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Research Methodology

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Title: Research Methodology


1
Research Methodology
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1
2
Outline
  1. Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
  2. Literature Review and Research Problems
  3. Survey Research
  4. Qualitative Methods
  5. Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
  6. Sampling
  7. Data Collection
  8. Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
  9. Writing Research Paper

3
Section I
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
4
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research ( by James
Neill)
Qualitative Quantitative
"All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding" by Donald Campbell "There's no such thing as qualitative data. Everything is either 1 or 0" by Fred Kerlinger
The aim is a complete, detailed description. The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.
5
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Qualitative Quantitative
Researcher may only know roughly in advance what he/she is looking for. Researcher knows clearly in advance what he/she is looking for.
Researcher is the data gathering instrument. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to collect numerical data.
6
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Qualitative Quantitative
Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects. Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.
Subjective -- individuals interpretation of events is important, e.g., uses participant observation, in-depth interviews, etc. Objective -- seeks precise measurement analysis of target concepts, e.g., uses surveys, questionnaires, etc.
7
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
Qualitative Quantitative
Qualitative data is more 'rich', time consuming, and less able to be generalized.  Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual details.
Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the subject matter. Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject matter.
8
Section II
Literature Review and Research Problems
9
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • I. Why Do a Literature Review?
  • A. for planning primary research
  • 1. find a lack of consistency in reported
    results
  • 2. find a flaw in research methods
  • 3. conduct on a different population
  • 4. find a solution for a problem
  • 5. uncertainty about the interpretation


10
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • B. As an end in itself
  • 1. inform practice (e.g. solve a problem)
  • 2. provide understanding about the topic
  • (longer process for integrative
    research
  • review)


11
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • II. What Is the Search Process?
  • A. Nine steps
  • 1. Identify a research topic (cause ?
    effect)
  • 2. Review secondary sources to get an
    overview
  • 3. Develop a search strategy (collect
    databases,
  • titles, abstract, full texts)
  • 4. Conduct the search (search the sources)


12
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • 5. Get a copy of the article
  • 6. Read and prepare bibliographic
    information
  • and notes
  • 7. Evaluate the research reports (identify
    major points)
  • 8. Analyze the research findings and
    synthesize
  • the results (narrative and statistical
    methods)
  • 9. Use the literature review (based on major
    points)


13
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • III. Research Questions and Hypotheses
  • A. four categories of research questions
  • 1. descriptive
  • 2. normative
  • 3. correlative
  • 4. impact


14
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • 1. Descriptive questions Provide information
    about what is or has been happening related to
    the research topic (e.g., What is the major
    difficulty for EFL writers?)
  • 2. Normative questions Provide information
    compared with some standard or expected
    observation (e.g., Will EFL teachers achieve a
    better quality if they get a teaching
    certificate?)


15
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • 3. Correlative questions Identify relationship
    (e.g.,
  • What is the relationship between the year of
  • training in writing and ss writing
    performance?)
  • 4. Impact questions Identify effect (e.g., What
    is the
  • effect of teachers positive comments on ss
  • writing performance?)


16
Literature Review and Research Problems
4-1. Two types of hypotheses ?directional
hypothesis can expect the outcome e.g., If ss
can get teachers positive comments, (then)
they will have a better writing
performance ?null hypothesis can not expect the
outcome e.g., There is no difference between
teachers positive comments and ss
writing performance

17
Literature Review and Research Problems
  • IV. In Summary, the Purposes of Literature
    Review
  • Provide previous research results (big picture)
  • Provide a need for additional research (problem)
  • Develop a conceptual framework (from major points
    to generate research questions and hypotheses)
  • Guide the research design and conduct the study


18
Section III
Survey Research
19
Survey Research
  • I. Main Purpose of Survey (Quantitative)
    Research
  • Collect data from a larger number of people
  • Rely on individuals self-reports of their
    knowledge,
  • attitudes, or behaviors
  • II. Design Phase
  • Write the purpose of the survey (like a thesis
    statement)
  • Write research questions based on the purpose
    (thesis)

20
Survey Research
  • III. Three Design Considerations
  • Descriptive approach
  • Cross-sectional approach
  • Longitudinal approach

21
Survey Research
  • Descriptive approach A survey describing
  • the characteristics of a sample at one point in
  • time (e.g., senior students research paper
  • writing difficulties in the Department of
  • Applied English at I-Shou University in 2009)

22
Survey Research
  • Cross-sectional approach A survey examining
  • several groups at one point in time (e.g.,
    different
  • grade level students writing difficulties in
    the AE
  • Department at ISU in 2009)
  • Pro Compare responses across different grade
  • levels in a shorter time
  • Con Not easy to make a comparison due to
  • different subjects

