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Reading Disabilities

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Reading Disabilities Sousa Chapter 5 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reading Disabilities


1
Reading Disabilities
  • Sousa
  • Chapter 5

2
Learning to Read
  • Reading is probably the most difficult task for
    the young brain to do.
  • 50 of children make the adjustment to reading
    with relative ease. 20 to 30 will find it to
    be the most difficult task they will ever
    undertake in their young lives.
  • Late-talking toddlers score lower than their
    peers in vocabulary, grammar, verbal memory, and
    reading comprehension, but early intervention at
    age 2 can help their language skill development.

3
Learning to Read (cont.)
  • Put very simply, reading involves two basic
    operations decoding and comprehension.
  • Phonological Awareness- the recognition that oral
    language can be divided into smaller components,
    such as sentences into words, words into
    syllables, and ultimately, into individual
    phonemes.
  • Phonemic Awareness-is a subdivision of
    phonological awareness and refers to the
    understanding that words are made up of
    individual sounds and that these sounds can be
    manipulated to create new words. Simply learning
    letter-sound relationships during phonics
    instruction does not necessarily lead to phonemic
    awareness.

4
The Neural Systems Involved In Reading
  • Successful decoding and comprehension in reading
    require the coordination of three neural
    networks
  • Visual processing
  • Phoneme recognition
  • Word interpretation

5
Difficulties In Learning To Read
  • Social Cultural Causes of Reading Problems
  • Home language differs substantially from the
    language used in reading instruction
  • Training for reading teachers should help them
    understand how they can use some of the
    linguistic attributes of the child to help
    children pronounce, decode, and understand
    English.

6
Difficulties In Learning To Read Physical Causes
of Reading Problems
  • NOT all struggling readers have dyslexia.
  • Linguistic Causes
  • Phonological deficits.
  • Differences in auditory and visual processing
    speeds.
  • Structural differences in the brain.
  • Working memory deficits.
  • Genetics and gender.
  • Lesions in the word form area.
  • Word-blindness.

7
Difficulties In Learning To Read Physical Causes
(cont.)
  • Nonlinguistic Causes
  • Perception of sequential sounds.
  • Sound-frequency discrimination.
  • Detection of target sounds in noise.
  • Visual magnocellular-deficit hypothesis.
  • Motor coordination and the cerebellum.

8
Physical Causes of Reading Problems
  • Analyzing these differences leads to a better
    understanding of the multidimensional nature of
    reading disorders and possible treatment.

9
Is Dyslexia Present in Readers of Other Languages?
  • Dyslexia appears in all languages
  • Findings imply that dyslexia may not have a
    universal origin in all humans, but that the
    biological abnormality of impaired reading is
    dependent on culture.

10
Brain Imaging Studies Dyslexia
  • MRI studies that have compared the brain
    structure of individuals with dyslexia to
    typical readers have found -
  • Those who had dyslexia WITH spoken-language
    problems have atypical brain structures that
    hamper speech and are likely to have difficulties
    in learning to read as well.

11
Studies Of Brain Function
  • Not a vision problem-A reader with dyslexia has
    problems in assigning what he says or hears in
    his head to the letters he sees on paper.
    (Remedial strategies should focus on
    reestablishing correct phonemic connections with
    intense practice).
  • A reader with dyslexia uses different brain
    pathways than a typical reader- visual memory
    area instead of word processing regions.
  • Memory systems begin to fail, this overreliance
    results in slow and laborious reading.
  • The different brain scan patterns between good
    readers and readers with dyslexia are so
    consistent that they may one day allow for early
    diagnosis, perhaps even before a child begins to
    read.

12
Detecting Reading Problems
  • Critical observation of a childs progress in
    learning to speak, and eventually in learning to
    read, remains our most effective tool for
    spotting potential problems.

13
Spoken Language Difficulties
  • Delay in speaking.
  • Difficulties with pronunciation.
  • Difficulty in learning the letters of the
    alphabet.
  • Recalling incorrect phonemes.
  • Insensitivity to rhyme.
  • Genetics. 25-50 of the children born to a
    parent with dyslexia will also carry the trait.

14
Early Indicators of Reading Problems
  • Even though children have a genetic
    predisposition for dyslexia, differences in the
    home and school environment can determine how
    successful these children will be at reading.
  • Research studies have found that letter fluency
    is a useful measure in kindergarten, while
    response to instruction can be a valuable measure
    in second grade.
  • Researchers, clinicians, and educators who study
    dyslexia and who work with poor readers look for
    certain clues that will show whether a childs
    reading ability is progressing normally.

15
What Teachers Should Know About Teaching Reading
  • How the brain learns to read
  • The relationship between spoken language
    reading
  • Direct instruction in phonics
  • Direct instruction in the alphabetic principle
  • How to diagnose spelling reading skills
  • How to build vocabulary
  • How to develop fluency comprehension
  • How to use a variety of reading intervention
    strategies

16
What Beginning Readers Need To Learn
  • Phonological Awareness Rhyming, alliteration,
    deleting substituting sounds, sound patterns
  • Phonemic Awareness Segmenting words into
    individual sounds, manipulating phonemes
  • Alphabetic principle Correlating letter-sound
    patterns with specific text
  • Orthographic awareness Understanding spelling
    rules writing conventions
  • Comprehension monitoring strategies Identifying
    the main idea, making inferences, using study
    skills that assist reading

17
What Educators Need To Consider
  • Some effective reading intervention programs are
  • Reading Recovery - (lowest-achieving readers in
    1st grade, 12-20 weeks long) 30 min. ind.
    instr. phonics, phonemic aw., letter-sound rel.,
    comp.
  • Success for ALL--Reading First - (K-3, Core
    reading program) 90 min. groupings same skills
    assessed every 8 wks., teacher works with one
    lev., less kids referred to sped. , 1/2 yr. gain
    on control group, 64th per to 50th.
  • The READ 180 Program - (4th-12th low-achieving
    readers, comp. program from Scholastic, Inc.)
    Direct, explicit, and systematic instruction in
    word analysis, phonics, spelling, reading comp.,
    and writing. Showed sig. improvements in reading
    scores overall school performance, as well as
    development of more positive attitudes
    behaviors.
  • Strategies to Consider end of chapter
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