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Market Revolution. The Market Revolution profoundly affected the North and the Middle West. The growing economy brought better living conditions for many Americans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bellwork

  • Describe in 3 sentences what you think it would
    have been like to work in a factory during the
    1800s. Describe what you might see, smell, hear,

American History
  • Section 10, Unit 1
  • The North and Middle West

  • Identify who made up the new middle class
  • Explain how northern workers reacted to labor
  • Analyze what lead to increased immigration during
    the mid-1800s
  • Describe the effects of the nativism resistance

Market Revolution
  • In the early 19th century, new industries and
    growing cities changes how and where people
  • Before, most people worked at home and provided
    for themselves.
  • However, this began to change as people began to
    increasingly work outside the home in factories,
    businesses, and on other peoples farms.

Market Revolution
  • The Market Revolution profoundly affected the
    North and the Middle West.
  • The growing economy brought better living
    conditions for many Americans and attracted
    various immigrants from Europe.
  • However, as we will see, economic growth did not
    always lead into improved living conditions for
    all, as many business owners paid very little and
    provided poor working conditions.

The Market Revolution-Wealthy
  • The market revolution created a wide gap between
    the rich and the poor.
  • Prosperous merchants, bankers, manufacturers, and
    their families made up the wealthy upper class.
  • These families often lived the life of luxury,
    with spacious homes, elegant furnishings, and the
    latest conveniences.

The Market Revolution-- Poor
  • The poor, however, often had very little.
  • Many were cramped into small homes with little
    modern conveniences including sewage services.
  • Poor neighborhoods were often plagued by crime,
    soot, filth, and disease.

Middle Class
  • However, a new social class arose between the
    wealthy and the poor during this time the middle
  • Prosperous farmers, lawyers, and artisans (among
    others) made up the new middle class.

Middle Class
  • Some free blacks despite racial discrimination
    shared in the economic prosperity of the growing
    middle class.
  • Middle class peoples lived in modesty, but
    generally had comfortable lives with the modern
    conveniences of the time.

Middle Class
  • Middle class families had the income to buy food,
    clothing, and other products made available by
    the market revolution often at a relatively
    cheap price.
  • With more products on the market, families need
    no longer work at the home to produce their own
    goods, such as food and clothing.

Middle Class
  • Men were expected to work outside the home and
    earn money to buy these goods.
  • Women were expected to work at home and care for
    the children and children were expected to go to
  • These new middle class family roles became the
    ideal for most families--- but not all could meet
    this economic and social arrangement.

Changing working conditions
  • The market revolution also changed how people
  • Workers still made most products, like shoes and
  • However, workers began making more items in
    factories, which needed many employees.

Working Conditions
  • Before changes really took place, New England
    factory owners recruited whole families to work
    in textile mills.
  • Employment opportunities that took entire
    families usually offered housing.
  • However, the system of housing entire families
    became impractical as factories needed hundreds
    of employees.

Lowell Girls
  • By the early 19th century, some mill owners in
    Lowell, MA., overcame this problem by hiring
    young single women who had the skills for textile
  • They were also cheaper to hire, since the mill
    owners could pay women less than men and did not
    have to pay for a mans family.

Lowell Girls
  • These single women known as Lowell girls lived
    in closely supervised, company owned
  • Mill owners organized cultural activities to
    provide moral education for the workers and
    required them to attend church.
  • Housekeepers enforced curfews, banned alcohol,
    and reported on the girls behavior.

Changing Conditions
  • While previously mentioned working conditions
    were acceptable early on such as keeping working
    girls under strict supervision at all times
    conditions began to change around the 1830s.

Changing Conditions
  • By the 1830s, owners who were seeking larger
    profits began to cut wages and increase working
  • Protests and early attempts to form labor unions
    had little success, however, as more job seekers
    competed for factory positions.

Changing Conditions
  • As a result of the Panic of 1837, which cost many
    workers their jobs, there were many unemployed
    laborers willing to work for long hours and
    little pay, regardless of working conditions.
  • To understand the number of people willing to
    work, in New York alone, around 50,000 people
    were unemployed.

Changing Conditions
  • Even in prosperous times, workers barely got by.
  • In New York Citys garment-making district,
    entire families labored through the night, making
    barely enough money to survive.
  • They lived mainly on bread and tea even beans
    were too expensive and time-consuming to prepare.

Child Labor
  • Children often worked as hard as their parents.
  • Child labor was common on farms, so manufacturers
    took it for granted that they could work in
  • In 1832, 2/5 of New England factory workers were
  • These children faced horrible working conditions,
    as they were often forced to work late into the
    night and were kept awake by a supervisor
    splashing water into their face.

