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INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS

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Title: INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS


1
Research Methodology (UNP0010) Semester 2
2012/2013 Lecturer Dr. Nor Zairah Ab.Rahim
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
2
  • Designed for
  • Master by Course
  • Runs like this - all students
  • Attend all 3 meetings 4 hours in each meeting
  • 1.Meeting 1 Get to know the research topic and
    interest, lectures on several key area of
    research methodology Part 1, Discussion.
  • 2. Meeting 2 Library Search, Quiz about topic in
    Meeting 1, continue with lectures on several key
    area of research methodology Part 2.
  • 3. Meeting 3 Presentation of Proposal (First 3
    Chapters of Thesis)
  • Assessment i. tasks in the subject outline, ii.
    quizzes, iii. Presentation, iv. Written Proposal,
    v. Overall Participation

3
END PRODUCT?
For Writing Guidelines, refer to 1.http//www.ais
.utm.my/zuraini/category/documents-sharing/ 2.
http//sps.utm.my/sps/images/academicresources/UTM
20Thesis20Manual202007.pdf
  • Presentation of Proposal
  • PPT Slide
  • Hardcopy Proposal
  • Corrected Proposal
  • 15 Pages
  • PPT Slides

Submit Online to me. Dateline 15th March 2013 by
4 PM
4
Research
5
Research
6
Research
Research Task Everyday thinking
Identify a problem What to cook for lunch?
Gather data Look what is in the fridge
Analyse the data Is it enough for everybody in the house? Everybodys favourite food?
Interpret the data Need more ingredient
Gather more data Where can I get the ingredient? Simple to cook? Enough time?
Analyse the data The cheapest shop? Fresh ingredients? Buy readymade meals?
Interpret the data Pak Alis shop sell fresh chicken. Everyone in the house loves chicken rendang. But preparing rendang will take a lot of time, tiring, too many ingredients
Draw conclusion Go to the stall buy readymade rendang ?
7
Research
  • Creation of new knowledge, using an appropriate
    process to the satisfaction of the users of the
    research
  • learn how to cook rendang, learn the best stall
    that sell cheap tasty rendang

Everyday thinking Good academic research
Poor data Incomplete data Hasty thinking Sufficient data sources Appropriate data sources Accurately recorded Properly analysed No hidden assumption Conclusion well-founded Properly presented As judged by the users of the research
8
What is Research?
  • Research is a human activity based on
    intellectual investigation and aimed at
    discovering, interpreting, and revising human
    knowledge on different aspects of the world.
  • Research is the method used to accumulate
    scientific knowledge.
  • Roscoe, J.T. (1975)

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
9
What is Research?
  • Research is any conscious premeditated (planned/
    intended/ studied) inquiry any investigation
    which seeks to increase ones knowledge of a
    given situation.
  • Goldhor, H. (1972)

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
10
Research Definitions
11
Differences between undergraduate
project/research vs Masters and Ph.D thesis
(research)
12
Activities in a Research
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
13
Research Process
14
Types of Research
  • In social science
  • Basic research aimed at generating fundamental
    knowledge and theoretical understanding about
    basic human and other natural processes
  • Applied research focuses on answering practical
    questions to provide relatively immediate
    solutions
  • Action research on solving practitioners local
    problems

More Specific
INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
15
Computing Discipline
  • The Computing Discipline
  • Hardware Electrical Engineering, Computer
    Engineering.
  • Software Computer Science, Software
    engineering.
  • Organizational Information Systems Information
    Technology

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
16
Categories of Research in CS
  • Application-Based Research
  • How knowledge areas of CS can contribute to other
    fields eg Bioinformatics, Healthcare, tsunami
    detection system, earthquake prediction system
  • Theory-Based Research
  • How knowledge of Cs can be enhanced, improved,
    formulated eg Fuzzy Set Theory, Pattern
    recognition.
  • Industry-based Research
  • Practical usage eg CAD, QC Dept, Human resource
    dept.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
17
Reasons for doing research
  • To add to the body of knowledge
  • To solve a problem
  • To find out what happen
  • To find evidence to inform practice
  • To develop a greater understanding of people or
    their world
  • To predict, plan and control
  • To contribute to other peoples well-being
  • To contribute to personal needs
  • To test or disprove a theory
  • To come out with a better way
  • To understand another persons point of view
  • To create more interest in the researcher

18
The outcome of the research
  • A new or improved product
  • A new theory
  • A re-interpretation of an existing theory
  • New or improved research tool or technique
  • A new or improved model or perspective
  • An in-depth study of a particular situation
  • An exploration of a topic, area or field
  • A critical analysis
  • Unanticipated outcomes

