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MR. LIPMAN S APUS POWERPOINT CHAPTER 9 Articles of Confederation and the Road to a Constitution 1776-1789 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Articles of Confederation and the Road to a
  • 1776-1789

  • Growth of equality after 1776
  • All men are created equal (white and male)
  • Most states reduced (but did not eliminate)
    property requirements for voting
  • By 1800, indentured servitude was eliminated
  • Growth of trade organizations for artisans
  • End of primogeniture

The Status of Slavery 1800
  • Womens equality
  • Few women escaped from traditional roles
  • N.J. briefly allowed women to vote
  • Abigail Adams teased her husband that women might
    start their own revolution if they did not get
    political rights
  • In spite of this, most women continued in
    traditional roles

  • The concept of republican motherhood
  • Women were entrusted to teach young people moral
    education and proper republican ideals
  • Elevated womens status and expanded educational
    opportunities (so they could teach the young)

Economic Issues
  • States seized former royal lands
  • accelerating the spread of economic democracy
  • The excesses of the French Revolution did not
    happen because the US had land to give to its
    discontented people

  • Economic drawbacks of independence
  • Britain traded within its empire as much as
  • American ships were barred from British and
    British West Indies ports
  • Navigation Laws and British trade restrictions
    affected US ships more than before independence

  • Economic and social problems after the war
  • Rampant speculation and profiteering during the
  • State governments borrowed they couldnt repay
  • Runaway inflation
  • Congress did not pass effective economic laws
  • Average person was probably worse off after the
  • New rich class of profiteers once wealthy people
    (especially Loyalists) were now poor
  • War and revolution led to disrespect for law and

  • From 1776 to 1781 the colonies considered
    themselves separate and sovereign states
  • Coined their own money, raised their own armies
    and even passed tariffs on goods from other
  • Second Continental Congress
  • Only a conference of ambassadors from 13
    colonies, not an actual government
  • Controlled some aspects of foreign policy and
    military affairs, but without real authority

  • The biggest problem in ratifying the Articles was
    western land claims
  • Many states, but not all, had Western land claims
  • States with land claims could sell their extra
    land to pay off debts from Revolution
  • States without claims could not do this, although
    they fought in the Revolution also
  • States without land claims wanted western land
    turned over to the national government

Western Land Given to the U.S, 17821802
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The Northwest Territory
  • Land Ordinance of 1785
  • Land of the Old Northwest sold with to go to
    paying off the national debt
  • Land surveyed and divided into 6 mile square

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787
  • When a territory had 60,000 people, it was
    accepted into the Union as a state fully equal
    with other states
  • Also forbade slavery in Old Northwest, although
    the few slaves already there were exempted
  • Saved the US from a future revolution of East
    versus West
  • Law used to expand US territory across continent

England continues hostilities and seeks to
restrict trade and growth
  • Some Americans want restrictions on British
    imports this was not successful because
  • Congress could not control commerce
  • States refused to adopt a uniform tariff policy
  • Some states lowered tariffs to get more British
  • Restrictions probably would have hurt America
    more than Britain

International Problems Under the Articles of
  • Spain openly unfriendly to America, even though
    they had fought with France (against Britain)
    during the Revolution
  • Controlled mouth of Mississippi used by US
    farmers to ship produce overseas in 1784 Spain
    closed river to American commerce, threatening
    the West
  • Claimed a large area north of Gulf of Mexico
    (which had been given to the US by the British in
  • Controlled Florida (which had been conquered by
    the Spanish during the Revolution)
  • Worked with the Indians to stop US expansion at
    the Appalachians

Main Areas of Spanish and British Influence After
  • Pirates in North African states threatened US
    shipping and captured US sailors
  • British had purchased protection, which Americans
    had benefited from when they were colonies
  • US too weak to fight, too poor to bribe
  • Problems still persist today off the coast of
    Africa (Somalia Pirates)

  • Economic problems in the mid-1780s
  • Some states refused to pay to Congress
  • States complain about the power of Congress
  • Public debt was increasing and US credit abroad
    was doing poorly.
  • Some states passed tariffs on goods imported from
    other states
  • Some states printed paper currency that quickly
    depreciated because it was not backed by gold

  • Shays Rebellion 1786
  • Poor farmers in western Massachusetts
  • Farmers losing farms because of foreclosures and
    non-payment of taxes (which were high to pay off
    the states Revolutionary War debt)
  • War veteran Daniel Shays led the debtors
  • Marched to courthouses (where foreclosures were
    conducted) to enforce their demands with guns

  • Fighting between states over commerce led to a
    convention 1786 Annapolis (Maryland)
  • Called by Virginia to discuss trade issues
  • 9 states sent delegates only 5 came, so no
    action could be taken because there was not a
  • Hamilton called on Congress to appoint a
    convention to meet in Philadelphia in 1787 to
    address problems under the Articles of

