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Title: Hourney Across Time


1
(No Transcript)
2
Early China
Chapter Introduction Section 1 Chinas First
Civilizations Section 2 Life in Ancient
China Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties Reading
Review Chapter Assessment
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding
slides.
3
Early China
Chapter Objectives
  • Discuss how river valleys, mountains, and deserts
    influenced the development of Chinese
    civilization.
  • Discuss how the lack of order encouraged the
    growth of three important belief systems.
  • Summarize the ruling philosophies,
    accomplishments, and failures of the Qin and Han
    dynasties.

4
Early China
5
(No Transcript)
6
Chinas First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section describes the first civilizations in
China and how the geography of the region,
especially its rivers, mountains, and deserts,
influenced Chinas cultural development.
7
Chinas First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape
    Chinas civilization.
  • Rulers known as the Shang became powerful because
    they controlled land and had strong armies.
  • Chinese rulers claimed that the Mandate of Heaven
    gave them the right to rule.

8
Chinas First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Locating Places
  • Huang He (HWAHNG HUH)
  • Chang Jiang (CHAHNG JYAHNG)
  • Anyang (AHNYAHNG)

Meeting People
  • Wu Wang (WOO WAHNG)

9
Chinas First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Building Your Vocabulary
  • dynasty (DYnuhstee)
  • aristocrat (uhRIHStuhKRAT)
  • pictograph (PIHKtuhGRAF)
  • ideograph (IHdeeuhGRAF)
  • bureaucracy (byuRAHkruhsee)
  • mandate (MANDAYT)
  • Dao (DOW)

10
Chinas First Civilizations
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Summarizing Information Complete a chart like
the one on page 224 of your textbook describing
the characteristics of the Shang and Zhou
dynasties.
11
Chinas First Civilizations
Chinas Geography
  • Huang He, or the Yellow River, flows for more
    than 2,900 miles across China.
  • Flooding of the river brought destruction and
    good farming conditions to China.
  • Chang Jiang, or the Yangtze River, is about 3,400
    miles long and flows across central China.

(pages 225226)
12
Chinas First Civilizations
Chinas Geography (cont.)
  • China has very little farm land because much of
    the country is either mountains or deserts.
  • The Middle Kingdom was created after the Chinese
    people united to form one kingdom.

(pages 225226)
13
Chinas First Civilizations
What effect did the mountains and deserts have on
the Chinese people?
The mountains and deserts separated the Chinese
from most other peoples.
14
Chinas First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty
  • Archaeologists believe the Huang He valley was
    the center of Chinese civilization.
  • The first rulers were probably part of the Xia
    dynasty.
  • The Shang kings ruled from about 1750 B.C. to
    1122 B.C.
  • Anyang was Chinas first capital. It was built
    during the Shang dynasty.

(pages 226229)
15
Chinas First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty (cont.)
  • People of the Shang dynasty were divided into
    groups.
  • The king and his family were the most powerful
    group.
  • Warlords and other royal officials were in the
    class below the kings.
  • They were aristocrats, nobles whose wealth came
    from the land they owned.

(pages 226229)
16
Chinas First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty (cont.)
  • Traders and artisans were below the aristocrats.
  • Most of the lower classes were farmers.
  • Slaves captured during wars were the lowest class
    of people.
  • People in the Shang dynasty believed in many
    spirits and gods and honored ancestors with
    offerings.

(pages 226229)
17
Chinas First Civilizations
The Shang Dynasty (cont.)
  • Shang kings believed they received wisdom and
    power from the gods, spirits, and ancestors.
  • Early Chinese writing used pictographs, or
    characters that stand for objects.
  • Ideographs are two or more pictographs joined to
    represent an idea.
  • Artisans created many works but are best known
    for their bronze objects.

(pages 226229)
18
Chinas First Civilizations
How does the Chinese language differ from the
alphabet system used by Americans?
In the American alphabet, each letter represents
a sound. The letters, or sounds, are put
together to make words. In the Chinese language,
each marking, or symbol, represents a whole word.
19
Chinas First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty
  • Wu Wang and his followers rebelled against the
    Shang dynasty and created the Zhou dynasty.
  • The Zhou dynasty ruled longer than any other
    dynasty in Chinese history.

