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Title: Education

Chapter 14
  • Education Health Care

Purposes of Education
  • Functionalist views of education
  • Socialization
  • Occupational training
  • Social control or the regulation of deviant

History of Education in the U.S.
  • Compulsory education came into law in all states
    in 1900, except a few in the South.
  • racial discrimination in the West and South.
  • Today 90 of those under 35 years old - a high
    school diploma.

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Social issues
  • In 1960, the US. ranked 1 in math and reading.
  • In 2008, the U.S. ranked 19.
  • American 12th graders rank 19th out of 21
    industrialized countries in mathematics
    achievement and 16th out of 21 nations in
  • Since 1983, over 10 million Americans have
    reached the 12th grade without having learned to
    read at a basic level.
  • Over 20 million have reached their senior year
    unable to do basic math.
  • Almost 25 million have reached 12th grade not
    knowing the essentials of U.S. history.

  • Quality of Teachers
  • Only 38 of U.S. public school teachers majored
    in an academic subject in college.
  • 40 of public high school science teachers have
    neither an undergraduate major nor minor in their
    main teaching field
  • 34 of public high school math teachers did not
    major or minor in math or related fields.
  • Only one in five teachers feels well prepared to
    teach to high academic standards.

Japanese Students at a juku Cram Seminar
True or False? A higher degree is the key to
Higher pay?
Does your Class of Origin Affects Your
Educational Achievement?
Conflict Perspective
  • Education produces inequality.
  • Credentials are a device used to discriminate in
    hiring practices no credential no job.

Genetics Education The Bell Shaped Curve
  • 70 genetic ??
  • 30 environmental ??
  • Based on studies of identical twins

Symbolic Interaction
  • Why do some students perform better than others?
  • Teacher expectancy effect (what the teacher
    expects from a student creates the actual
  • the self-fulfilling prophecy

True or False
  • Teachers pay less attention to girls and women.
  • Females earn higher grades throughout both high
    school and college.
  • Female students consistently receive lower scores
    on SAT and AP exams than do their male
  • in 2001 females averaged 35 points lower
    than males on the Math section of SAT, and 3
    points lower on the Verbal section.
  • 4. Black teachers tend to interact more with
    White students than with Black students.
  • 5. Women are often excluded from inclusion in
    textbooks and/or they are stereotyped in books.

  • Harriet Jacobs (1813-1897)
  • an American writer, who escaped from
    slavery and became an abolitionist speaker and
  • Martha Gellhorn (1908-1998)
  • an American novelist, travel writer and
    journalist, considered to be one of the greatest
    war correspondents of the 20th century.
  • Margaret Chung (1889-1959)
  • the first known American-born Chinese
    female physician. As part of her efforts to
    support the allied forces, she "adopted" over one
    thousand "sons," most of whom were white American
    military men.
  • Angelina and Sarah Grimke (1792-1873 1805-1879)
  • educators and writers who were early
    advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.

Tracking Effect
  • Tracking (separating students in groups based on
    some cognitive ability measurement) has been
    practiced in over half of all elementary schools
    in the U.S. since approximately 1940.

Tracking Effect(continued)
  • Researchers are finding that heterogeneous
    (mixed) classrooms improves everyones success.
  • students in high ability track groups benefit
    from tracking, while those in low track groups do
  • Teachers often assign minority students and
    female students, regardless of test scores, into
    the lower ability groupings.

Discussion Questions
  • Do you believe that education is a means to
    economic success?
  • How does education create and improve
    opportunity, or is it simply a credential
    (passport) that is used when hiring someone for a

No Child Left Behind
  • This program required
  • restructuring secondary education
  • replacement of teachers on the basis of their
    schools mean test scores
  • repeated administration of both verbal and math
    standardized tests

No Child Left Behind(continued)
  • This program failed to accomplish its objective.
  • The gap in test scores widened on both verbal and
    mathematics, in the period when the program was
    in effect (2001-2008).