Labor Fights Back
  • As conditions worsened by the 1830s, workers
    began to organize more than 60 unions.
  • Labor leaders held their first national
    convention in 1834 and founded the National
    Trades Union, which campaigned for a 10 hour
  • In response, some states began to pass
    legislation to give workers what they wanted, and
    President Van Buren gave the 10 hour workday to
    federal employees.

Labor Unions
  • Labor Unions used many methods to press for
  • A common tactic was the strike a refusal to work
    until demands are met.
  • During the 1830s, workers led more than 100
    strikes, mostly to protest low wages or avoid
    wage reductions.

Women and Labor Unions
  • Women were very important early on in the labor
  • After wages were cut in 1834, the Lowell girls
    went on strike.
  • Reacting to the strike, the Massachusetts
    legislature established a committee to
    investigate conditions in the textile mills.
  • This was the first official investigation of
    labor conditions in the United States.

Sarah G. Bagley
  • Sarah G. Bagley was a Lowell girl who lead the
    others to form a union after her mill began to
    force them to speed up production without more
  • In 1844, she organized the Lowell Female Labor
    Reform Association.
  • As its first president, Bagley denounced labor
    conditions and collected more than 2,000
    signatures on a petition urging the Massachusetts
    legislature to support a 10 hour workday.

Sarah G. Bagley
  • After leaving the mill in 1945, Bagley traveled
    across New England and organized other mill
  • While Bagley did not win her fight to limit
    working hours, her efforts did point the way for
    future labor organizers.

African Americans
  • While some early labor unions fought for better
    wages for white men and women, most unions
    excluded African Americans.
  • Whites often refused to work with blacks,
    sometimes calling for laws to bar Africans
    Americans from particular trades.
  • Some African Americans began to form their own
    trade organizations to promote their own

  1. Why did labor unions form?
  2. Who were the Lowell girls?
  3. What was the lifestyle like for middle class

Changes in Immigration
  • While battles for labor rights continued, the
    labor force grew dramatically during the 1830s,
    as more than 500,000 immigrants poured into the
  • By 1860, this number was nearly 4.3 million
  • This massive migration was aided by the
    transportation revolution in Europe, which made
    it so that people could get to ports cheaply by

Irish Immigrants
  • The largest group of immigrants about 1.9
    million were the Irish.
  • Poverty, hunger, and mistreatment by the British
    had driven them from their homeland.
  • British Protestants had seized much of Irelands
    farmland by the 1600s, which forced most of the
    countrys primarily Roman Catholic population to
    buy/rent land from Protestants.

Irish Immigrants
  • As Irelands population nearly doubled from 1780
    to 1840, the land could no longer support that
  • The situation only worsened during the potato
    famine a major Irish food source which the
    Irish suffered through for two years.

Irish Immigrants
  • Many immigrants were poor farmers, and most could
    not afford farmland in the United States.
  • In this, many crowded in the cities, competing
    for the lowest paying and most dangerous jobs
  • Many of these laborers helped build the nations
    canals, mined coal, and cleaned streets.

Irish Immigrants
  • Irish women cleaned the houses of the wealthy,
    took care of their children, and worked in
  • Due to these needs, many Irish Americans had a
    very short lifespan.

Irish Immigrants
  • In addition to harsh working conditions, the
    Irish lived in horrible conditions.
  • Most lived in dark, poorly ventilated spaces.
  • Disease spread through Irish neighborhoods due to
    poor waste management services of both sewage and

Irish Immigrants
  • However, Irish immigrants did form their own
  • They established hundreds of Catholic churches,
    making Catholicism the largest denomination in
    the nation by 1860.
  • The Irish were also active in politics, running
    in major cities such as New York and Boston and
    promising their supporters usually Irish that
    they were provide them with emergency food and
    money, city jobs, and legal aid.

Question how do you think the Americans will
respond to increased presence of Roman
Catholicism in the states?
German Immigrants
  • The second-largest group of immigrants in the
    mid-19th century was from the independent states
    that make up modern day Germany.
  • From 1831 to 1860, more than 1.5 million Germans
    came to the United States.
  • Some came for political reasons or religious
    reasons, but the majority came in the search of
    economic opportunity.

German Immigrants
  • German industrialization had left many without
    work in their respective countries.
  • Lacking economic opportunity, they began to
    stream into the United States.
  • Many German immigrants went into skilled
    occupations, becoming brewers, bakers, butchers,
    machinists, craftsmen, and more.

