memory

107
Free Response Question 2002 1
  • 1. The human organism displays various reactions
    that are characterized by opposing tendencies.
    Use a specific physiological or psychological
    mechanism to explain how both aspects of opposing
    processes apply to EACH of the follow.
  • Appetite
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Color vision
  • Drug use
  • Nerve firing

108
Free Response Question 2002 2
  • 2. Five-year-old Jessie went to a fire station
    with her kindergarten class. When she got home,
    Jessie, who is in the preoperational stage of
    cognitive development, eagerly told the story of
    her adventure to her older brother. Describe how
    the following factors might have influenced the
    story she told. Be sure to define an appropriate
    example of EACH factor.
  • Egocentrism
  • Observational learning
  • Overregularization or overgeneralization of
    language
  • Reconstructive memory
  • Schema

109
Free Response Question 2003 1
  • 1. A. Statistics are often used to describe and
    interpret the results of intelligence testing.
  • Describe three measures of central tendency
    (mean, median, and mode).
  • Describe a skewed distribution
  • Relate the three measures of central tendency
    to a normal distribution.
  • Relate the three measures of central tendency
    to a positively skewed distribution.
  • An intelligence test for which the scores are
    normally distributed has a mean of 100 and a
    standard deviation of 15. Use this information
    to describe how the scores are distributed.
  • In two normal distributions, the means are
    100 for group I and 115 for group II. Can an
    individual in group I have a higher score than
    the mean score for group II? Explain.
  • B. Apply knowledge of psychological research in
    answering the following questions about
    intelligence scores.
  • Explain why norms for standardized
    intelligence tests are periodically updated.
  • Describe how to determine whether an
    intelligence test is biased.

110
Free Response Question 2003 2
  • 2. A. Define the following psychological
    concepts.
  • Cognitive dissonance
  • Conformity
  • Incentive motivation
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Physiological addiction
  • B. Use one specific example for each of the
    concepts in part A to explain how the concept
    might relate to either the development of or the
    continuation of a smoking habit. It is not
    necessary to use the same example for each
    concept.

111
Free Response Question 2004 1
  • 1. Dr. Franklin investigated the relationship
    between stress and physical illness. She
    persuaded a high school principal to require all
    female athletes in the school to participate in
    her study. She explained the purpose of her
    research to the athletes and asked them to use a
    standard form to rate the severity of their
    stress over the last six months. More than 250
    athletes completed the form. Then Dr. Franklin
    analyzed the forms returned by the first 100
    athletes. She requested the attendance records
    from the nurses office for each of those
    athletes to verify the number of days absent due
    to illness during the same six-month period. In
    the debriefing summary that Dr. Franklin sent to
    the 100 athletes after she completed the study,
    she stated that athletes who reported more stress
    also experienced more frequent illness. Dr.
    Franklin concluded that stress causes physical
    illness.
  • Identify the research method used by Dr.
    Franklin.
  • Describe the operational definitions of the
    TWO key variables that Dr. Franklin used in the
    study.
  • Based on the information provided, describe
    ONE appropriate and ONE inappropriate ethical
    feature of the study.
  • Identify ONE statistical technique that Dr.
    Franklin could use to represent the relationship
    between the variables in the study
  • Describe TWO aspects of research design that
    weakened the validity of Dr. Franklins
    conclusion that stress causes physical illness.

112
Free Response Question 2004 2
  • 2. Time is an important variable in many
    psychological concepts. Describe a specific
    example that clearly demonstrates an
    understanding of each of the following concepts
    and how it relates to or is affected by time.
    Use a different example for each concept.
  • Critical period
  • Fluid intelligence
  • Group polarization
  • James-Lange theory of emotion
  • Presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS)
    and unconditioned stimulus (UCS) in classical
    conditioning
  • Refractory period in neural firing
  • Sound localization
  • Spontaneous recovery

113
Free Response Question 2005 1
  • 1. Describe a specific example that clearly
    demonstrates an understanding of how each of the
    following concepts can lead to an inaccurate
    perception, cognition, or conclusion. Each
    example must include an explanation of the
    relationship between the concept and the
    inaccuracy.
  • Afterimage effect
  • Availability heuristic
  • Ethnocentrism
  • Groupthink
  • Lack of object permanence
  • Nonrandom assignment of research
    participants
  • Optimistic explanatory style
  • Proactive interference

114
Free Response Question 2005 2
  • 2. Psychologists conduct research to investigate
    controversial issues. Consider the following
  • The value of diagnostic labeling
  • Childrens acquisition of language
  • Explanations of hypnosis
  • A. Describe the opposing points of view on each
    side of the psychological issues listed above.
    Your description must provide one argument on
    each side of the controversy.
  • B. For each issue, choose one point of view to
    support Using evidence from psychological
    research, justify why you think this point of
    view is correct.

