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Golden%20Ages%20of%20China

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Title: Golden%20Ages%20of%20China


1
Golden Ages of China
2
Dynasty
  • a family of rulers who rule over a country for a
    long period of time

3
First Dynasty of China
  • Shang Dynasty
  • Built the first cities in China
  • King- practiced absolute power political,
    religious, and military leader
  • Grew to rule the people of the Huang He River
    valley

4
Warlords
  • Kings relied on warlords to govern conquered
    territories
  • Military leaders, exercised civil power by force
    in a limited area

5
Lifestyle
  • King, warlords, and royal officials made up the
    upper class
  • Aristocrats- people of noble birth
  • Most people were farmers raised cattle, sheep,
    chickens, and grew grains millet, wheat, and rice
  • Polytheistic, but the god Shang Ti ruled as
    supreme god gave offerings of food and gifts
  • They also worshipped their ancestors, hoping
    theyd bring them good luck

6
The Zhou Chinas Longest Dynasty 1045- 256 B.C.
  • The last Shang ruler was wicked, so he was
    overthrown by rebels led by Wu Wang
  • Wu Wang began a new dynasty- The Zhou
  • Dynasty lasted over 800 years
  • The king led with the help of a bureaucracy
  • Bureaucracy- group of non-elected government
    officials

7
  • China grew under the Zhou Dynasty- the rule
    effectively, the king divided the kingdom into
    territories
  • The kings main duty was to carry out religious
    ceremonies, because they believed that the king
    represented the people before the gods

8
Mandate of Heaven
  • The Zhou Dynasty believed in the Mandate of
    Heaven- this was the belief that the kings right
    to rule came from the gods
  • This changed what the people expected of their
    king- he must rule by the proper Way- the Dao
  • The kings duty was to honor and please the gods
  • Disasters were caused by the king failing to
    please the gods

9
Period of the Warring States
  • The aristocrats who ruled territories grew in
    power they began ignoring their kings commands,
    and took control of their own territories.
  • These aristocrats began fighting each other for
    territory and power
  • 200 years of fighting forced farmers to fight
    with swords, spears, and crossbows
  • Horses were introduced- developed the saddle and
    stirrup
  • Led to a new dynasty

10
Qin Dynasty
  • Strong fighting territory- Qin strong leader
    defeated all the other states 221 B.C.
  • Qin ruler declared himself the First Qin
    Emperor
  • Wanted to strengthen and unify China, so he took
    control of all the territories
  • Now governors had to be appointed by the ruler

11
Qin Shihuangdi (Chin Shee-hwahng-dee)
  • Ruled with absolute control and harsh punishment
  • He punished or killed those who disagreed with
    him
  • Created a common currency for all of China and
    simplified and set a standard for rules
  • Constructed many building projects palaces,
    roads, dams, and huge canal (connected two cities
    so they could transport supplies)

12
Great Wall
  • To protect China from the skilled warrior nomads
    of the Gobi desert, he connected already existent
    walls
  • http//www.history.com/topics/great-wall-of-china

13
End of Qin Dynasty
  • After the death of Qin, aristocrats and farmers
    rebelled against his harsh rule fighting broke
    out throughout China
  • 206 B.C. the Qin Dynasty was no more

14
The Han Dynasty (206 B.C.A.D 220)
  • One of the longest of Chinas major dynasties.
  • It rivaled the Roman Empire in the West.
  • With only minor interruptions it lasted a span of
    over four centuries and is considered a Golden
    Age in Chinese history especially in arts,
    politics and technology.
  • Han Wudi- first strong emperor took great steps
    to improve Chinas government

15
Hans Government
  • Wanted to end the practice of putting family
    members in important roles, so he chose educated,
    dedicated, and skilled men for civil service
  • Government workers were chosen on the basis of
    competitive tests

16
Education
  • Students were educated to prepare for future
    civil service
  • Boys studied law, history, and ideas of Confucius

