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Chapter 1: Living Things

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Aim: What is the difference between living and nonliving things? Characteristics of Living Things Organized Grow and develop Reproduce Respond to stimuli Maintain ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1: Living Things


1
Chapter 1 Living Things
  • Aim What is the difference between living and
    nonliving things?

2
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Organized
  • Grow and develop
  • Reproduce
  • Respond to stimuli
  • Maintain certain internal conditions
  • Use energy
  • Things that have ALL of these characteristics are
    called organisms

3
  • Organized
  • Made up of small units called cells
  • Cells contain structures with specialized
    functions
  • Some organisms are unicellular (one cell only)
  • Some are multicellular (two or more cells)
  • Each cell contains heredity material and has a
    structure
  • Growth and Development
  • Unicellular organisms grow as the cell increases
  • Multicellular organisms grow as their cells
    increase in number
  • Changes that occur in an organism during its
    lifetime are called development

4
  • Reproduce
  • Reproduction is the process by which one organism
    makes one or more new organisms
  • All organisms reproduce differently
  • Respond to Stimuli
  • All living things respond to changes in their
    environment
  • Changes can be internal or external
  • Internal stimuli ex feeling hungry or thirsty
  • External stimuli ex light and temperature
  • Homeostasis
  • An organisms ability to maintain steady internal
    conditions when outside conditions change

5
  • Ensures that cells can function
  • Energy
  • Cells use energy to transport substances, make
    new cells, and perform chemical reactions
  • Everything an organism does requires energy
  • Energy comes from the sun directly or indirectly

6
Nonliving Things
  • Dont have all of these characteristics
  • Dont need things in order to survive
  • Examples
  • Water
  • Air
  • Rocks
  • Clouds

7
Aim What are the basic needs of all living
things?
  • Place to live
  • Some need a hot environment
  • Some need a cold environment
  • Some live in the ocean
  • Few live on the bottom of the ocean
  • Organisms surroundings must provide for all of
    its needs

8
  • 2. Raw Materials
  • all living things need water
  • Most organisms made up of 50 H2O
  • Humans made up of 60-70 H2O
  • Need proteins, fats and sugars

9
Aim How do we classify living things?
10
Classification
  • Early classifications included grouping plants
    depending on how they were used and animals on
    human traits, such as courageous
  • Aristotle classified living things by how they
    looked
  • Example Animal categories included hair or no
    hair, four legs or two legs

11
  • Carolus Linnaeus came up with a new system of
    classification based on the structure of the
    organism
  • Modern classification
  • Includes Linnaeus system
  • Similarities of internal and external factors
  • study fossils, hereditary information and early
    stages of development
  • Scientists use all of this information to find
    and organisms phylogeny

12
Todays Classification System
  • Organisms are grouped into six kingdoms
  • Kingdom is the first and largest category
  • Organisms are placed into these kingdoms based on
    various characteristics
  • Smallest classification is a species
  • Organisms that belong to the same species can
    mate and reproduce

13
Aim How do scientists name organisms?
14
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Two-word naming system used by Linnaeus
  • Used by modern scientists
  • First word identifies the genus of the species
  • Second words tells you something about the
    organism-what it looks like, lives or who
    discovered it
  • Examples Red Maple TreeAcer Rubrum

15
Using Scientific Names
  • Used for four reasons
  • Help avoid mistakes
  • Organisms with similar evolutionary history are
    classified together in the same genus
  • Give descriptive information
  • Allows information about organisms to be
    organized easily and efficiently

16
Aim How do you use a dichotomus key?
17
Tools for Identifying Organisms
  • Field guides
  • Have descriptions and illustrations of organisms
  • Information about where they live
  • Can identify species from around the world

18
  • Dichotomous keys
  • Detailed list identifying characteristics that
    includes scientific names
  • Arranged in steps
  • Can identify and name species
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