(pages 229231)
20
Chinas First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)
  • Kings in the Zhou dynasty served as the head of
    the government.
  • A bureaucracyofficials who are responsible for
    different areas of governmentserved under the
    king.
  • The Zhou kingdom was divided into smaller
    territories.
  • Each territory was led by an aristocrat.
  • Zhou kings were thought to be the link between
    the gods and people.

(pages 229231)
21
Chinas First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)
  • The Mandate of Heaven was a heavenly law that
    gave Zhou kings the power to rule.
  • The Mandate of Heaven also gave people rights.
  • The Dao was the proper way kings were to rule
    their people.
  • Irrigation and flood-control systems were
    developed during the Zhou dynasty.

(pages 229231)
22
Chinas First Civilizations
The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)
  • Farm tools, such as the plow, were developed.
  • Silk was an important trade item during the Zhou
    dynasty.
  • The Period of Warring States occurred before the
    fall of the Zhou dynasty.
  • During this time, the local rulers began fighting
    with each other.

(pages 229231)
23
Chinas First Civilizations
What innovative weapons and equipment were used
during the Period of Warring States?
The Chinese used crossbows for fighting. They
invented the saddle and stirrup during the Period
of Warring States.
24
Chinas First Civilizations
What is a dynasty?
A dynasty is a line of rulers who belong to the
same family.
25
Chinas First Civilizations
What were oracle bones and how were they used?
Oracle bones were bones with questions on them
used to interpret answers from the gods.
26
Chinas First Civilizations
Analyze How did the Mandate of Heaven allow for
the overthrow of kings in ancient China?
If a king failed in his duty and the kingdom
experienced a disaster, the king could be
replaced.
27
Chinas First Civilizations
Evaluate What were some important technological
changes during the Zhou dynasty, and how did they
lead to a larger population?
Development of irrigation and flood-control
systems, along with the iron plow, led to
increased crop production and a rising population.
28
Chinas First Civilizations
Explain How did ancient Chinese kings maintain
control of their dynasties?
Kings maintained large armies to conquer land and
protect borders but also appointed warlords to
govern the kingdoms territories.
29
Chinas First Civilizations
Define the Mandate of Heaven, and describe its
effect on the rulers and people of ancient China.
30
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31
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section focuses on society in early China,
including the great religious and philosophical
systems that were created.
32
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Chinese society had three main social classes
    landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.
  • Three Chinese philosophies, Confucianism, Daoism,
    and Legalism, grew out of a need for order.

33
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Meeting People
  • Confucius (kuhnFYOOshuhs)
  • Laozi (LOWDZOO)
  • Hanfeizi (HANfayDZOO)

34
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Building Your Vocabulary
  • social class
  • Filial peity (FIHleeuhl PYuhtee)
  • Confucianism (kuhnFYOOshuhNIHzuhm)
  • Daoism (DOWIHzuhm)
  • Legalism (LEEguhLIHzuhm)

35
Life in Ancient China
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Organizing Information Create a pyramid diagram
like the one on page 232 of your textbook. Show
the social classes in ancient China from most
important (top) to least important (bottom).
36
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China
  • A social class includes people who share a
    similar position in society.
  • Chinese society had three main social classes
    aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.
  • Aristocrats grew rich from farmers who grew crops
    on the land the aristocrats owned.

(pages 232235)
37
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China (cont.)
  • Most Chinese people were farmers.
  • Farmers paid aristocrats with part of their
    crops.
  • Merchants were in the lowest class.
  • They grew rich but were still looked down on by
    aristocrats and farmers.
  • Chinese families were large, and children were
    expected to work on farms.

(pages 232235)
38
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China (cont.)
  • Filial piety means children had to respect
    parents and elders.
  • Men were considered more important than women in
    Chinese society.
  • Men went to school, ran the government, and
    fought wars.
  • Women raised children and
    managed their households.

