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Formation of the Solar System

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Title: Formation of the Solar System


1
Formation of the Solar System
Preview
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born Section 2 The
Sun Our Very Own Star Section 3 The Earth
Takes Shape Section 4 Planetary Motion
Concept Mapping
2
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
Bellringer
Could astronauts land on a star in the same way
that they landed on the moon? Explain why or why
not. Write your answer in your science journal.
3
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
Objectives
  • Explain the relationship between gravity and
    pressure in a nebula.
  • Describe how the solar system formed.

4
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
The Solar Nebula
  • All of the ingredients for building planets,
    moons, and stars are found in the vast, seemingly
    empty regions of space between the stars. Clouds
    called nebulas are found in these regions.
  • A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust in
    interstellar space

5
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
The Solar Nebula, continued
  • Nebulas contain gases -- mainly hydrogen and
    helium -- and dust made of elements such as
    carbon and iron.
  • These gases and elements interact with gravity
    and pressure to form stars and planets.

6
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
The Solar Nebula, continued
  • Gravity Pulls Matter Together The gas and dust
    that make up nebulas are made of matter, which is
    held together by the force of gravity.
  • Gravity causes the particles in a nebula to be
    attracted to each other.

7
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
The Solar Nebula, continued
  • Pressure Pushes Matter Apart The relationship
    between temperature and pressure keeps nebulas
    from collapsing. Temperature is a measure of the
    average kinetic energy, or energy of motion, of
    the particles in an object.
  • If the particles in a nebula have little kinetic
    energy, they move slowly and the temperature of
    the cloud is very low. If the particles move
    fast, the temperature is high.

8
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
The Solar Nebula, continued
  • As the particles in a nebula move around, they
    sometimes crash into each other.
  • When the particles move closer together,
    collisions cause the pressure to increase and
    particles are pushed apart.

9
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
The Solar Nebula, continued
  • In a nebula, outward pressure balances the
    inward gravitation pull and keeps the cloud from
    collapsing. With pressure and gravity balanced,
    the nebula become stable.

10
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
Upsetting the Balance
  • The balance between gravity and pressure in a
    nebula can be upset if two nebulas collide or if
    a nearby star explodes.
  • These events compress, or push together, small
    regions of a nebula called globules, or gas
    clouds.

11
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
Upsetting the Balance, continued
  • Globules can become so dense that they contract
    under their own gravity.
  • As the matter in a globule collapses inward, the
    temperature increases and the stage is set for
    stars to form.
  • The solar nebulathe cloud of gas and dust that
    formed our solar systemmay have formed in this
    way.

12
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
How the Solar System Formed
  • After the solar nebula began to collapse, it
    took about 10 million years for the solar system
    to form.
  • As the nebula collapsed, it became denser and
    the attraction between the gas and dust particles
    increased. The center of the cloud became very
    dense and hot.

13
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
How the Solar System Formed, continued
  • Much of the gas and dust in the nebula began to
    rotate slowly around the center of the cloud.
    While the pressure at the center of the nebula
    was not enough to keep the cloud from
    collapsing, this rotation helped balance the pull
    of gravity.
  • Over time, the solar nebula flattened into a
    rotating disk. All of the planets still follow
    this rotation.

14
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
How the Solar System Formed, continued
  • From Planetesimals to Planets As bits of dust
    circled the center of the solar nebula, some
    collided and stuck together to form golf
    ball-sized bodies.
  • These bodies eventually drifted into the solar
    nebula, where further collisions caused them to
    grow. As more collisions happened, the bodies
    continued to grow.
  • The largest of these bodies are called
    planetesimals, or small planets. Some of these
    planetesimals are part of the cores of current
    planets.

15
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
How the Solar System Formed, continued
  • Gas Giant or Rocky Planet? The largest
    planet-esimals formed near the outside of the
    rotating solar disk, where hydrogen and helium
    were located.
  • These planetesimals were far enough from the
    solar disk that their gravity could attract the
    nebula gases.
  • These outer planets grew to huge sizes and
    became the gas giants Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,
    and Neptune.

16
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
How the Solar System Formed, continued
  • Closer to the center of the nebula, where
    Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars formed,
    temperatures were too hot for gases to remain.
  • Therefore, the inner planets in our solar system
    are made of mostly rocky material.

17
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
How the Solar System Formed, continued
  • The Birth of a Star As the planets were
    forming, other matter in the solar nebula was
    traveling toward the center. The center became so
    dense and hot that hydrogen atoms began to fuse,
    or join, to form helium
  • Fusion released huge amounts of energy and
    created enough outward pressure to balance the
    inward pull of gravity. When the gas stopped
    collapsing, our sun was born.

18
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
How the Solar System Formed, continued
  • The structure of a nebula and the process that
    led to the birth of the solar system are reviewed
    in the following Visual Concepts presentation.

19
Section 1 A Solar System Is Born
Solar System Formation
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
20
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Bellringer
Henry David Thoreau once said, The sun is but a
morning star. In your science journal, explain
what you think this quotation means.
21
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Objectives
  • Describe the basic structure and composition of
    the sun.
  • Explain how the sun generates energy.
  • Describe the surface activity of the sun, and
    identify how this activity affects Earth.

