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The Great Depression and the 1930s

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The Great Depression and the 1930s 1929-1939 Table of Contents The Stock Market Crash Causes of the Great Depression Impact on Americans Herbert Hoover Franklin D ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great Depression and the 1930s


1
The Great Depression and the 1930s
  • 1929-1939

2
Table of Contents
  • The Stock Market Crash
  • Causes of the Great Depression
  • Impact on Americans
  • Herbert Hoover
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • The New Deal
  • FDR and the American People
  • The Dust Bowl
  • World War II begins

3
The Stock Market Crash
  • 1929

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4
What event marked the beginning of the Great
Depression?
  • The stock market crashed, October 29, 1929
  • This day became known as Black Tuesday

This pictures shows the panic on Wall Street
during the Stock Market crash of 1929
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5
What event marked the beginning of the Great
Depression?
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6
What event marked the beginning of the Great
Depression?
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7
What event marked the beginning of the Great
Depression?
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8
What event marked the beginning of the Great
Depression?
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9
What event marked the beginning of the Great
Depression?
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10
What event marked the beginning of the Great
Depression?
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11
Causes of the Great Depression
  • Over speculation of Stocks
  • Federal Reserve
  • High Tariffs

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12
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
Over speculation of stocks
  • People wanted to get rich in the 1920s by
    investing in stocks
  • People often borrowed money from banks to buy
    stocks
  • When the stock prices dropped, people could not
    afford to pay back the banks!

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13
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
The Federal Reserve
  • The Federal Reserve failed to prevent the
    collapse of the banking system

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14
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
The Federal Reserve
  • Confused?

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15
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
The Federal Reserve
  • What does all this mean?
  • 1. The Federal Reserve supplies banks with their
    money
  • 2. The banks loaned all of their money to people
    who were buying stocks
  • 3. Stock prices dropped
  • 4. People lost money

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16
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
The Federal Reserve
  • What does all this mean?
  • 5. People could not afford to pay back the bank
  • 6. The banks had no money!
  • 7. When people went to get money out of the
    banks that they were saving, there was no money
    left!

17
What were the causes of the Great Depression?
High Tariffs
  • High Tariffs of the 1920s strangled (stopped)
    international trade
  • People could not get goods from another country
    at a cheaper price to save money

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18
Impact on Americans
  • Employment
  • Farmers
  • Community Help

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19
Impact on Americans Banks and Businesses
  • How were the lives of Americans affected by the
    Great Depression?
  • 1. Banks and Businesses Failed

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20
Impact on Americans Banks and Businesses
  • How were the lives of Americans affected by the
    Great Depression?
  • ¼ of all Americans did not have a job. They tried
    to find work by riding the rails or migrant work.

People with jobs
People without jobs
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21
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
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22
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
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23
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
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24
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
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25
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
Why do you think the children are in these
fields?
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26
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
How were times different in the 1930s than they
were in the 1920s?
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27
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
Where do you think these people are heading?
Why do you think they do not have any tires on
the car (left picture)?
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28
Migrant workers of the Great Depression
What part of the country do you think shes in
when this picture was taken? What do you think
she is thinking about? How old do you think the
lady in the picture is?
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29
Dorthea Lange, Migrant Mother photograph
  • In 1960, Lange gave this account of the
    experience
  • I saw and approached the hungry and desperate
    mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not
    remember how I explained my presence or my camera
    to her, but I do remember she asked me no
    questions. I made five exposures, working closer
    and closer from the same direction. I did not ask
    her name or her history. She told me her age,
    that she was thirty-two.

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Works Progress Administration
30
Dorthea Lange, Migrant Mother photograph
  • She said that they had been living on frozen
    vegetables from the surrounding fields, and birds
    that the children killed. She had just sold the
    tires from her car to buy food. There she sat in
    that lean- to tent with her children huddled
    around her, and seemed to know that my pictures
    might help her, and so she helped me. There was a
    sort of equality about it. (From Popular
    Photography, Feb. 1960).