19
Sources of research ideas
  • Suggestions from people
  • Past research students work
  • Recent conference journal paper
    (www.scholar.google.com)
  • Call for papers
  • Current issues
  • Clients needs
  • To support or refute certain statements
  • e.g - Green computing is the future
  • - Social networking is the future
    communication
  • - Baby dumping is the result of new year
    events

20
Never stop writing
  • Keep notes of
  • Possible research questions
  • Anything that came across your mind in relation
    to the research thoughts problems, insights,
    plans, emerging analysis, interpretation
  • Helps to clarify your ideas esp when you meet
    your SV
  • Exercise for your proposal/thesis writing

21
What Research is NOT?
  • Research is not information gathering
  • Gathering information from resources such as
    books or magazines.
  • No contribution to new knowledge
  • Research is not the transformation of facts
  • No contribution to new knowledge although this
    might make knowledge more accessible.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
22
Who is a Researcher?
  • Matured
  • Ability to focus and concentrate
  • Disciplined
  • Independent
  • Hardworking
  • Innovative Creative
  • Critical Thinking
  • Available (time)

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
23
Research Skills
  • To prepare effective proposal
  • To generate results
  • To communicate results presentation
    publication

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
24
Think Like A Researcher
  • An investigation (an inquiry) to find something
    out.
  • Controlled inquiry concerning certain events.
  • Problem solving.
  • Application of the scientific approach to study a
    problem
  • Systematic , controlled, empirical and critical
    investigation guided by theory and hypothesis.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
25
Think Like A Researcher
  • Encounter problems
  • State problems
  • Propose hypotheses
  • Deduce outcomes
  • Formulate rival hypotheses
  • Devise and conduct empirical tests
  • Draw conclusions

26
Think Like A Researcher
  • Concepts Accepted collection of meanings or
    characteristics associated with certain events,
    objects, conditions, situations and behaviors. An
    Idea expressed as symbol or in words (e.g sd/t
    sspeed, ddistance, ttime)
  • Constructs A definition specially invented to
    represent an abstract phenomenon for a given
    research project.
  • Operational Definitions Stated in terms of
    specific criteria for testing or measurement.
    E.g if the concept is "weight", an operational
    definition could be "the weight of an object as
    measured on a scale".
  • Theory A set of systematically interrelated
    concepts, definitions and propositions that are
    advanced to explain and predict phenomenon.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
27
Examples of constructs
Ideas People Organisations Events Objects/Things Ageism, sexism, racism, self-esteem, poverty, social capital, trust, philanthropy, affluence, morality, tolerance, air pollution, genetic engineering, euthanasia, marriage, taboos Age, gender, ethnicity, height, obesity, morbidity, energy, muscle soreness, fatigue Financial performance, corporate social responsibility, firm survival, organisational culture, service quality, corporate governance, outsourcing, alliances Armageddon, famine, urban regeneration, Jihad, secularism Sun, hurricanes, tsunamis, trees, flowers, amino acids, stem cells
28
Research is NOT a SIMPLE Linear Activity
  • Never more in a straight line.
  • Always loops back forth.
  • Manage the parts in order to manage the whole.
  • Searching for something you wont know until you
    find it.
  • Nobody can solve the worlds great problems in a
    tiny project.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
29
Research Paradigm
  • Positivist Paradigm
  • Attempts to test hypothesis, precise quantitative
    data by using experiments, surveys and
    statistical analysis. Independent variables
    dependent variables, cause effect.
  • Interpretive Paradigm
  • To understand phenomenon
  • Critical Paradigm
  • To help subjects to change improve current
    conditions eg creating strategies, empowering
    initiating actions.

30
Researchers Language
Constructs
Conceptual schemes
Concepts
Models/ Framework
Operational definitions
Terms used in research
Variables
Propositions/ Hypotheses
31
Theoretical Framework
  • Is a conceptual model of how one theorizes or
    makes logical sense of the relationships among
    the several factors that have been identified as
    important to the problem.
  • LR identifies the variables that might be
    important as determined by previous research
    findings.
  • From TF then testable hypothesis can be developed
    to examine whether the theory formulated valid or
    not.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
32
Variables
  • A variable is an entity that can take on
    different values. Anything that can vary can be
    considered a variable.

INSPIRING CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MINDS
33
References
  • Oates, B.J (2006) Researching Information Systems
    and Computing. Sage Publication. London
  • "Academy of Management Review" What Constitutes
    a Theoretical Contribution? David A. Whetton
    1989
  • "Human Resource Management" HRM A Map, Model or
    Theory? Mike Noon 1999
  • SPS Research Methodology Slides (Prof Dr. Muhd
    Rashid Rajuddin, Prof Dr. Noor Azlan Ahmad
    Zanzali, etc.)
  • Slides from previous semester (Prof. Dr. Bob
    Colomb, Dr. Noorminshah I.Ahad, PM Dr. Zuraini
    Ismail)
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