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Introduction to Poetry

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Introduction to Poetry In a poem the words should be as pleasing to the ear as the meaning is to the mind. -- Marianne Moore – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Poetry


1
Introduction to Poetry
  • In a poem the words should be as pleasing to the
    ear as the meaning is to the mind. -- Marianne
    Moore

2
The Human Brain
  • Divided into 2 parts
  • Each half has its own function

Right Brain Creativity Emotions
Left Brain Logic Reality
3
To clarify . . .
When you are looking at big puffy clouds . . .
Your right brain tells you, Hey! That one looks
like a bunny.
While your left brain tells you . . .
4
Its a cloud, Stupid!
5
So, which half do you use when studying poetry?
  • Here are a few hints
  • Poetry requires creativity
  • Poetry requires emotion
  • Poetry requires an artistic quality
  • Poetry requires logic

Survey says . . .
6
both
7
For the Left Brain
Recognizing certain devices used within a poem
will give the left brain something to concentrate
on.
Well start with the sound devices
8
RHYME
The repetition of sounds
Example hat, cat, brat, fat, mat, sat
9
RHYTHM
The beat
When reading a poem out loud, you may notice a
sort of sing-song quality to it, just like in
nursery rhymes. This is accomplished by the use
of rhythm. Rhythm is broken into seven types.
  • Iambic
  • Anapestic
  • Trochaic
  • Dactylic
  • Monosyllabic
  • Spondaic
  • Accentual

Less Common
Most Used
10
ALLITERATION
The repetition of the initial letter or sound in
two or more words in a line.
To the lay-person, these are called
tongue-twisters. Example How much dew would a
dewdrop drop if a dewdrop did drop dew?
11
Lets see what this looks like in a poem we are
familiar with.
Alliteration
Alliteration
She Walks in Beauty I. She walks in beauty, like
the night Of cloudless climes and starry
skies And all thats best of dark and
bright Meet in her aspect and her eyes Thus
mellowed to that tender light Which Heaven to
gaudy day denies.
Alliteration
These examples use the beginning sounds of words
only twice in a line, but by definition, thats
all you need.
12
Onomatopoeia
Words that spell out sounds words that sound
like what they mean.
13
Lets see what this looks like in a poem we are
not so familiar with yet.
Onomatopoeia
Several other words not highlighted could also be
considered as onomatopoeia. Can you find any?
14
Repetition
Using the same key word or phrase throughout a
poem.
This should be fairly self-explanatory, but . .
. at risk of sounding like a broken record . . .
15
(No Transcript)
16
So, which is the repeated key word or phrase?
17
(No Transcript)
18
So, which is the repeated key word or phrase?
Fairly obvious, huh?
19
Refrain
The repetition of one or more phrases or lines at
the end of a stanza.
It can also be an entire stanza that is repeated
periodically throughout a poem, kind of like a
chorus of a song.
20
Phenomenal Woman by Maya Angelou
Pretty women wonder where my secret lies. Im not
cute or built to suit a fashion models size But
when I start to tell them, They think Im telling
lies. I say, Its in the reach of my arms, The
span of my hips, The stride of my step, The curl
of my lips. Im a woman Phenomenally. Phenomenal
woman, Thats me.
Remember this
21
I walk into a room Just as cool as you
please, And to a man, The fellows stand or Fall
down on their knees. Then they swarm around me, A
hive of honey bees. I say, Its the fire in my
eyes, And the flash of my teeth, The swing of my
waist, And the joy in my feet. Im a
woman Phenomenally. Phenomenal woman, Thats me.
Men themselves have wondered What they see in
me. They try so much But they cant touch My
inner mystery. When I try to show them, They say
they still cant see. I say, Its in the arch of
my back, The sun of my smile, . . . The grace of
my style. Im a woman Phenomenally. Phenomenal
woman, Thats me.
Look familiar?
That is refrain.
22
Simile
  • A comparison between two usually unrelated
    things using the word like or as.

