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AP English language and composition


Title: AP English language and composition Author: Bob Ballentine Last modified by * Created Date: 6/19/2011 4:26:01 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AP English language and composition

AP English language and composition
  • Overview and Wrap-up

Critical Thinking The Starting Point
  • Rhetoric as the art of effective speaking and
  • The importance of assessing opportunity,
    audience, and decorum.
  • Reasonableness as the goal for those who would
    develop effective mental habits.
  • Standards of Intellectual Inquiry as essential to
    the development of the reasonable persona.

Current Issues Enduring Questions
  • Topics of immediate and lasting importance to
  • Modes of informed discourse
  • Exposition
  • Narration
  • Description
  • Argumentation

Persuasive Appeals
  • Methods of Becoming Convinced
  • To character (ethos), or reputation
  • I am no orator, but (Socrates, in Apology)
  • To reason (logos), or coherence
  • I think, therefore I am (Descartes,
  • To emotion (pathos), or passion
  • This was the most unkindest cut of all! (JC,

Critical Reading Procedures
  • Important Practices
  • Annotate the text
  • Summarize the main idea
  • Grasp the gist of the argument
  • Identify hidden assumptions

Visual Rhetoric Images as Arguments
  • The medium is the message (McLuhan)
  • Moving pictures
  • Still Photography
  • Charts and graphs
  • Cartoons
  • Painting
  • Drawing
  • Sculpture

Critical Writing Analyzing Arguments
  • Examining a Thesis
  • Authors purpose
  • Persuade or report
  • Authors methods
  • Present evidence and proofs
  • Authors persona
  • Strategy and distance

Checklist for Analyzing Arguments
  • State authors claim grounds.
  • State your position.
  • Identify strong weak points.
  • Comment on ethos
  • Authors character
  • Comment on logos
  • Arguments logic
  • Comment on pathos
  • Appropriateness of emotional appeal
  • Use brief quotations.
  • Evaluate the argument.
  • Establish an appropriate tone.

Developing Your Own Arguments
  • Getting Ideas
  • Freewriting
  • Think on paper.
  • Feel free to write badly.
  • Listing
  • Jotting
  • Gisting
  • Diagramming
  • Clustering
  • Branching
  • Columns

Your First Obligations
  • Ask questions.
  • State your thesis early.
  • Imagine your audience.
  • What do we have in common?
  • Have in entertained and informed them?
  • Imply your thesis in your title.
  • Have I informed them?
  • Have I turned them off?

The Business of Paragraphing
  • Attract the readers interest.
  • State the problem.
  • Prepare the readers mind.
  • State what is to follow define terms.
  • Show the reader how the essay is organized.
  • Present the supporting evidence.
  • Anticipate objections.
  • Lead the reader toward a sense of closure.

The Conclusion
  • Good writers provide a sense of closure by
  • Returning to something in the introduction
  • Glancing at the wider implications of the issue
  • Illustrating the thesis with a closing anecdote
  • Summarizing without tediously repeating the

A Logicians View
  • Deduction
  • Premises force necessary conclusion.
  • Socratess mortality.
  • Induction
  • Premises imply a probable conclusion.
  • The sun rising analogy.
  • Fallacies
  • Methods of argument that persuade by deceptive
    methods (dirty tricks)
  • Distractions from the point.

A Philosophers View Steven Toulmin
Toulmin Procedure
  • State the problem.
  • State your claim and its warrants.
  • Support your claim with backup data.
  • Qualify your claim.
  • Consider counter-claims.
  • Rebut the counter-claims.
  • Show how your claim has greater weight than the

A Psychologists View Carl Rogers
  • Argument implies threat and miscommunication.
  • Become partners, not adversaries.
  • Communication should point toward solving the
    problemnot attacking the person or group.
  • Show sympathetic understanding of the opponent.
  • Recognize what is valid in the oppositions
  • Recognize that the most persons in the opposition
    are persons of good will.