23
Survey Research
  • Longitudinal approach A survey examining one
  • group at different points in time (e.g.,
    1-year, 2-
  • year-, and 3-year graduates perceptions of RP
  • course in the AE Department at ISU in
    2006-2008)
  • Pro Follow the same subjects over a period of
    time
  • Con Take a longer time

24
Survey Research
  • IV. Data Collection Choices Mail, telephone,
    personal interviews, email, web-based surveys,
    etc.
  • Mail
  • Pro Collect closed-ended information low cost
  • enough time for the respondents
  • Con Lower response rates no more in-depth
  • information

25
Survey Research
  • Phone interviews
  • Pro Collect open-ended information higher
  • response rate more additional
    information
  • Con More costly cant observe participants
  • body language and facial expressions

26
Survey Research
  • Personal interviews
  • Pro Less structured approach more
  • conversational style easy to get
    additional
  • information highest response rate
  • Con Take more time

27
Survey Research
  • V. Sampling Plan
  • Identification of participants Identify the
  • participants who have the information you want
    or
  • who have experienced the event
  • Population definition More specific about the
  • participants sources

28
Survey Research
  • Two Sampling decisions
  • 1. Probability sampling Need to specify to whom
    the
  • results will be generalized
  • 1-1. Sampling frame to give a list of people
    who have a
  • chance to be selected
  • 1-2. Only choose the population included in
    the sampling
  • frame
  • 2. Purposeful sampling Need to provide
    sufficient details
  • about the important characteristics of the
    participants

29
Survey Research
  • Three sources of sampling errors
  • Coverage errors (a) should be in the sampling
    frame, but not there, (b) should not be in the
    frame, but in there
  • 2. Nonresponse errors (a) refuse to be
    interviewed, (b) cant complete questionnaire,
    (c) cant be reached
  • 3. Sampling errors Use different (wrong)
    sampling strategies drawn from a population

30
Survey Research
VI. Designing the Questionnaire A. Review
the literature Borrow what has been
designed before (with appropriate citations and
permissions) B. Develop your own
questionnaire 1. follow Delphi
Technique Ask experts to provide
ideas for better questionnaire, and then do a
pilot testing with a larger sample
31
Survey Research
2. Explain to yourself why asking each
question 3. Decide format Open (answer questions
in own words) or closed format (multiple-choice,
true-false, checklist) 4. Do a pilot study to
include all alternative responses 5. Avoid
psychologically threatening (socially desirable)
questions 6. Clear items Provide a definition of
the terms first 7. Short items
32
Survey Research
8. Avoid negative wording questions (e.g., Which
of these are not ?) 9. Avoid items that
ask more than one idea 10.Use appropriate word
level 11.Avoid leading questions 12.Emphasize
critical words by using italics or
underlining or bold letters
33
Survey Research
  • VII. Formatting the Questionnaire
  • Make it attractive
  • Organize and lay out the questions
  • Number the items and pages
  • Put the returned address and name at the
    beginning and end of the questionnaire
  • Include brief, clear instructions

34
Survey Research
6. Use examples if necessary 7. Organize the
questions in a logical sequence 8. Begin with a
few interesting and nonthreatening items 9.
Do not put the most important items at the
end 10.Avoid using questionnaire or checklist on
the form (use the title Response Form)
35
Survey Research
  • VIII. Pilot Testing the Questionnaire
  • Select a sample similar to your population
  • Give more spaces for writing comments
  • Encourage pilot participants to give suggestions
  • Follow the procedures that you plan to use in
    your study
  • Add, change, or delete any questions if necessary

36
Survey Research
IX. Special Types of Questions 1. Demographic
questions 1-1. Background information
(e.g., gender, age, etc.) 2. Nonthreatening
behavioral questions 2-1. Ask general
questions on usual behavior first 2-2.
Bounded recall e.g., In the last year..
2-3. Wording of question e.g., Are your
difficulties in writing a research
paper mainly due to your grammar
problem?
37
Survey Research
3. Threatening behavioral questions Any
questions elicit a defensive reaction in the
participant better to use 3-1. open-ended
questions 3-2. longer questions with
explanations 3-3. familiar words 3-4. put
answers into sealed envelopes 3-5. use
appropriate wording (e.g., Did you ever happen
to ., Such behaviors occur with
different frequencies.) 3-6.
use multiple measures until getting the truth
38
Survey Research
4. Knowledge questions Ask questions to test
participants knowledge of a subject in
school better to use 4-1. knowledge
questions before asking attitude
questions 4-2. appropriate level of
difficulty 4-3. avoid asking Do you happen
to know ..? 4-4. avoid using mail survey
(may check up the answer)
39
Survey Research
5. Attitude questions Should give a definition
of the term or concept in advance better to
ask 5-1. three kinds of attitudes
5-1-1. affective (like vs. dislike) How does
the person feel about
this? 5-1-2. cognitive (knowledge)
What does the person know
about this? 5-1-3. action What is the
person willing to do about
this?
40
Survey Research
5-2. assess attitude strength (e.g., How much do
you like or dislike .?) 5-3. avoid asking
more than one concept (e.g., Would you
vote for me and peace or my opponent and
war?) 5-4. use bipolar questions (e.g., Are you
satisfied or dissatisfied with .?) 5-5.
move on to measure degree of positive or negative
attitude (e.g., Are you strongly
satisfied or moderately satisfied with
.?) 5-6. Use five points/alternatives on the
rating scale
41
Survey Research
  • X. Letter of Transmittal A cover letter to
    specify the purpose of the survey hints to
    motivate the returned questionnaires
  • Appeal to authority Need the well-known persons
    signature
  • Appeal to self-interest You are one of the few
    people with the intelligence to be able to help
    us with this issue.
  • Appeal to professional interests This is a very
    important question in our field (society).