Examples Joe is as hungry as a bear. In the
morning, Rae is like an angry lion.
23
Lets see what this looks like in a poem we have
never seen before in our lives
Simile
  • Ars Poetica
  • By Archibald MacLeish
  • A poem should be palpable and mute as a globed
    fruit,
  • Silent as the sleeve-worn stone
  • Of casement ledges where the moss has grown
  • A poem should be wordless
  • As the flight of birds.

Simile
Simile
24
Metaphor
  • An implied comparison between two usually
    unrelated things.

Examples Lenny is a snake. Ginny is a mouse
when it comes to standing up for herself.
The difference between a simile and a metaphor
is that a simile requires either like or as
to be included in the comparison, and a
metaphor requires that neither be used.
25
When it comes to using a metaphor device in
poetry, a poet can either make the entire poem a
metaphor for something, or put little metaphors
throughout the poem.
  • The following poem is one big metaphor.

They are fluffy. They are stubborn. They are
hard.
Clouds are cotton candy. Grandpa was a mule.
Tom is a rock.
26
Hyperbole
  • An exaggeration for the sake of
  • emphasis.

Examples I may sweat to death. The blood bank
needs a river of blood.
27
Personification
  • Giving human characteristics to inanimate
    objects, ideas, or animals.

Example The sun stretched its lazy fingers
over the valley.
28
Symbol
  • A word or image that signifies something other
    than what is literally represented.

Examples Dark or black images in poems are
often used to symbolize death. Light or
white images are often used to symbolize life.
29
Imagery
  • Using words to create a picture in the readers
    mind. An appeal to the senses. The poet describes
    something to help you to see, hear, touch, taste,
    or smell the topic of the poem.

30
Lets see what this looks like in a poem we have
never seen before in our lives
  • Fog
  • The fog comes on little cat feet.
  • It sits looking over harbor and city
  • on silent haunches and then moves on.
  • Carl Sandburg

SEE, HEAR
SEE
HEAR, SEE, FEEL
31
Allusion
A reference to another piece of literature or to
history.
Example She hath Dians wit (from Romeo and
Juliet). This is an allusion to Roman mythology
and the goddess Diana. The three most common
types of allusion refer to mythology, the
Bible, and Shakespeares writings.
32
Free Verse
Poetry that follows no rules. Just about
anything goes.
This does not mean that it uses no devices, it
just means that this type of poetry does not
follow traditional conventions such
as punctuation, capitalization, rhyme scheme,
rhythm and meter, etc.
Fog The fog comes on little cat
feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on
silent haunches and then, moves on.
No Rhyme No Rhythm No Meter This is free verse.
33
Foreshadowing
  • when an author mentions or hints at something
    that will happen later in the story
  • Try breaking the word FORESHADOWING apart.
  • FORE means ahead.
  • A SHADOW is a glimpse of something without the
    complete details.

34
Paradox/ Oxymoron
a statement that is seemingly contradictory or
opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true.
  • Examples
  • Jumbo Shrimp
  • Wise fool
  • Bittersweet
  • "I can resist anything but temptation."-Oscar
    Wilde
  • I'm a compulsive liar- am I lying when I say
    that?
  • Nobody goes to that restaurant because it is too
    crowded.
  • You shouldn't go in the water until you know how
    to swim.
  • If you didn't get this message, call me.

35
Juxtaposition
A linguistic tool, used in any written text or
any daily conversation, to highlight the
distinction, the contrasts and the similarities
of two concepts, thoughts, characters, feelings,
objects by placing them together in the context.
  • Shakespeare's works have a great variety of
    juxtaposition examples, but Romeo and Juliet
    would be the best representation of how contrasts
    stand side by side to emphasize the antithesis of
    the play.
  • Some examples of juxtaposition are
  • The young and the old
  • Peasants and aristocrats
  • Romantic Romeo and blazing Tybalt
  • The quiet whispers of lovers and the loud sounds
    of the crowds

36
Foil
A foil is a character(s) that emphasizes the
traits of the main character.
  • Examples
  • Timon and Pumba from The Lion King.
  • Flounder and Sebastian from The Little Mermaid
  • Mercutio in Romeo and Juliet

37
Coinage
something (as a word) made up or invented.
  • Example
  • Blog
  • Internet
  • Website
  • Text message
  • Tweet
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