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Introduction to Psychology


Introduction to Psychology Treatment of Psychological Disorders – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology
  • Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Psychological Therapies
  • Whereas the biological therapies view mental
    disorders through the medical model,
    psychological therapies view the roots of
    abnormal behavior in mental states
  • Each therapy has its own view as to the cause of
    mental disorder
  • Each therapy has its own approach to the
    treatment of mental disorder

Insight-Oriented Therapy
  • E.g. psychoanalysis, humanistic, gestalt
  • Help person understand the basis of their
    thinking, behavior, emotions and perceptions
  • Insight into the cause will lead to change
  • Emotion focused therapy or process experiential

Action-Oriented Therapy
  • E.g. Cognitive-Behavioral therapy,
    Rational-Emotive therapy
  • Encourages individuals to change behavior or
  • Multifaceted and individually tailored
  • Strong therapeutic relationship
  • Behavioral techniques and cognitive restructuring

Varieties of Psychological Treatment
  • Psychodynamic
  • Humanistic
  • Cognitive-behavioral
  • Biological/Biomedical
  • Group therapy
  • Family and marital therapy

Psychodynamic Approach
  • The psychodynamic approach was created by S.
  • Mental symptoms reflect unconscious conflicts
    that induce anxiety
  • Insight refers to the situation in a person comes
    to understand their unconscious conflicts
  • Therapeutic change requires an alliance
    (relationship) between the patient and therapist

Psychodynamic Techniques
  • The goal of psychodynamic therapy is to achieve
    insight into unconscious conflicts
  • Free Association refers to a technique in which
    the patient is encouraged to say whatever comes
    to mind to reveal the unconscious processes of
    the patient
  • Interpretation Therapist interprets the
    thoughts, and feelings of the patient in order to
    reveal the hidden conflicts and motivations
  • Analysis of transference Patients bring into
    therapy their past troubled relationships these
    are transferred to the therapist

Humanistic Therapy
  • Rogers Client-centered therapy
  • Therapeutic Climate
  • Genuineness
  • Unconditional Positive Regard
  • Empathy
  • TherapeuticProcess
  • Guidance, clarification, become more comfortable
    with genuine self

Behavior Therapies
  • Classical conditioning techniques can alter
    emotional responses
  • Systematic desensitization Patient is encouraged
    to confront a feared stimulus (snake) while in a
    relaxed state
  • Therapist trains relaxation
  • Patient constructs an image hierarchy
  • While relaxing, patient imagines the least
    fearful of the images in their hierarchy (e.g.
    being on the planet as a snake)
  • Exposure Patient is exposed to the stimulus
    that they fear (locked in a room full of snakes)

Cognitive Therapies
  • Focus of cognitive therapies is on changing
    dysfunctional thought patterns
  • Rational Emotive Therapy focuses on the hurtful
    thought patterns of the patient
  • Elliss theory suggests that pathology results
    when persons adopt illogic in response to life
  • Therapist notes illogical and self-defeating
    thoughts and teaches alternative thinking that
    promotes rational thought

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive-behavioral therapies focus on the
    current behaviors of a person
  • Emphasis is on the present rather than the past
  • Cognitive-Behavioral therapists are very
  • Therapy duration is short-term rather than years
  • Initial focus is on a detailed behavioral
    analysis focus is on the problem behavior and
    the stimuli associated with it

Cognitive Restructuring
  • Beck or Ellis
  • Irrational beliefs
  • Extreme emotional reactions
  • ABCs or Rational Emotive Therapy
  • A activating event
  • B belief
  • C consequences (emotional)
  • D disputing beliefs

Research indicates
  • Receiving psychotherapy is considerably more
    effective than no treatment
  • CBT shows a slight but consistent advantage with
    regards to effectiveness compared to
    insight-oriented therapy
  • People who do best in therapy are those who have
    the least problems
  • personality disorders show less benefit

The Medical Model
  • The Medical Model views abnormal behavior as
    reflecting a biological disorder
  • Usually localized within the brain
  • Involving either brain damage or a disruption of
    the neurotransmitter processes of the brain
  • Person is viewed as a patient, treated by doctors
    in a mental hospital
  • Therapies tend to be physical in nature
  • Drugs (Pharmacotherapy)
  • Surgical alteration of brain (Psychosurgery)