42
Survey Research
4. Appeal to altruism The results of this
survey will be used to solve one of our students
writing problems. 5. Appeal to curiosity Offer
to send a copy of the results 6. Appeal to greed
Offer to send a monetary incentive 7. Appeal to a
sense of connection Enclose a tea bag or a
pencil (more details will be shown in the
consent form)
43
Survey Research
  • XI. Conducting the Survey
  • Send out an advance (cover) letter
  • Enclose the questionnaire with the transmittal
    letter
  • Supervise the data collection
  • Send a follow-up to nonrespondents
  • 4-1. send again
  • 4-2. send a postcard reminder
  • 4-3. make a call
  • 5. Control processing errors
  • 6. Enter the data into the database
  • 7. Clean up the data before you begin analysis

44
Survey Research
  • XII. Notes Specific to Personal Interviews
  • Hold an introductory meeting to share the
    purpose, and get assurance to participate
  • Schedule the interview time
  • Make a flexible interview
  • Dont use yes or no questions plan to ask
    open-ended questions (e.g., How do you feel about
    ..? What is you opinion about ..? What do you
    think about .?)
  • Conclude with open-ended questions (e.g., Is
    there anything that I didnt ask about..? Is
    there anything that you wanted to tell me.?)
  • Pretest your interview procedures

45
Survey Research
  • XIII. Starting and Conducting the Interview
  • Briefly review the purpose of the interview and
    information needed
  • Focus on what the participant is saying
  • Sequence the questions from general to specific
  • Ask for specific examples
  • Ask a variety of different kinds of questions
  • Avoid asking why questions better to use how
    come
  • Use role play or simulation questions (If I were
    your ..)
  • Record the interview and take notes


46
Section IV
Qualitative Method
47
Qualitative Method
  • I. Main Purpose of Qualitative Research
  • Provide in-depth descriptions to interpret
    something
  • by using case study, personal experiences,
    interview,
  • observation
  • Complexity, contextual, exploration, discovery,
  • inductive logic

48
Qualitative Method
II. Strategies for Qualitative Research 1.
Ethnographic research Describe and analyze
practices and beliefs of cultures and communities
by interacting with people in their everyday
lives 2. Case study Detailed study of one
individual (of a group) through observation
49
Qualitative Method
3. Phenomenological research Seek the
individuals perceptions and meaning of a
phenomenon or experience what is the
meaning of the experience of this phenomenon
for this person or group of people?
50
Qualitative Method
4. Grounded theory Develop a theory after
gathering and analyzing the data 5. Participatory
research Co-research the issue cooperatively 6.
Clinical research Understand a problem within a
clinical context 7. Focus groups Observe the
interaction within the group (e.g., group
interviews)
51
Qualitative Method
III. General Methodological Guidelines
Interview A. The researcher is the
instrument B. Speaking for the other
C. Focus on an area of inquiry D. Explore
research sites E. Gaining permission
F. Negotiating entry G. Entering the field
H. Role of the researcher
52
Qualitative Method
  • The researcher is the instrument
  • 1. what questions to ask
  • 2. in what order
  • 3. what to observe
  • 4. what to write down
  • 5. key person to collect and interpret data