Rogerian Procedure
  • State the problem
  • Give the opponents position
  • Grant whatever validity the writer finds in that
  • Attempt to show how the opposing position would
    be improved if the writers own position were

Moralists View Ethical Analysis
A Moral Reasoning Checklist
  • Is the conduct in question limited by a rule?
  • How does self-interest affect the issue?
  • Is the defense of the conduct reasonable?
  • Is the rule for the individual or the group?
  • How the conduct consider the rights of others?
  • Would the conduct in question imply a universal

A Lawyers View Civic Literacy
  • Cases fall into two categories
  • Civil individual vs. individual
  • A claim of wrongful action is made against
  • Some redress of the grievance is sought.
  • Relevant evidence is brought to the case.
  • Criminal state vs. individual
  • Felonies seriously harmful actions
  • Misdemeanors lesser harmful actions

Reporting Cases
  • Holding the courts decision
  • It is usually one sentence.
  • Opinion the support for the decision
  • It is usually complex and lengthy exposition.
  • Majority reasoning of the larger group.
  • Concurring qualified agreement with majority.
  • Dissenting disagreement with the majority.
  • Relevant facts and relevant law are considered.
  • Balancing and conflicting interests are

A Literary Critics View Literature
  • What is authors intent?
  • What we can infer about the author, based upon
    the work.
  • What did the author mean?
  • What we can infer from the conscious or
    unconscious motives of the author.
  • What does the text say?
  • Textual, cultural, and historical contexts the

  • What does it mean?
  • What evidence supports your claim?
  • Text
  • Society
  • Biography
  • Psychology
  • History
  • Culture

  • What is a good work of art?
  • Complex or unified?
  • Does it make sense?
  • Wholesome or shocking?
  • What emotions does it evoke in me?
  • Original or derivative?
  • Is it new or revisited?
  • Important or trivial?
  • Is it instructive or entertaining?

  • What is the right to life?
  • What is a human life?
  • When does life become human?
  • What is the moral standing of various life forms?

Affirmative Action
  • Is it fair?
  • Is it racist?
  • Is it reverse discrimination?
  • Is it intended to last forever?
  • Are there special victim classes that deserve
    certain dispensations?
  • Do the victimized deserve reparation at the
    expense of the innocent?

Gun Control
  • Who should have guns?
  • What kind of guns should be made, if any?
  • What restrictions should be placed on gun owners?
  • Does a private citizen have a right to carry?
  • Should convicted criminals have a right to own

College Education
  • What is its purpose?
  • Should everyone go to college?
  • How should college be funded?
  • Does everyone have a right to college education?
  • Is it a superior education to vocational training?

The Death Penalty
  • Is it justified?
  • If so, in what cases?
  • If not, how do we treat the convicted felon?
  • Does cost/benefit analysis apply?
  • Does it prevent capital crime?
  • Is revenge just?
  • Does closure justify capital punishment?

Sex Education
  • Is it the schools business?
  • What grade level should teach it?
  • What are the limits of the education?
  • What is the role of parents?
  • Does it solve the problems related to it?
  • Does it exacerbate them?
  • Should schools distribute b/c devices and

Drug Legalizaton
  • Should all drugs be legal?
  • Should some drugs be legal?
  • Should the state be in charge of growth and sale
    of drugs?
  • Do the punishments fit the crimes?

Illegal Immigration
  • Should all illegal immigrants be granted
  • Should their children, born in the USA, be
    granted citizenship?
  • Should we build a wall and defend it with force?
  • Should we have open borders?
  • How do we control illegal immigration?

Intelligent Design
  • Is it science or religion?
  • Should it be taught in science class?
  • Are its claims valid?
  • Are its supporting arguments sufficient?

  • Is marriage a moral obligation?
  • Is marriage irrelevant?
  • Is marriage necessary?
  • Is marriage between same-sex couples right?
  • Is marriage a divine covenant?
  • Is divorce too easy?

Sexual Harassment
  • What is it?
  • Does it apply in the same way to all people?
  • Is it warranted in the workplace?
  • Is it harassment if all parties consent?
  • Is it indefinable?

  • Is it ever justifiable?
  • If it saves lives, is it permitted?
  • If it causes no permanent harm, is it
  • If it causes death, is it wrong?
  • Does the welfare of the many outweigh the pain of
    a few?

  • What is the ideal society?
  • Which is more important, the individual or the
  • Is a Constitution necessary?
  • What controls are needed to maintain society?
  • Is there such a thing as too much or too little

What is Happiness?
  • Is it equated with pleasure?
  • Is it equated with morality?
  • Is it equated with peace of mind?
  • Is it equated with knowledge?
  • Is it equated with mindlessness?
  • Is it equated with compassion?
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