(pages 232235)
39
Life in Ancient China
Life in Ancient China (cont.)
A Chinese village.
(pages 232235)
40
Life in Ancient China
How did aristocrats use farmers to grow rich?
Aristocrats allowed farmers to use their land.
In exchange, farmers gave part of their crop to
the landowners.
41
Life in Ancient China
Chinese Thinkers
  • Three major theoriesConfucianism, Daoism, and
    Legalismwere developed to reinstate peace after
    the Period of the Warring States.
  • Confucius was a great thinker and teacher, who
    believed that people needed a sense of duty to be
    good.
  • Confucianism taught that all men with a talent
    for government should take part in government.

(pages 235239)
42
Life in Ancient China
Chinese Thinkers (cont.)
  • Daoism teaches that people should give up worldly
    desires and encourages the importance of nature.
  • Legalism is the belief that society needs a
    system of harsh laws
    and punishments.
  • The scholar Hanfeizi
    developed Legalism.

(pages 235239)
43
Life in Ancient China
Why did the aristocrats dislike Confucianism?
According to Confucianism, any man with a talent
for government should take part in government.
This idea opened government up to the lower
classes.
44
Life in Ancient China
Describe the concept of filial piety.
Family members placed the needs of the head of
the family above their own.
45
Life in Ancient China
Why did many aristocrats favor the philosophy of
Legalism?
It emphasized force and power and did not require
leaders to show kindness or understanding to
their subjects.
46
Life in Ancient China
Contrast How did Daoism differ from
Confucianism?
Confucianism encouraged people to work hard to
improve the world, while Daoism taught that
people should give up their concerns about the
world and seek inner peace.
47
Life in Ancient China
Writing Questions Suppose you could interview
Confucius about his concept of duty. Write five
questions you might ask him about the subject.
Include possible responses.
Answers will vary.
48
Life in Ancient China
Expository Writing Do you think any of the
Chinese philosophies studied in this section are
reflected in our society today? Write an essay
explaining your answer.
Answers will vary.
49
Life in Ancient China
Think about the role of different family members
in ancient China. Have them explain which role
they would like best and which they would like
least. Explain your reasons.
50
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51
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section looks at the Qin and Han dynasties
and the changes they brought to China in the
areas of religion, trade, government, and
technology.
52
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Qin Shihuangdi used harsh methods to unify and
    defend China.
  • Developments during the Han dynasty improved life
    for all Chinese.
  • The Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as
    Greece and Rome.
  • Unrest in China helped Buddhism to spread.

53
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Locating Places
  • Guangzhou (GWAHNGJOH)
  • Silk Road
  • Luoyang (looWOHYAHNG)

54
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Meeting People
  • Qin Shihuangdi
  • (CHIHN SHEEhwahngdee)
  • Liu Bang (leeOO BAHNG)
  • Han Wudi (HAHN WOODEE)

Building Your Vocabulary
  • acupuncture (AkyuhPUHNGKchuhr)

55
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Determining Cause and Effect Complete a diagram
like the one on page 240 of your textbook showing
the inventions of the Han dynasty and the
resulting impact on society.
56
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi
  • Qin was a ruler of a local state during the Zhou
    dynasty.
  • He gradually took over neighboring states and
    declared himself Qin Shihuangdi, or First Qin
    Emperor.
  • Qins rule was based on legalism.
  • Qin abolished the officials authority to pass
    their posts on to their sons.

(pages 241242)
57
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (cont.)
  • He became the only person authorized to fill
    empty posts.
  • Qin united China, created one type of currency,
    ordered the building of roads and buildings, and
    connected the Chang Jiang to central China by
    canal.

(pages 241242)
58
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (cont.)
  • The Great Wall of China was built to protect the
    Chinese from the Xiongnu, a nomadic people living
    north of China.
  • Chinese people believed Qin Shihuangdi was a
    harsh ruler, and they overthrew his dynasty after
    his death.