53
Qualitative Method
B. Speaking for the other Retell someones story
or experiences in a new way (re-writing) C. Focus
on an area of inquiry Explore the topic based on
literature review and research questions
(tentative) D. Explore research sites Collect
information from the place (location) you do the
study by piloting, sampling, etc.
54
Qualitative Method
E. Gaining permission Try to get permission from
the gatekeepers (those with power and
authority) F. Negotiating entry How to get the
true information with protection of human beings
and their organization G. Entering the field
Make plans to enter the field in the least
disruptive manner
55
Qualitative Method
H. Role of the researcher Unbiased, objective,
discover multiple views of the participants
more interactive 1. Supervisor (with
authority) 2. Leader (e.g., scout leaders)
3. Friend (with respect)
56
Qualitative Method
  • IV. Critically Analyzing Qualitative Research
  • Credibility
  • Transferability
  • Dependability
  • Confirmability
  • Authenticity
  • Emancipatory

57
Qualitative Method
A. Credibility Internal validity (a
correspondence between how the researcher
observes and participants express viewpoints) 1.
Prolonged and substantial engagement Give enough
time staying at the site 2. Persistent
observation Sufficient observation until
identifying clear issues/picture 3. Peer
debreifing Discuss with the disinterested peers
for better research ideas
58
Qualitative Method
4. Negative case analysis If the finding doesnt
fit the hypothesis, seek more information and
analyze the negative case 5. Progressive
subjectivity Be open-minded and keep changing if
necessary 6. Member checks Share research
results with peers for comment 7. Triangulation
Check information from different sources or
methods to find consistency (e.g.,
quantitative data qualitative findings)
59
Qualitative Method
B. Transferability Thick description (provide
sufficient details such as time, place, context)
and multiple cases for external validity
(generalize the results to other similar
situation) C. Dependability Reliability
(maintain the same result without change no
matter tested how many times) D. Confirmability
Objectivity (provide evidences by synthesizing
data instead of researchers imagination)
60
Qualitative Method
  • E. Authenticity Present a balanced view of all
    values and beliefs
  • Fairness Display different views (pros and cons)
  • Ontological authenticity Show individuals real
    experiences
  • Catalytic authenticity Get evidences of
    participants views by the inquiry process

61
Qualitative Method
  • F. Transformative Paradigm Criteria
  • Positionality or standpoint epistemology The
    research result can not contain all universal
    truth because a lot of factors may influence the
    result should avoid showing the position or
    standpoint of the author
  • Community Know the research site well to link
    the research results to positive action within
    that community

62
Qualitative Method
  • Attention to voice Speak for the minority
  • Critical reflexivity Be sensitive to understand
    the psychological state of participants
  • Reciprocity Develop trust with participants
  • Sharing the perquisites of privilege Share
    research results

63
Section V
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
64
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
  • Definition and Characteristics
  • A. Use both qualitative and quantitative
    methods in
  • the design, data collection, and analysis
  • B. Quantitative analysis first, and then
    followed by
  • content analysis of qualitative data

65
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
II. Importance in Educational and Psychological
Research A. Obtain a more complete
picture of human behavior and
experience B. Provide broader and deeper
understanding of the issue
66
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
III. Three paradigms for deeper understanding
A. Pragmatic paradigm 1. Researcher
determines which method to use to
answer a specific research question (i.e., find a
problem/issue and use a method for
solutions) 2. Conduct the study and
anticipate the results based on
researchers own values and
explanations (the result may match their value
system)
67
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
B. Transformative paradigm Emphasize minority
groups values and viewpoints for social
change (Transformation means change)
C. Mixed-method design 4 options to apply
pragmatic and transformative paradigms
68
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
IV. Mixed-Methods/Models Design Apply the
quantitative and qualitative methods
simultaneously (parallel) or sequentially
4 design options A. Pragmatic parallel
mixed-methods B. Pragmatic sequential
mixed-methods C. Transformative parallel
mixed-methods D. Transformative sequential
mixed-methods
69
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
A. Pragmatic parallel mixed-methods 1.
Collect qualitative and quantitative data to
answer research questions 2. Collect
two types of data simultaneously or with
small time lag (almost simultaneously) e.g.,
examine 16 cases by doing a quantitative
questionnaire study and qualitative open-ended
interviews with two independent
phases (no data analysis)
70
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
B. Pragmatic sequential mixed-methods 1.
Collect and analyze one type of data (e.g.
quantitative) as a basis for collecting another
type of data (e.g., qualitative) 2. The
second phase of research is to confirm or
disconfirm the first phase e.g.,
questionnaires first use the results to develop
qualitative interviews
71
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
C. Transformative parallel mixed-methods 1.
Use qualitative and quantitative methods to
promote social or political changes 2.
Explore the minoritys populations 3.
Emphasize value-based and action-oriented
purposes (make changes for improvement)
72
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
D. Transformative sequential mixed-methods 1.
Focus on the minoritys populations and values
2. One type of data provides a basis for
collection of another type of data
73
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
V. Questions for Critically Analyzing
Mixed-Methods Research A. Consider
inference quality internal validity
(quantitative) trustworthiness (qualitative)
consistency between research purpose,
research questions, and methodology used
74
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
B. Conflicts between qualitative (small sample)
and quantitative (large sample), so need to
link both data C. Need to consider a lot
of factors e.g., language, gender, reading
or writing levels (demographic information)
75
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
  • V. Questions for Critically Analyzing
    Mixed-Methods
  • Research
  • What are your research purpose and questions?
  • Have you matched the purpose and questions to
    appropriate methods?
  • To what extent do you reach the criteria of the
    quality for the quantitative part of the study?
    (i.e., internal validity, external validity,
    reliability, objectivity)