115
Free Response Question 2006 1
  • 1. Psychologists use a variety of research
    methods to study behavior. Three of the
    main research methods used are
  • Case study
  • Correlational study, and
  • Experiment.
  • A. Discuss one advantage of each research
    method listed above.
  • B. Discuss one disadvantage of each research
    method listed above.
  • Pretend you are a psychologist who will use each
    of the three research methods - case study,
    correlational study, and experiment - to
    determine the effect of taking vitamin J and
    improving memory.
  • C. For each method listed above, explain a key
    characteristic of the basic approach you could
    use to reach a scientific conclusion about the
    relationship between taking vitamin J and
    improving memory. You need not design a complete
    study.

116
Free Response Question 2006 2
  • 2. Zoey wants to buy a new car but is having
    difficulty deciding what kind of car to buy. She
    is feeling anxious and wants to make a decision
    soon. Zoey visits several local car dealers and
    asks for the advice of some of her friends.
    Explain how each of the following could influence
    her decision. Be sure to discuss each concept in
    the context of Zoeys decision.
  • Approach-avoidance conflict
  • Central route to persuasion
  • Heuristics
  • Individualism
  • Rationalization
  • Self-efficacy
  • The autonomic nervous system
  • The foot-in-the-door phenomenon

117
Free Response Question 2007 1
  • 1. Ellie, a new student at Skinner High School,
    is determined to make friends. When she attends
    the first psychology club meeting she finds
    herself in the room with twenty strangers who
    seem to know each other well. She plans to
    attend a few more meetings before deciding
    whether she will join.
  • A. Demonstrate how each of the following could
    HELP play a role in Ellies quest for friendship.
    You may use a different example for each
    concept. Definitions will not score.
  • The mere-exposure effect
  • Mnemonic device
  • Schachter two-factor theory
  • Locus of control
  • B. Demonstrate how each of the following could
    HINDER Ellies quest for friendship. You may use
    a different example for each concept. Definitions
    will not score.
  • In-group bias
  • Regression
  • Operant conditioning
  • Circadian rhythm.

118
Free Response Question 2007 2
  • 2. Often misunderstood, schizophrenia is a
    psychological disorder affecting one percent of
    the population. In addition, to treating the
    disorder, psychologists work to identify its
    nature and origins.
  • Identify two characteristics symptoms used to
    diagnose schizophrenia.
  • Discuss a research finding that supports a
    genetic basis for schizophrenia.
  • What is the dopamine hypothesis regarding the
    origins of schizophrenia?
  • Describe how medications used to treat
    schizophrenia affect the actions of
    neurotransmitters at the synapses.
  • Identify a risk inherent in using medications
    in the treatment of schizophrenia.
  • People sometimes confuse schizophrenia with
    dissociative identify disorder (DID). Identify
    two key characteristics that differentiate DID
    from schizophrenia.

119
Free Response Question 2008 1
  • 1 The Smith-Garcias are planning for their first
    baby. Both parents-to-be have had a psychology
    course and are looking forward to applying the
    principles they learned from theories and
    research that address child development.
  • A. Summarize one main idea or finding of each
    of the following four researchers.
  • Skinners operant conditioning
  • Banduras social learning theory
  • Ainsworths attachment research
  • Baumrinds research on parenting styles
  • B. Provide a specific example of actions the
    Smith-Garcias might take to raise their child to
    produce positive outcomes using each of the
    theories below to address the corresponding
    psychological concept.
  • Skinners operant conditioning
    tantrum management
  • Banduras social learning theory sharing
    behavior
  • Ainsworths attachment research
    self-relianc
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