  • Psychotropic medications are drugs that act on
    the brain to alter mental function
  • Prior to 1956, schizophrenia was virtually
    untreatable with many patients confined for life
    in mental hospitals
  • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) was found to reduce
    severity of psychotic thought, allowing people to
    live outside of mental institutions
  • Reduced size of institutions
  • The psychotropic actions of many drugs are often
    accidentally discoveries

Antipsychotic Medications
  • Schizophrenia can be viewed as composed of
  • Positive Symptoms Presence of hallucinations
  • Negative Symptoms Absence of affect
  • Antipsychotic medications refer to drugs that
    alleviate schizophrenia
  • Antipsychotic medications are more effective for
    the positive symptoms than for negative symptoms
    of schizophrenia

Dopamine and Schizophrenia
  • The positive symptoms of schizophrenia reflect
    too much brain dopamine activity
  • Antipsychotic drugs are effective antagonists of
    dopamine receptors (block the action of dopamine)
  • Drugs such as amphetamine release dopamine from
    terminals too much amphetamine exposure can
    induce a psychotic state in humans
  • Negative schizophrenic symptoms may reflect brain
    damage enlarged ventricles)

Antidepressant Medications
  • Depression reflects a disturbance of mood, sleep,
    and appetite
  • Psychotropic antidepressant drugs can lift
    depression (require 3-4 weeks for effect)
  • Tricylic antidepressants Act by blocking the
    reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin
  • Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors MAO degrades
    transmitters drugs that inhibit MAO allow the
    transmitter to work for longer periods
  • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Prozac
    blocks the reuptake of serotonin

Antianxiety Medications
  • Anxiety reflects an intense emotional state of
    dread and apprehension
  • Drugs such as Valium increase the activity of the
    transmitter GABA to dampen the neural activity of
    the brain
  • Valium is useful in the short-term treatment of
  • Antianxiety medications can result in drug

Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Antidepressant drugs require 3-4 weeks to take
    action on mood the person may be at risk for
    suicide or is not responding to drug treatment
  • Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) refers to
    the intentional induction of a brain seizure by
    shock administered to either or both hemispheres
  • ECT produces immediate improvement in mood
    (explanation is unknown)
  • Side effects of ECT include memory loss

Common Factors in Psychotherapy
  • Development of a therapeutic alliance
  • Providing a rationale
  • Opportunity for catharsis or venting
  • Acquisition and practice of new behaviors
  • Beneficial therapist qualities (objective,
    confidential, professional)
  • Patient positive expectations and hope

  • Involves using different treatments for different
    clients with different problems
  • Using a reasonable combination of various
    treatments for the same client (technical
  • - all populations can receive different types of
    group therapy

Advantages to groups
  • Efficiency 2. Universality
  • Empathy 4. Interaction
  • 5. Acceptance 6. Altruism
  • Modeling 8. Pressure
  • 9. Practice 10. Reality testing
  • 11. Transference

Suicide Risk Factors
  • Diathesis
  • psychological disorder (90)
  • substance use and abuse (25-50)
  • family history of suicide
  • family breakdown
  • societal breakdown
  • past suicide attempts

Suicide Risk Factors
  • Stress
  • changes in relationships, academic/work, or
    financial situation
  • life event that is shameful or humiliating
  • significant loss
  • homosexuality
  • recent suicide

  • Warning Signs
  • withdrawal
  • change in eating, sleeping, friends
  • writing and talking about death
  • telling statements
  • agitation followed by calm resignation
  • giving away valued possessions

What to do as a friend
  • Take suicide threats seriously
  • Dont be afraid to discuss suicide
  • Recognize the warning signs and the risk factors
  • Dont leave the person alone
  • Get help

What to do as a therapist
  • Ask directly about suicide
  • Find out if they have a plan
  • Do they feel like they are in control of their
  • Develop a safety plan
  • Make a contract
  • Treat the psychological disorder
  • Crisis situation break confidentiality
  • Grief after suicide...