76
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
4. To what extent do you reach the criteria of
the quality for the qualitative part of the
study? (i.e., credibility, transferability,
dependability, confirmability, authenticity,
transformative) 5. How do you solve the conflict
between the design and implementation of the
study? 6. What is the limitations for
generalization?
77
Mixed-Methods and Mixed-Model Designs
7. How do you integrate the results from the
mixed methods? How do you explain the conflicting
findings if necessary? 8. How do you control and
explain the factors of gender, language levels,
etc?
78
Section VI
Sampling
79
Sampling
  • Definition Select a given number of people from
    a population
  • A. Probability sampling Every member of the
  • population has a possibility of being
    selected
  • B. Nonprobability (purposeful) sampling
    Select
  • members who had the particular experience
    before
  • try to look for negative cases for better
  • improvement

80
Sampling
II. External Validity Generalizability or
Transferability A. Generalize findings to the
larger (target) population, so need to
provide detailed description of the case III.
Sampling Strategies A. Probability sampling
B. Nonprobability (Purposeful) sampling C.
Convenience sampling
81
Sampling
  • Probability sampling
  • 1. Simple random sampling
  • 2. Systematic sampling
  • 3. Stratified sampling
  • 4. Cluster sampling
  • 5. Multistage sampling

82
Sampling
1. Simple random sampling Each member has a
number (code) and each population has an
equal chance to be selected ?Pro simple
process ?Con difficult to get a complete list of
all populations may include some
outsiders
83
Sampling
2. Systematic sampling Select every nth name
from the list so need to estimate the needed
sample size ?Pro not every member needs to be
numbered ?Con bias if members are arranged in a
specific pattern (e.g., choose the
last name with A in the given year)
84
Sampling
3. Stratified sampling Divide the populations
into subgroups (e.g., genders) or levels
(e.g., proficiency levels) and then draw
randomly from each subgroup ?Pro easy to
compare each subgroup results ?Con must get
information before dividing them
85
Sampling
4. Cluster sampling Choose groups of individuals
e.g., city blocks or classrooms in a school,
and study all of the samples there ?Pro
save time and money by collecting data at a
limited number of sites ?Con small sample
size, so less precision in
estimating the effect
86
Sampling
5. Multistage sampling Combine sampling
strategies e.g., use cluster sampling to
randomly select classrooms and use random
sampling to select a sample with each
classroom ?Pro more reliable ?Con complex
calculations (regression analysis)
87
Sampling
B. Nonprobability (Purposeful) sampling Provide
in-depth, interpretive information 1.
Extreme or deviant cases 2. Intensity
sampling 3. Maximum-variation sampling 4.
Homogeneous sampling 5. Typical-case sampling
6. Stratified purposeful sampling
88
Sampling
7. Critical-case sampling 8. Snowball or
chain sampling 9. Criterion sampling 10.
Theory-based or operational construct
sampling 11. Confirming and disconfirming
cases 12. Opportunistic sampling 13. Purposeful
random sampling 14. Sampling politically
important cases
89
Sampling
1. Extreme or deviant cases Study the extreme
(unusual) case to illuminate the ordinary
e.g., analyze an extremely best writers work and
compare it with the poorest one
2. Intensity sampling Similar to extreme cases,
but less emphasis on extreme explore rich
information on typical cases analyze why
individuals meet the specified criterion
90
Sampling
3. Maximum-variation sampling Maximize the
variation within the samples and then indicate
their unique (major) difference e.g.,
study students English abilities among
different locations (rural, urban, and
suburban areas) 4. Homogeneous sampling Identify
the samples who share similar
characteristics e.g., rural teachers
attitudes toward bilingual learning
for kindergarten kids
91
Sampling
5. Typical-case sampling Choose a case in which
a program/instruction has been implemented
to show this case is indeed average 6.
Stratified purposeful sampling Divide samples
into subgroups and then select cases within
each subgroup 7. Critical-case sampling Study a
very important, critical case and the effect
should be representative if it happens