(pages 241242)
59
The Qin and Han Dynasties
What are some examples of Qin Shihuangdis
cruelty in ruling his people?
Qin punished or killed anyone who opposed him.
He forced farmers to leave their farms to build
the Great Wall of China. He also burned
scholars writing.
60
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Han Dynasty
  • Liu Bang founded the Han dynasty in 202 B.C.
  • Civil service
    examinations
    began when Han
    Wudi started

    testing potential
    government
    employees.

(pages 244246)
61
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Han Dynasty (cont.)
  • Students prepared for many years to
    take the
    exams.
  • The population tripled during the Han dynasty.
  • Farmers had to divide their land among more and
    more sons, which left them with very little land.
  • Farmers sold their land to aristocrats and became
    tenant farmers to survive.

(pages 244246)
62
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Han Dynasty (cont.)
  • The Chinese invented many new products during the
    Han dynasty, such as the waterwheel, the rudder,
    drill bits, steel, and paper.
  • Chinese doctors began practicing acupuncture, the
    practice of easing pain by sticking needles into
    patients skin.

(pages 244246)
63
The Qin and Han Dynasties
How did the invention of the rudder change
Chinese trade?
With the rudder, the Chinese could move ships
sails differently. Ships could now sail into the
wind rather than with it. This meant Chinese
ships could travel to the islands of Southeast
Asia and the Indian Ocean.
64
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Silk Road
  • Silk was the most valuable trade product.
  • The Silk Road was an overland trade route
    extended from western China to southwest Asia.

(pages 246247)
65
The Qin and Han Dynasties
What empire had General Zhang Qian encountered
during his 13-year trip west and how did he
describe it upon his return?
He had visited the Roman Empire and described the
large cities with people wearing embroidered
clothes and driving chariots.
66
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Major Changes in China
  • Buddhism spread from India to China.
  • The Han dynasty fell after wars, rebellions, and
    plots against the emperor.
  • Civil war began, and nomads invaded the country
    before the government collapsed.
  • Buddhism helped people cope with the chaotic
    times.

(page 248)
67
The Qin and Han Dynasties
How did Buddhism become popular in China?
First, merchants from India brought Buddhism to
China. During the unrest of the fall of the Han
dynasty, people found comfort in the teachings of
Buddhism, and more people began practicing the
Buddhist religion.
68
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Why did Qin Shihuangdi have the Great Wall built?
to keep out the Xiongnu
69
The Qin and Han Dynasties
What were civil service examinations and why were
they created?
Civil service examinations were long, difficult
tests used to qualify people for jobs in the
government bureaucracy. They were used to find
the best and most talented people.
70
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Geography Skills What barriers did merchants who
used the Silk Road have to cross?
mountains, deserts, seas, oceans, and harsh
terrain
71
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Explain How did Qin Shihuangdi make Chinas
central government stronger?
He appointed censors who made sure that
government officials did their jobs. He also
appointed and dismissed aristocrats who ran the
provinces rather than allowing their positions to
be hereditary.
72
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Analyze Why did the Qin dynasty fall?
Because Qin Shihuangdi was such a ruthless ruler,
his dynasty was overthrown by unhappy subjects
soon after his death.
73
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Descriptive Writing Zhang Qian wrote that Romans
had short hair, wore embroidered clothes, and
rode in chariots. Name three things that he
might have written about people in the United
States after seeing them for the first time.
Answers will vary.
74
The Qin and Han Dynasties
Make a list of developments you consider positive
and developments you consider harmful or negative
from the era of the Qin and Han dynasties.
75
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76
Early China
Section 1 Chinas First Civilizations
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Rivers, mountains, and deserts helped shape
    Chinas civilization.
  • Rulers known as the Shang became powerful because
    they controlled land and had strong armies.
  • Chinese rulers claimed that the Mandate of Heaven
    gave them the right to rule.

77
Early China
Section 2 Life in Ancient China
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Chinese society had three main social classes
    landowning aristocrats, farmers, and merchants.
  • Three Chinese philosophies, Confucianism, Daoism,
    and Legalism, grew out of a need for order.