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Works Progress Administration
31
Impact on Americans Hungry and Homeless
  • How were the lives of Americans affected by the
    Great Depression?
  • 3. Many Americans were hungry and homeless

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32
Hungry and Homeless during Depression
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33
Hungry and Homeless during Depression
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34
Hungry and Homeless during Depression
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35
Hungry and Homeless during Depression
One vivid, gruesome moment of those dark days we
shall never forget, recalls one citizen from the
Great Depression in 1931. We saw a crowd of
some fifty men fighting over a barrel of garbage
which had been set outside the back door of a
restaurant. American citizens fighting for
scraps of food like animals! Louise V.
Armstrong, 1941
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36
Hungry and Homeless during Depression
In an Appalachian Mountains school, a child who
looked sick was told by her teacher to go home
and get something to eat. I cant, the girl
replied. Its my sisters day to eat.
Oates and Errico, Portrait of America
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37
Hungry and Homeless during Depression
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38
Impact on Americans Farmers
  • How were the lives of Americans affected by the
    Great Depression?
  • 4. Farmers incomes fell to low levels

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39
Farmers of the Great Depression
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40
Farmers of the Great Depression
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41
Impact on Americans Community Help
  • How did the community try to help the homeless
    and the hungry?
  • a. Soup Kitchens, breadlines

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42
Impact on Americans Community Help
  • How did the community try to help the homeless
    and the hungry?
  • a. Soup Kitchens, breadlines
  • b. Cut back on services (police fire dept.
    trash)
  • c. Closed schools or cut teachers salaries
  • d. Penny Auctions

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43
Impact on Americans Penny Auctions
  • What is a penny auction?
  • A lot of times during the Great Depression,
    farmers could not afford to pay what they owed on
    their farm and would lose their farms to the
    bank.
  • The bank would then sell these foreclosed
    properties at auctions
  • Farmers would go to the auctions and try to
    purchase the land for very low costs
  • Farmers got very upset when non-farmers came to
    the auctions and tried to put in high bids for
    the property

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44
Herbert Hoover
  • President at the beginning of the Great
    Depression 1929-1933

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45
Herbert Hoover
President at the beginning of the Great
Depression Inaugural address, March 1929 (7
months before the Great Depression) We in
America today are nearer to the final triumph
over poverty than ever before in the history of
any land. The poorhouse is vanishing from among
us. I have no fears for the future of our
country. It is bright with hope.
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46
Herbert Hoover
  • Herbert Hoover was president at the beginning of
    the Great Depression.
  • How did he deal with the problems in our economy?

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47
Herbert Hoover
  • How did he deal with the problems in our economy?
  • Many people blamed Hoover for the Depression
  • They felt like he did not help the American
    people
  • Hoover was like a Cheerleader, telling everyone
    it would be OK.
  • Hoover believed that if the government helped out
    too much, people would stop trying to help
    themselves

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48
Herbert Hoover
It is solely a question of the best method by
which hunger and cold shall be preventedI am
willing to pledge myself that if the time should
ever come that the voluntary agencies of the
country, together with the local and state
governments, are unable to find resources with
which to prevent hunger and suffering in my
country, I will ask the aid of every resource of
the Federal GovernmentI have faith in the
American people that such a day will not come.
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49
The Great Depression Begins
50
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • President, 1933-1944

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51
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President during most of the Great
Depression The only thing we have to fear is
fear itself.
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52
Franklin D. Roosevelt
What is going on in this political cartoon? Who
is walking away? What is F.D.R. carrying? What
do you think is symbolized in this cartoon?
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53
The New Deal
  • Social Security Act
  • Federal Works Programs
  • Environmental Improvement Programs
  • Farm Assistance Programs
  • Increased Rights for Labor