there, it will happen anywhere.
92
Sampling
8. Snowball or chain sampling Start with a key
person and introduces the next one to become a
chain 9. Criterion sampling Set up a criterion
and identify cases that meet that criterion
e. g., study cases that could pass TOEFL last
semester 10. Theory-based or operational
construct sampling Define a theoretical
construct (e.g., metacognitive learning on EFL
reading development)
93
Sampling
11. Confirming and disconfirming cases Form
grounded theory by analyzing sample cases
that fit (confirming) and do not fit
(disconfirming) the major points in
literature 12. Opportunistic sampling Should
take the opportunity to decide the
sampling procedure or samples during the
study
94
Sampling
13. Purposeful random sampling Randomly select
participants who had similar experiences in
a very small sample 14. Sampling
politically important cases Use particular
samples that someone expects to use the results
95
Sampling
Overall strengths and weaknesses of purposeful
sampling Pro 1. Less costly and time consuming
2. Ease of administration 3.
Assures high participation rate 4.
Generalization possible to similar subjects
5. Assures receipt of needed information Con1.
Difficult to generalize to other subjects
2. Less representative of an identified
population 3. Greater subject bias
96
Sampling
C. Convenience sampling Choose the samples who
are very available (easy to access), but
can not generalize the results beyond the
population poor Pro 1. Less costly and time
consuming 2. Ease of administration
3. Assures high participation rate 4.
Generalization possible to similar
subjects Con1. Difficult to generalize to other
subjects 2. Less representative of an
identified population 3. Greater subject
bias
97
Sampling
IV. Access Issues Consider how to obtain your
participants A. Get permission and
agreement with the appropriate person
(e.g., school principal, classroom teacher, or
parents) B. Obtain consent form from the
participants C. How to label students if
using stratified sampling D. Consider
appropriate sample size
98
Sampling
V. Sample size A. Quantitative research
rules For survey research, 100 cases
B. Qualitative research rules For grounded
theory, 30-50 interviews
99
Sampling
VI. Consent form A. Explain research purpose,
duration, and procedures B. Describe any risk
or discomfort C. Describe confidentiality or
anonymity D. Provide the name of person to
contact with E. Provide voluntary
participation, and available to refuse or
withdraw any time
100
Dear Principle of I-Shou International School,
My name is Chiau-jen Zhu, and Im a junior
student of the Applied English Department at
I-Shou University. In order to accomplish my
required research, The Effect of Reading Stories
to Improve Elementary School Students Reading
Ability, I need your permission to interview
students at your school. Reading stories has
become a tendency to improve elementary school
students reading ability. Therefore, my purpose
is to interview students to get more ideas about
the effect of reading literature. The interview
includes three parts past experience, the
details of experience and personal opinions of
participants. The participation is not
compulsory, but I will appreciate your
contribution if you agree with the interviews.
Each interview will take 15 to 25 minutes, and
five students are needed from the fifth to the
sixth grade. In addition, the names of
participants will be innominate for sure. As
for the contents of interviews, the response will
be summarized, and the raw data will not be
presented in the final report. Besides, the
participants have the rights to read and withdraw
any time. The results of this study will be
provided to my teachers and supervisors only,
which will be very useful for their teaching.
Thank you for your assistance in this study.

Sincerely yours,

Chiau-jen
Zhu Junior, Applied English Department

I-Shou University E-mail
gekkoh-159_at_yahoo.com.tw
101
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102
Section VII
Data Collection
103
Data Collection
  • Why collect data? To know what certain people are
  • thinking or doing by asking them questions
  • Quantitative data collection Use questionnaires
    and
  • show numbers to inform the user the
  • information
  • A. Primary data To serve our specific
    purpose
  • B. Secondary data Collected by others