Measurement Debates
  • Three major criticisms regarding reducing a
    persons potential to a number and then using
    number to determine a persons cognitive ability
  • Tests measure a limited range of abilities
    (quantitative or verbal aptitude) and ignores
    other areas such as creativity.
  • Tests are culturally and gender biased.
  • The SAT does not predict school performance very
    well, even for Whites.

Quiz Questions
  • True or False
  • Minority students born into a middle class family
    are as likely to complete high school and college
    as White students born into a middle class
  • Teacher expectancy effect influences boy minority
    students but has no effect on girl majority
  • Early tracking has more negative than positive

Class ActivityGenetics vs. Environment
  • Separate the class into two teams.
  • Each team take a different position on the Bell
    shaped curve argument discussed in Chapter 14
    (Genetics Education The Bell Shaped Curve
  • Using the facts presented in the text, hold a
    class debate as to whether environment or
    genetics is more important in determining school

  • Health Care Issues

Health, Diversity, Social Inequality
  • Health care is unequally distributed by
    race/ethnicity, social class, and gender.
  • Health care is unequally distributed throughout
    the U.S.
  • Parents in inner cities and in rural areas are
    poorly informed about how to care for themselves,
    the elderly, and their children.

Regional Differences in Health Care
  • In rural medical shortage areas (RMSA), there are
    fewer than 1 doctor per 2,000 people.
  • 65 million people live in RMSA
  • As of 2001, 16,585 primary care physicians were
    needed in these sections of the country.

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Race, Gender, Class Health Care
  • Life expectancy of women is higher than that of
  • The higher the social class, the fewer the
    diseases, the lower the social class, the higher
    the of persons with health problems.
  • Life expectancy is lower for those in the lower
    socio-economic classes than those in the upper
  • Life expectancy is affected by race
  • Asians life expectancy 84.9 years
  • Asian-American women living in Bergen County, NJ,
    enjoy the greatest life expectancy in the US, at
    91 years. American Indians in South Dakota have
    the worst, at 58 years.

  • Black women get more cancer, heart disease,
    stroke, and diabetes than Whites in the same age
    group. Three times as many Black women die during
    pregnancy and in childbirth than White women
  • The death rate (mortality) from breast cancer is
    higher for Black women though fewer Black women
    get this disease than Whites.
  • Infant mortality rates are high for Hispanics,
    Latinos and Native Americans.
  • 17 million low-income family children lack access
    to dental care.
  • WHY?

Sociological reasons for inequality in life
  • Culture
  • Social Class
  • Availability of emergency room
  • Health insurance
  • Access to health care facility
  • Lack of health education
  • Pollution, poor living conditions
  • Language problem
  • Stress (financial)

The Health Care Crisis in America
Illness Culture
  • Definitions of sickness and health are culturally
    relative and they vary in different time periods.
  • ex 1. thinness
  • 1900s 1940s poverty hunger
  • 1950s positive value
  • Today Anorexia nervosa
  • young White women (middle-class, two-parent
  • vs. black, Hispanic, lesbians
  • Ex. 2. ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity

ex 3. Obesity in the U.S.
Obesity Cultural Problem
  • officially recognized disease (2004)
  • 33 of American adults are obese.
  • over 300,000 adult obesity-related deaths each
  • The childhood obesity rate has doubled in
    children 2-6 and tripled for children aged 6-11
    in the last 30 years.
  • Obesity American food culture

Discussion Questions
  • What do you think are the positives and negatives
    of a universal health care system in this
  • Do the positives or the negatives outweigh the
  • Who will and who wont benefit from a universal
    health plan, and why?

Universal Health Care Debate
  • 48 million uninsured Americans will have new,
    affordable insurance options
  • Tax credits for up to 29 million individuals to
    help pay for health insurance
  • 5.6 million people with pre-existing conditions
    will no longer be denied insurance
  • 500,000 families saved from bankruptcy in just
    one yearTax cuts for up to 3.5 million small
    businesses to help pay for employee coverage (62
    of all bankruptcies)

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