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54
Social Security Act
  • Established a tax paid by bosses and employees
  • This tax is used to pay pensions (a retirement
    income) to older Americans (age 65 and older)

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55
Social Security Act
  • This also helps with survivors insurance (if your
    parent passes away and you need support)

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56
Social Security Act
What is the main group of Americans that
benefited from the Social Security Act?
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57
Social Security Act
What is the main group of Americans that
benefited from the Social Security Act? The
elderly, like the guy on the left. Which
president created the Social Security Act?
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58
Federal Works Programs (WPA, PWA)
  • Works Progress Administration
  • Built roads, bridges, parks, and public buildings
    like schools, and libraries.
  • Also, paid artists (such as Dorthea Lange) to
    record life during this time period.
  • Public Works Administration
  • Also built roads and highways

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59
Federal Works Programs (WPA, PWA)
  • Works Progress Administration

This D.C. bridge was built by workers in the
Works Progress Administration.
Why was confidence needed during this period?
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60
Federal Works Programs (WPA, PWA)
  • Works Progress Administration

What types of work did the people in the WPA do?
Who benefited from the WPA?
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61
Federal Works Programs (WPA, PWA)
  • Public Works Administration, bridge

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62
Federal Works Programs (CCC, TVA)
  • Civilian Conservation Corps
  • Built wildlife preserves, planted trees, built
    lookout towers for fires, took care of forest
    roads and trails

What types of people worked in the CCC?
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63
Federal Works Programs (CCC, TVA)
  • Civilian Conservation Corps

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64
Environmental Improvement Programs (CCC, TVA)
  • Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Built dams in this area to control farming.
    Brought electricity to farmers in this region.

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65
Environmental Improvement Programs (CCC, TVA)
  • Tennessee Valley Authority

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66
Farm Assistance Programs (Agricultural Adjustment
Act)
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Helped farmers to get higher prices for their
    crops
  • Paid farmers to grow less crops

You get paid more money for less work! How
would this happen???
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67
Increased Rights for Labor
  • Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
  • Established a minimum wage.
  • This made employers pay at least 25 cents/hour
  • Set a work week of 44 hours
  • It made it against the law for those under 16 to
    work
  • National Industry Recovery Act (NRA)
  • Helped labor unions by promising workers the
    right to work with unions
  • Unions would help to get better pay and work
    conditions

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68
Fair Labor Standards Act, Cartoon
What is going on in this cartoon? Who is the
thief? Why is that person the thief? What did
the Fair Labor Standards Act do to stop this?
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69
National Industry Recovery Act
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70
F.D.R. and the American People
  • Fireside Chats
  • Bank Holidays
  • FDIC
  • Eleanor Roosevelt

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71
Fireside Chats
  • Weekly radio programs in which FDR spoke directly
    to the people about what he was trying to do to
    improve conditions
  • This uplifted the spirits of the American people

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72
Fireside Chats
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73
Fireside Chats
What does the person in the chair represent?
Why is his face bandaged? Who is he listening
to?
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74
Bank Holiday
  • 4 days that the banks would be closed so the
    government could check bank records
  • They could see which banks were the strongest and
    could survive

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75
The Dust Bowl
  • A Dusty Time in American History

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76
The Dust Bowl
  • The Great Plains regions had been over- farmed
    during World War I.
  • This led to erosion.
  • Then, great winds moved into the region and
    lasted. This picked up the soil. Tons soil were
    blown into the Gulf of Mexico.
  • Farming was impossible, and living in this area
    was almost impossible as well.

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77
The Dust Bowl
This picture shows an example of erosion in the
land. What do you think the cow things of this
weather?
What artist would have most likely painted a
picture of this scene?
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78
The Dust Bowl
Question What regions were affected by the Dust
Bowl?
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79
The Dust Bowl
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80
The Dust Bowl
What are some of the dangers of living in an
area covered in dust like this?
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81
The Dust Bowl
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82
The Dust Bowl
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83
World War II begins
  • 1939

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