104
Data Collection
III. Asking questions Get information (data) by
filling in the questionnaire as the basis of data
collection for email, postal and telephone
surveys and structured and semi-structured
interviews A. Structured interview closed
questions answer predetermined items
B. Semi-structured interview open-ended
questions answer freely in own words
(e.g., What were the main difficulties
for RP writing?)
105
Data Collection
106
Data Collection
1. Classificational questions To classify
respondents by gender, age, occupation, etc.
(personal information) e.g., Age last
birthday? ? Under 18
? 18-25
? 26-30
? 31-40
?
41-50
107
Data Collection
2. List questions To ask respondents to select
one answer e.g., Specify the length of
learning English. ? less
than 3 years ? 4-6 years
? 7-9 years
? 10-12 years ? more
than 12 years
108
Data Collection
3. Ranking questions To give an order or
preference e.g., Rank the following factors
in order of importance if you want
to be a good English writer. (from
5 the most important to 1 the least important)
? grammar
? vocabulary ?
background knowledge ?
reading ability ? Chinese
language ability
109
Data Collection
4. Scale (rating) questions To determine the
strength of views or opinions e.g., How
likely do you like (agree) grammar instruction?
Very likely (Agree strongly)
5 Quite likely
(Agree slightly) 4 Neither likely
(Agree) nor unlikely (Disagree) 3
Quite unlikely (Disagree slightly)
2 Very unlikely (Disagree
strongly) 1
110
Data Collection
C. Framing questions 1. Avoid bias and
leading questions (e.g., Would you
agree that ?) 2. Avoid shorthand e.g.,
Would an application of CALL .?
3. Avoid ambiguous words e.g., usually,
frequently, or recently 4. Avoid
long questions Short and simple questions
are more effective.
111
Data Collection
5. Avoid negative questions e.g., Do you never
..? 6. Avoid hypothetical questions e.g., If
you were a millionaire, would you .? 7. Avoid
irrelevant questions 8. Make respondents to feel
easy to answer questions e.g., What did you do
last week? (too broad) Have you
done any of the following things last
week? (easier to answer)
112
Data Collection
9. Avoid yes-no questions 10. Provide
classification type data (e.g., age, sex,
previous training in writing, etc.) for
demographic information 11. Add
comments (e.g., In your opinion, what .?)
for in-depth information
113
Data Collection
IV. Qualitative Data Collection Collect data by
interviewing and conducted individually or in a
group 1. Focus group interviews Fewer than 10
questions 2. Open-ended questions Allow more
self-reflections 3. Avoid using why
questions Use how come or what 4.
Carefully develop the questions by doing pilot
testing 5. Provide enough information for
understanding 6. Arrange questions from general
to specific
114
Data Collection
7. Listen more, talk less, and ask real
questions (the interviewer doesnt already know
or anticipate the response) 8. Try to get inner
voice instead of superficial information 9.
Take notes and bring tape-recording Easy to
transcribe 10. Ask questions when you do not
understand Ask for examples or concrete details
115
Data Collection
11. Explore laughter, pauses, facial
expressions 12. Ask participants to tell a story
To get a complete picture (transcription model 1
and model 2) 13. Follow your instincts Try to
feel participants feelings
116
Data Collection
V. Benefits of using a questionnaire in
interviewing A. To ensure covering all of
the questions B. Can explore more in-depth
information within each of the
questions C. Collect both quantitative and
qualitative data altogether
117
Section VIII
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
118
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
I. Qualitative analytic strategies A.
Recursive process ? analyze cases? generate
findings? draw conclusion ? form grounded
theory ? write report B. Nine qualitative data
analysis principles 1. Collect the data at
the site and carefully study all the
data to seek similarities and differences,
concepts and reflections
119
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
2. Saturation and sufficiency of information
Never stop data analysis until the emergence of
regularities i.e., no new information emerges
with additional data analysis 3. Accountability
of information Keep notes or transcripts if
outsiders want to review the data analysis
procedures and results 4. Divide the data
(excerpts) into smaller units related to your
major points
120
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
5. Organize the smaller units into categories
(based on major points) 6. Build conceptual
similarities, find negative evidences, and
discover patterns 7. Modify categories as
further patterns occur 8. Analyze negative cases
to reflect their perceptions 9. Synthesize the
patterns into the grounded theory
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122
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
123
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
  • C. Six Steps in Qualitative Data Analysis
  • Give codes from the notes (transcripts)
  • Note personal reflections or other minoritys
    comments
  • Sort the notes to identify similar and different
    relationships between patterns
  • Identify these patterns, similarities, and
    differences
  • Elaborate a small set of generalizations that
    cover the consistencies
  • Examine those generalizations and form grounded
    theory
  • (see Content Analysis)

124
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
Grounded Theory (????)
? a process of constructing various data ?
inductive process by collecting, analyzing, and
comparing data systematically ? theory is
grounded on data to explain the phenomena
125
Grounded Theory (by Marlene Pomrenke)
Grounded theory is a method of social inquiry
associated with a qualitative approach to
research. This inductive research process
utilizes generalized knowledge that is derived
from specific observations of phenomena from the
field. In turn, this can be used to build theory.
For example, grounded theorists aim to create
theoretical categories from collected data and
then analyze relationships between key categories
(Charmaz, 1990). Indeed, the main purpose of
using a grounded theory approach is to develop
theory through understanding concepts that are
related by means of statements of relationships
(Strauss Corbin, 1990). Using the concepts from
grounded theory, this study starts from
understanding the experience of the research
participants (i.e., how they construct their
worlds). The data analysis stage focused on
finding recurrent themes or issues in the data,
and finally into developing or refining a theory
about the phenomenon.
126
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
D. Grounded Theory Analysis Strategies 1.
Recur by moving back and forth with the data,
analyzing, collecting more data, and
analyzing some more until reaching
conclusions 2. An interactional method of
theory building by comparing and
analyzing the data
127
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
3. Three steps in the grounded theory analytic
(coding) process (1) Open coding Break data
into small parts ? compare for
similarities and differences ? explain the
meanings of the data by focusing on
who, when, where, what, how much, why
(ask questions to get a clear story) (2)
Axial coding After open coding, make connections
(sort) between categories and confirm
or disconfirm your hypotheses (3)
Selective coding Select the core category (match
hypotheses) and explain the minor
category (against hypotheses) with
additional supporting data
128
Coding Process
  • Open Coding
  • MP 1
    MP 2 MP 3
  • Axial Coding
  • Selective Coding