17
  • 60 million
  • They needed more food, but farms were smaller due
    to families dividing land among sons
  • Families had to sell their farms, and they became
    tenant farmers
  • Tenant Farmers- men who work land own by someone
    else, very poor
  • China expanded north, including Korea, Southeast,
    and west into northern India
  • Eventually had 150 years of peace

18
Han Culture
  • During time of peace, literature and arts
    flourished
  • Ideas of Confucius and filial piety became strong
  • Inventions cast-iron plow, techniques to drain
    fields and direct water, waterwheels to grind
    grain, wheelbarrow, silk manufacturing, paper
    (written records), rudders in ships

19
Medical Advancements
  • Acupuncture- practice of inserting needles
    through the skin at specific points to treat
    disease and relieve pain
  • Herbs to treat illnesses

20
Silk Road
  • They grew rich by sending expensive goods all
    over the world.
  • Encouraged trade with other places in the world
  • A network of trade routes 4,000 miles W. China
    to the Mediterranean
  • Main link between Asia and Europe
  • Spread knowledge, culture, and religions-
    Buddhism

21
Fall of Han Dynasty
  • Corrupt officials and weak , dishonest leaders
    caused people to rise up and rebel
  • After the Han Dynasty collapsed in 220, Civil
    wars divided China into North and South.

22
Social Unrest
  • 300 years of no central government- lost many
    conquered lands, including Korea, Warlords fought
    each other
  • A.D. 581 Sui (Sway) Dynasty tried to create
    stability
  • Rebuilt and added to the Great Wall
  • Constructed a Grand Canal to connect rivers
  • Higher taxes, made farmers mad, so they revolted

23
Chapter 17
24
Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618-907)
  • Restored uniform government throughout China and
    enlarged the civil service- brought back exams.
  • China conquered many lands, like Korea, Tibet,
    and Vietnam.
  • The most powerful emperor was Taizong (Ty-Dzung).
  • Empress Wu ruled in the late 600s only woman to
    rule in China- strengthened the military

Empress Wu 624-705 A.D. Page 476
25
Tang Dynasty
  • Conquered lands became tributary states-meaning
    they remained independent but had to acknowledge
    Chinese supremacy.
  • land reform-broke up land and redistributed it to
    peasants.
  • Even though they were successful, the dynastic
    cycle took over and collapsed in 907.

26
Inventions
  • Gunpowder- explosives, weapons, and fireworks
    changed wars page 485
  • Perfected the magnetic compass used in navigation

27
Song Dynasty
  • After the fall, military leaders controlled
    China. In A.D. 960, one general declared himself
    emperor and started the Song Dynasty. China was
    reunited, and they ruled for 319 years.
  • Under the Song, the Chinese culture and economy
    expanded and trade flourished.
  • They issued paper money due to their booming
    trade centers and became a very wealthy dynasty
    known for their economic success.

28
Society During the Song
  • Chinese society during this time was well
    ordered.
  • At the top-the emperor and his court of
    aristocratic families
  • Middle-The gentry (wealthy land owners)
  • At the bottom- peasants
  • Backed a new understanding of Confucianism- neo-
    Confucianism Concerned for the worldly life and
    after life included some Buddhist and Daoist
    beliefs
  • Became a set of rules for good behavior
  • Brought back civil service exams- very hard tests
  • Began at 4 to write Chinese characters had to
    memorize Confucianism writings and recite them
  • 1 in 5 boys passed the test

29
Foot Binding
  • During the late Song Dynasty, women had much
    fewer rights and the custom of foot binding
    began.
  • This reinforced the Confucian tradition that
    women should stay inside the home.
  • Women had a subordinate position that had to be
    enforced
  • The tradition started in the aristocratic sect of
    society but eventually spread to lower classes
  • Feet were bound with strips of cloth-as a result
    feet became half the size of a natural growing
    foot
  • Tiny feet and an extended walk became a symbol of
    nobility and beauty
  • Women feared not being able to find a husband if
    their feet were large
  • The practice was extremely painful
  • Peasants who had to work in the fields did not
    bind their feet because binding often prevented
    women from being able to walk

30
Footbinding
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