German Immigrants
  • German women who sought employment outside the
    home tended to work in family shops or businesses
    that served German immigrants.

German Immigrants
  • Unlike the Irish, most German immigrants were
    protestant mostly Lutheran.
  • Some were Roman Catholic, while some 25,000 were
  • Between 1825 to 1860, the influx of German Jews
    increased the Jewish population in New York City
    from 500 to about 40,000.

German Immigrants
  • Many German immigrants settled in small towns and
    rural areas of Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
    Missouri, and Texas.
  • Those in larger cities usually lived in tightly
    knit communities.
  • Many communities printed newspapers in German and
    in some areas, public schools taught in German
    rather than English.

Response to Immigrants
  • Some native-born Americans were troubled by the
    new immigrants.
  • They disapproved of the beer gardens and the
    clannishness of the Germans, and opposed the
    Catholicism and gaining political influence of
    the Irish.
  • Such feelings gave rise to Nativism the policy
    of favoring native-born Americans over

  • Nativists viewed the immigrants, particularly the
    Irish, as politically corrupt and socially
  • They argued that many of those in jail were
    Irish, and crime caused by Irish gangs was
    becoming common place.

Question How would this argument help the
  • From the 1830s through the 1850s, anti-Catholic
    riots hit eastern cities.
  • Vandalism against Catholic institutions was so
    common that insurance companies would not insure
    Catholic schools and churches.
  • Some nativists urged limiting immigrants rights
    to vote and hold public office.

  • In 1849, a secret society of nativists, the Order
    of the Star-Spangled Banner, emerged.
  • Members swore to support only native-born
    Protestants for public office, to lobby for a 21
    year waiting period for naturalization, and to
    fight the Roman Catholic church.

  • The organization soon formed as the American
  • When asked about their nativists activities,
    party members would answer I know nothing.
  • Thus, these people were known as the
    Know-Nothings and their party was called the
    Know-Nothing Party.

The Mortar of Assimilation and the one element
the Irish that wont mix political cartoon
Know-Nothing Party
  • The Know-Nothing Party American Party- won
    numerous city and state elections.
  • They ran on the slogan, Americans Shall Rule
  • The Know-Nothings nominated a candidate for the
    presidency Millard Fillmore but were
  • Soon after, by 1853, the nativist movement began
    to fade away.

The Middle West
  • Many of these immigrants sought new opportunities
    in the Middle West.
  • Growing northeastern factories and cities needed
    more farm products, which middle west farmers
    could supply.
  • Some middle western areas developed lumber and
    mining, but commercial farming dominated most of
    the region.

The Middle West
  • As the market revolution made many manufactured
    products less expensive, farm families began to
    purchase items they had previously made at home.
  • For example, women bought cloth rather than made
    it cause it was cheaper.
  • The Middle West also became so populous that they
    were able to attract merchants selling
    manufactured goods.

The Middle West
  • Thanks to these merchants in the middle west,
    many families could now buy household items and
    farm machines to help with production.
  • With these machines, farmers could cultivate more
    land and began to focus on producing a single
    crop in mass amounts.

The Middle West
  • Women also began making items to sell.
  • Farm women, who already knew how to make butter
    and cheese, could now produce more at a lower
    cost and began to sell their surplus.
  • In Ohio, for example, the dairy industry became a
    specialized area of farming.

The Middle West
  • The Middle West, unlike the North, was very
    different in its treatment of women.
  • Because women were so skilled at agriculture
    primarily dairy farming they were able to
    contribute directly to the family income.
  • This characteristic of the Middle West was a
    factor that made women one of the most
    hardworking members of the family.

Southern Society
  • While the market revolution changed the North and
    Middle West, the South would also change
  • However, while other areas of the nation moved
    away from slavery, we will see how the South
    fully embraced slavery as a corner stone of their
    agricultural society.

  • If you have any questions, please ask now.

Next lesson
  • In the next lesson we will review the Souths
    economy during the Market Revolution

  1. What caused factory workers to form unions? What
    were some of their demands?
  2. What sort of restrictions did nativists try to
    impose on immigrants?
  3. Why were the Irish coming to the United States in
    such large numbers?
  4. How did women support the home in the Middle
    West? How did this affect how they were treated?
  5. What were some characteristics of the Middle
  6. Why did families no longer have to produce goods
    at the home?
  7. Connection to Today Do you see any similarities
    between the Know-Nothing Partys beliefs
    concerning immigrants and modern views on
    immigration in America?