  • MP 1 MP 3

129
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
II. Interpretation Issues in Qualitative Data
analysis A. Triangulating data Use multiple
methods and data sources to support the
strength of interpretations and
conclusion (e.g., semi- structured
interviews, consent form, grounded
theory, etc.)
130
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
B. Audits Questions to examine the data for
interpretations and conclusion 1. Is
sampling appropriate to ground the findings?
2. Are coding strategies applied correctly?
3. Is the category process appropriate?
4. Do the results link hypotheses? 5. Are
the negative cases explained?
131
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
  • Four steps of negative case testing
  • 1. Make a rough hypothesis
  • 2. Conduct a thorough search
  • 3. Discard or reformulate hypothesis
  • 4. Examine all relevant cases

132
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
C. Cultural bias Discuss cultural differences
with different groups of participants
(compare the differences between western
and Taiwanese students attitudes) D.
Generalization Not appropriate for qualitative
research 1. Case-to-case transferability by
providing thick description to apply
to another setting 2. Generalize the result
to a broader theory (e.g., use deviant
cases)
133
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
III. Writing Research Reports A.
Introduction B. Literature Review C.
Methodology D. Results Tie the results to
study purpose (hypotheses) E.
Discussions and Conclusion Tie discussions to
the literature recommendations for
practice limitations of the study
134
Data Analysis, Interpretation, and Reporting
  • Quantitative reports
  • Report results by the use of tables and graphs
  • Avoid first-person pronoun
  • Use passive voice
  • Qualitative reports
  • Look for a deep description (narrative style)
  • Look for well-grounded theory
  • Seek contextual meaning by understanding
    demographic
  • information (different experiences)

135
Section IX
Writing the Research Paper
136
Writing the Research Paper
Chapter I Introduction (Problem Statement) A.
Area of Study Provide a general introduction to
the topic outline the problem B.
Definition of Terms Define important terms and
concepts C. The purpose of the study
D. Assumptions Make hypotheses for the proposed
study
137
Writing the Research Paper
Chapter 2 Literature Review A. History
Provide a review of the historical
background B. Current Literature Include a
review of current relevant literature
with the analysis of pros and cons
C. Research Problem Provide research questions
138
Writing the Research Paper
Chapter 3 Methodology A. Research Questions
and Hypotheses Propose them based on
literature review (major points) B. Research
Design Quantitative research Use a
survey (three design considerations
discuss how to design questionnaire)
Qualitative research Use interviews (present a
rationale for the design of choice)
139
Writing the Research Paper
C. Sample Quantitative research
Describe sampling techniques and
rationale for the method used for
selecting the sample and sample size
Qualitative research Describe the criteria for
the selection of the participants and
setting
140
Writing the Research Paper
D. Data Collection Procedures
Quantitative research Describe the procedures
that the data will be collected by
using a survey Qualitative research
Describe the use of audiotapes,
note-taking E. Pilot Testing Describe the
pilot study procedures and any
adjustments
141
Writing the Research Paper
F. Data Analysis Procedures
Quantitative research Describe how you handled
the data provide statistical procedures
(e.g., compute mean score or
frequency) Qualitative research Describe
data analysis strategies explain
multiple sources of data G. Limitations of
the Study Explain anticipated
limitations of the study
142
Writing the Research Paper
Chapter 4 Results Just report what the data say
(you may give the subheading based on each
hypothesis) A. Findings from the
quantitative results ( or mean) B. Findings
from the qualitative results (3 excerpts) C.
Fit into your hypotheses or not (e.g.,
broadly/partially/do not fit)
143
Writing the Research Paper
Chapter 5 Discussions and Conclusion A.
Interpret the meanings of data (discuss why
your participants would think/say so)
B. Discuss whether the findings fit into the
literature or not C. Form any grounded
theory? D. The results will be useful to
whom? E. Any limitation to reach the
generalizability F. Draw conclusions and
suggestions (about improvement) based on
your or minoritys opinions
144
Writing the Research Paper
Outline of Research Paper
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