78
Early China
Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties
Focusing on the Main Ideas
  • Qin Shihuangdi used harsh methods to unify and
    defend China.
  • Developments during the Han dynasty improved life
    for all Chinese.
  • The Silk Road carried Chinese goods as far as
    Greece and Rome.
  • Unrest in China helped Buddhism to spread.

79
(No Transcript)
80
Early China
Review Vocabulary
Define Match the vocabulary words with the
definitions.
__ 1. right to command __ 2. line of rulers in
the same family __ 3. upper class whose wealth is
based on land __ 4. the ideas of ___ included a
duty to participate in government __ 5.
appointed government officials
  • A. dynasty
  • B. aristocrat
  • C. bureaucracy
  • D. mandate
  • social class
  • filial piety
  • acupuncture
  • Daoism
  • Confucianism

D
A
B
I
C
81
Early China
Review Vocabulary
Define Match the vocabulary words with the
definitions.
__ 6. head of family honored by other members __
7. medical treatment using thin needles __
8. people with a similar position in society __
9. the teachings of Laozi are the basis of ___
  • A. dynasty
  • B. aristocrat
  • C. bureaucracy
  • D. mandate
  • social class
  • filial piety
  • acupuncture
  • Daoism
  • Confucianism

F
G
E
H
82
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 1 Chinas First Civilizations
What geographical features shaped Chinas
civilizations?
rivers, mountains, and deserts
83
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 1 Chinas First Civilizations
Why did the Shang rulers become powerful?
They controlled land and had strong armies.
84
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 2 Life in Ancient China
What were the three main classes in Chinese
society?
landowning aristocrats, farmers and merchants
85
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 2 Life in Ancient China
Identify three Chinese philosophies and the
reason they emerged.
Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism grew out of a
need for order.
86
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties
How did developments during the Han dynasty
affect the Chinese people?
Their lives were improved.
87
Early China
Review Main Ideas
Section 3 The Qin and Han Dynasties
What was the purpose of the Silk Road?
to carry Chinese goods to other areasas far as
Greece and Rome
88
Early China
Contrast How is the ancient Chinese writing
system different from cuneiform and hieroglyphic
writing?
The Chinese system used pictographs and
ideographs, while cuneiform and hieroglyphics
used markings, forms, and some pictures. The
Chinese system is still in use, but cuneiform and
hieroglyphics were replaced by systems based on
speech sounds.
89
Early China
Describe How did Shang artisans create bronze
urns?
They made clay molds in several sections, worked
detailed designs into the clay, fit the pieces of
the mold together, poured in molten bronze, and
removed the mold after the bronze had cooled.
90
Early China
Analyze How is Daoism the opposite of
Confucianism in some ways?
Daoism teaches that people should try to be in
harmony with the world Confucianism teaches that
people should work to change and improve the
world.
91
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92
Explore online information about the topics
introduced in this chapter.
Click on the Connect button to launch your
browser and go to the Journey Across Time Web
site. Click on Chapter 7-Chapter Overviews to
preview information about this chapter. When you
finish exploring, exit the browser program to
return to this presentation. If you experience
difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually
launch your Web browser and go to
http//www.jat.glencoe.com
93
Maps The Geography of China Shang Empire Zhou
Empire Qin and Han Empires 221 B.C.A.D.
220 Trading in the Ancient World
Charts Chinese Numbering System Chinese
Philosophers Four Chinese Dynasties
Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding
slides.
94
Click the map to view an interactive version.
95
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96
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97
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98
Click the map to view an interactive version.
99
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100
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101
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102
Chinas First Civilizations
The Qinling Mountains stretch from west to east
and form the geographic line between north and
south China.
103
Life in Ancient China
Taoists believe the only acceptable time to
inflict harm on another living creature is in
self-defense.
104
The Qin and Han Dynasties
The Great Wall of China stretches more than 4,000
miles from east to west across China. Today,
sections of the Great Wall are deteriorating from
natural erosion.
105
Reading Social Studies
Learn It!
Headings and Punctuation
As you read this chapter, pay attention to bold
headings and punctuation. They are used by
authors to help you better understand what you
are reading. Look at the heading on page 235 of
your textbook, Chinese Thinkers. By putting
these words in red, the author lets you know,
even before you begin reading, that this part of
the chapter is about famous thinkers in Chinese
history. Paying attention to punctuation marks
also can help you understand the text. Look at
the punctuation marks in the paragraph on the
next slide.
106
Reading Social Studies
A colon () tells you that the words that follow
are an illustration or an explanation of the
first part of the sentence.
Words are indented to show where a new paragraph
and a new idea begin
To Confucius, the best way to behave was
similar to an idea known as the Golden Rule Do
unto others as you would have others do unto
you.
Quotation marks have several uses. Here they are
used to set off words taken from another source.
from page 236
107
Reading Social Studies
Practice It!
Punctuation Clues
Look at the heading and punctuation in the
paragraph from Chapter 7 on page 223 of your
textbook and answer the following questions.
  • Based on the heading, what do you think this
    section will be about?

