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The Rise of the Roman Republic

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Title: The Rise of the Roman Republic


1
The Rise of the Roman Republic
  • 509 BC 27 BC

2
Romes greatest achievements
  • Established the first Republic and the principle
    of separation of powers
  • Used law and government to unite many different
    regions, cultures and people. a trend of
    cosmopolitanism started during the Hellenistic
    Age
  • Practical engineering projects to promote
    civilization roads, bridges, aqueducts, sewers,
    bath houses and amphitheatres.

3
  • Caesar Augustus asked Romes greatest poet,
    Virgil to write a poem to glorify the creation
    of Rome 30-19 BCE
  • 12 books 1-6 Odyssey 7-12 The Iliad

4
Aeneas reaches Latium, Italy
5
Romulus and Remus-twin sons of the god Mars, and
Princess Rhea who feared for their lives
6
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7
Romulus and Remus nurtured by a she-wolf
8
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9
The Archaeological Record
  • 2500 BC- Paleolithic settlements
  • 1500 BC The Bronze Age
  • 1000 BC tombs of cremated dead with bronze tools
    and weapons
  • 800 BC Distinct groups occupied the Italian
    peninsula- Umbrians, the Sabines, the Samnites,
    the Etruscans and the Latins

10
  • Three advantages
  • 1) built on several hills
  • 2) Towards the end of the Tiber River
  • 3) Only 15 miles from the sea

11
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12
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13
The Republic is established, 509 BC
  • The last Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud,
    ignored the Senate and was overthrown, the Latin
    patricians (wealthy landowners) created a
    representative government.

14
Two Consuls replaced the king
15
The Roman Senate
  • Senators came from the Patrician class
  • Acted as an advisory body to the king/consuls
  • Controlled the finances money for public works
  • Served as a Jury for treason, conspiracy, murder,
    foreign relations

16
The Struggle of the Orders 494 287 BC
  • 494 BC Office of the Tribune created
  • 460 BC Voting residence replaced wealth
  • 450 BC Twelve Tables
  • 445 BC Lex Canuleia-marriage
  • 367 BC Licinian-Sextian Rogation-consuls
  • 287 BC Lex Hortensia- Plebeian Council

17
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18
Roman Expansion
  • 493 BCE Battle of Lake Regillus/Latin League
  • 396 BCE Battle of Veii/Etruscans
  • 390 BCE first only setback Gauls seige on
    Rome
  • 350 BCE - Romans bounced back- rebuilt the
    Servian Wall and remodeled the army
  • 340- 290 BCE The Latin Wars/Roman Federation
  • 282-270 BCE defeated Greeks/Tarentum Epirus
  • 264-146 BCE The Punic Wars

19
By 264 BC, 5 major world powers Syria, Egypt,
Macedonia, Carthage and Rome
20
The Punic Wars
  • Three wars against Carthage started in 264 BCE
    and ended with Rome an international superpower
    in 146 BCE.

21
The Punic Wars, 264-146 BCE
22
  • Hannibal Barca
  • 247183 BCE

23
Hannibals army of 50,000 men and 37 war
elephants crossed the Alps
24
Hannibal and the Second Punic War, 219- 202 BCE
  • Started over control of a city in Spain
  • Hannibals army of 50,000 men, 12,000 horses and
    37 war elephants crossed the Alps in 15 days
  • Hannibal hoped for support from the Gauls and
    other Latin people
  • Battle of Cannae 216 BCE ended with 60,000 Romans
    dead.

25
Publius Cornelius Scipio Rome sent an army under
Scipio to Carthage, forcing Hannibal to return
to Carthage to protect his homeland
  • Scipio Africanus

26
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27
The 3rd Punic War, 149-146 BCE
  • A one-sided affair!

28
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29
Effects of expansion
  • The Hellenization of Rome
  • Rise of a business/merchant class
  • Immense wealth a taste of luxury for the few
  • Most benefits of expansion went to the wealthy,
    patrician class
  • Serious economic dislocations for the common
    people was under way

30
The legacy of wars
  • Farms had been ravaged and remained unproductive
  • Citizen-soldiers returned after prolonged absence
    to find their families on the brink of
    bankruptcy
  • Growth of Patrician latifundia (slave
    plantations)
  • Growing slave population drove down wages

31
Problems for the small, independent,
self-sufficient farmer
  • The increase in the slave population displaced
    the common farmers
  • In debt, without prospects for work, ruined
    farmers joined the ranks of unemployed in Rome
  • By 150BCE -a revolution was brewing!

32
Any Questions?
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