  • May 25, 1787 55 delegates assembled in
    Philadelphia from all states except R. Island
  • The small number and secrecy allowed compromise
  • The delegates were extremely high caliber men
  • Jefferson called them demigods (part men, part
  • Most were lawyers most had experience writing
    constitutions in their own states

  • George Washington unanimously elected president
  • Benjamin Franklin (81 years old) was the oldest
    member and took the role of elder statesman
  • James Madison was named father of the
    Constitution for his important contributions and
    he took careful notes of the debates
  • Alexander Hamilton argued for a powerful national
    government but convinced no one

  • Most radicals from Revolution were not at the
  • Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Thomas Paine
    were in Europe
  • Samuel Adams and John Hancock were not elected
  • Patrick Henry (a strong supporter of states
    rights) refused to attend because he smelled a

From the Start Agreement was hard to find between
the different factions
  • Virginia Plan (the large-state plan)
  • Representation in bicameral (2 houses) Congress
    would be based on population
  • New Jersey Plan (the small-state plan)
  • Representation in unicameral (1 house) Congress
    would be equal, regardless of size or population
    (as under the Articles)
  • Argument over these 2 plans almost broke up the

  • The Great Compromise (aka Connecticut)
  • Larger states got proportional (based on
    population) representation in the House of
  • Smaller states got equal representation in the
  • Every tax or revenue bill had to start in the
    House (where the people had greater impact)

Executive Branch Was Intended to be Weak
  • Can appoint domestic officers and veto
    legislation but checked by Congress
  • Had power to wage war, but not power to declare
  • Electing the President was also a compromise
  • between large and small states

12th Amendment would change it
  • Sectional divisions over slavery
  • Should slaves in the South (who could not vote)
    count as a person in apportioning direct taxes
    and representation in the House of
  • South said yes North said no
  • The delegates eventually decided that a slave
    counted as 3/5 of a person (this is known as the
    three-fifths compromise)

  • Ending the slave trade
  • Most states wanted to end the slave trade
  • However, Southern states (especially South
    Carolina and Georgia) strongly protested
  • Decided that the slave trade could continue until
    the end of 1807 at which point Congress could
    vote on the issue
  • Congress ended the slave trade immediately in
  • Most state constitutions forbade the slave trade

Checks and Balances
  • Safeguards to protect against too much democracy
  • Federal judges were appointed for life
  • President elected indirectly by the Electoral
  • Only for the House of Representatives did
    (property-owning) citizens vote directly
  • Private Property Rights Would be Protected

  • The Constitution did not please everyone
  • Only 42 of the original 55 stayed all summer
  • Only 39 of the 42 people there signed others
    went back to their states to campaign against the
  • Compromise led to a workable solution that most
    could accept
  • Now the problem was getting at least 3/4th of the
    states (9) to ratify it. It would not be easy

Federalists vs. Anti-federalists
  • Ratifying the Constitution
  • Rhode Island was certain to veto the Constitution
    (had not sent delegates to convention)
  • Need 9 states to ratify it
  • Went over the head of Congress (that had called
    the convention) and state legislatures (that had
    sent the delegates)
  • Appealed directly to the people (who voted for
    special conventions to ratify the Constitution)
  • A divided Congress agreed to this system and sent
    the Constitution to the people

Ratifying 1787
  • Anti-federalist attacks on the Constitution
  • It was anti-democratic because written by elites
  • Sovereignty of states taken away
  • Individual rights were threatened (because there
    was no bill of rights)
  • Feared the creation of a standing army
  • There was no reference to God
  • Questionable ratification procedure (with only 9
    states/3-4ths not unanimity)

The Ratification Process
  • Maryland, South Carolina, and New Hampshire
    followed Massachusetts which agreed only after
    securing a promise of a Bill of Rights to follow
  • By June 21, 1788 9 states had ratified, making
    the Constitution law for those states
  • However, the Constitution was unlikely to take
    hold as long as the last 4 states (especially New
    York and Virginia) did not ratify

  • Virginia
  • Strong opposition to Constitution, including from
    Patrick Henry
  • George Washington, James Madison, and John
    Marshall argued for Constitution
  • Agreed to ratification in a close vote when New
    Hampshire ratified, since the Constitution was
    now adopted and Virginia could not remain

  • New York
  • Strongly anti-federalist in the state convention
  • Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison
    wrote a series of articles in newspapers that
    became known as the Federalist Essays
  • explanations of how the Constitution would work
    although written anonymously everyone knew who
    was writing them
  • Finally ratified by very close vote
  • Hamilton is the leading Federalist and a favorite
    of the wealthy and investment circle

Ratification of the Constitution
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Key to the Constitution
  • Republican Form of Government has three great
  • Govt based upon consent of the People
  • Powers of Govt should be limited
  • Each branch of must be checked and limited by
  • Locke Hobbes Montesquieu Rousseau

  • The Constitution is a bundle of Compromises but
    key intent is to protect private property and
    establish a strong financial monetary system in
    order to gain the support of the wealthy who are
    still upset by Shays Rebellion