How the Zhou empire came to an end.
108
Reading Social Studies
Practice It!
Punctuation Clues
Look at the heading and punctuation in the
paragraph from Chapter 7 on page 223 of your
textbook and answer the following questions.
  • Why do you think the phrase Period of the
    Warring States is in quotation marks?

It is the title of a period in history.
  • How will you know when a new paragraph begins?

There will be an indented line or new heading.
109
Introduction
Early China
110
Chinas First Civilizations
111
Life in Ancient China
112
The Qin and Han Dynasties
113
Focus on Everyday Life
The Role of Women
Zheng Zhenxiang was Chinas first female
archaeologist. In 1976 she found the tomb of Fu
Hao, Chinas first female general. In the tomb
were more than 2,000 artifacts from the Shang
dynasty, including weapons, bronze vessels, jade
objects, and bones with Chinese characters carved
on them. Fu Hao, the wife of King Wu Ding,
was given a royal burial. She was famous for her
strength, martial arts skills, and military
strategies. She often helped her husband
defeat their enemies on the
battlefield. Fu Hao was
the first female in Chinas history to receive
the highest military
rank. Her tomb and its artifacts
reveal the grand civilization of
Chinas Shang dynasty.
During this period, the Chinese developed
writing, a calendar, and musical
instruments.
114
Connecting to the Past
1. What was Fu Hao famous for during her life?
She was famous for her strength, martial arts
skills, and military strategies.
2. Describe what the artifacts found in Fu Haos
tomb might reveal about life during that time?
The Shang dynasty was a sophisticated
civilization, with bronze technology,
writing, a calendar, and musical
instruments.
115
Focus on Everyday Life
Chinese Farming
Farmers in ancient China had to find ways to grow
enough food to feed their population. It was
often difficult because of the dry mountainous
land. Over centuries, farmers learned to cut
terracesflat areas, like a series of deep
stepsinto the mountain slopes. Terraces made
more land available for farming and kept the soil
from eroding, or wearing away. Early farmers
also used the terraces as a way to irrigate their
crops. As rain fell, it flowed down from one
terrace to the next, watering the crops. This
method of farming, called terrace farming, is
still used in China today. Farmers in ancient
China were the first to use insects to protect
their crops from damage by other insects. As
early as A.D. 304, Chinese farmers used ants to
prevent other insects from damaging their citrus
fruit trees. They also used frogs and birds for
pest control.
116
Connecting to the Past
1. How did farmers in ancient China increase the
amount of productive farmland?
They built terraces into the mountain slopes.
2. What three farming
methods helped farmers
in ancient China grow
more food?
terrace farming, irrigation,
and pest control
117
551- 479 B.C.
Confucius
118
Qin Shihuangdi
c. 259-210 B.C.
119
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 71
Chapter 7
120
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 72
Chapter 7
121
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 73
Chapter 7
122
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