22
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
The Structure of the Sun
  • The sun is basically a large ball of gas made
    mostly of hydrogen and helium held together by
    gravity.
  • Although the sun may appear to have a solid
    surface, it does not. The visible surface of the
    sun starts at the point where the gas becomes so
    thick that you cannot see through it.
  • The sun is made of several layers, as shown on
    the next slide.

23
Chapter 15
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
24
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun
  • The sun has been shining on the Earth for about
    4.6 billion years. Many scientists once thought
    that the sun burned fuel to generate its energy.
  • The amount of energy that is released by
    burning would not be enough to power the sun. If
    the sun were simply burning, it would last for
    only 10,000 years.

25
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun, continued
  • Burning of Shrinking? Scientists later began
    thinking that gravity was causing the sun to
    slowly shrink and that gravity would release
    enough energy to heat the sun.
  • While the release of gravitational energy is
    more powerful than burning, it is not enough to
    power the sun. If all of the suns gravitational
    energy were released, the sun would last only 45
    million years.

26
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun, continued
  • Nuclear Fusion Albert Einstein showed that
    matter and energy are interchangeable. Matter can
    change into energy according to his famous
    formula
  • E ? mc2
  • (E is energy, m is mass, and c is the speed of
    light.)
  • Because c is such a large number, tiny amounts
    of matter can produce a huge amount of energy.

27
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun, continued
  • The process by which two or more low-mass nuclei
    join together, or fuse, to form another nucleus
    is called nuclear fusion.
  • In this way, four hydrogen nuclei can fuse to
    form a single nucleus of helium. During the
    process, energy is produced.
  • Scientists now know that the sun gets its energy
    from nuclear fusion.

28
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun, continued
  • Fusion in the Sun During fusion, under normal
    conditions, the nuclei of hydrogen atoms never
    get close enough to combine.
  • The reason is that the nuclei are positively
    charged, and like charges repel each other, just
    as similar poles on a pair of magnets do.

29
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun, continued
  • In the center of the sun, however, temperature
    and pressure are very high.
  • As a result, hydrogen nuclei have enough energy
    to overcome the repulsive force, and hydrogen
    fuses into helium, as shown on the next slide.

30
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
31
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun, continued
  • Energy produced in the center, or core, of the
    sun takes millions of years to reach the suns
    surface.
  • Energy passes from the core through a very dense
    region called the radiative zone. The matter in
    the radiative zone is so crowded that light and
    energy are blocked and sent in different
    directions.

32
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Energy Production in the Sun, continued
  • Eventually, energy reaches the convective zone.
    Gases circulate in the convective zone, which is
    about 200,000 km thick.
  • Hot gases in the convective zone carry the
    energy up to the photosphere, the visible surface
    of the sun.
  • From the photosphere, energy leaves the sun as
    light, which takes only 8.3 minutes to reach
    Earth.

33
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Solar Activity
  • The churning of hot gases in the sun, combined
    with the suns rotation, creates magnetic fields
    that reach far out into space.
  • The constant flow of magnetic fields from the
    sun is called the solar wind.
  • Sometimes, solar wind interferes with the
    Earths magnetic field. This type of solar storm
    can disrupt TV signals and damage satellites.

34
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Solar Activity, continued
  • Sunspots The suns magnetic fields tend to slow
    down activity in the convective zone. When
    activity slows down, areas of the photosphere
    become cooler than the surrounding area.
  • These cooler areas show up as sunspots. Sunspots
    are cooler, dark spots of the photosphere of the
    sun. Some sunspots can be as large as 50,000
    miles in diameter.

35
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Sunspots
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
36
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Solar Activity, continued
  • Climate Confusion Sunspot activity can affect
    the Earth. Some scientists have linked the period
    of low sunspot activity, 1645-1715, with a period
    of very low temperatures that Europe experienced
    during that time, known as he Little Ice Age.

37
Section 2 The Sun Our Very Own Star
Solar Activity, continued
  • Solar Flares The magnetic fields responsible
    for sunspots also cause solar flares. Solar
    flares are regions of extremely high temperatures
    and bright-ness that develop on the suns
    surface.
  • When a solar flare erupts, it sends huge streams
    of electrically charged particles into the solar
    system. Solar flares can interrupt radio
    communications on the Earth and in orbit.

38
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Bellringer
The Earth is approximately 4.6 billion years old.
The first fossil evidence of life on Earth has
been dated between 3.7 billion and 3.4 billion
year ago. Write a paragraph in your science
journal describing what Earth might have been
like during the first billion years of its
existence.
39
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Objectives
  • Describe the formation of the solid Earth.
  • Describe the structure of the Earth.
  • Explain the development of Earths atmosphere
    and the influence of early life on the
    atmosphere.
  • Describe how the Earths oceans and continents
    formed.

40
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of the Solid Earth
  • The Earth is mostly made of rock. Nearly
    three-fourths of its surface is covered with
    water.
  • Our planet is surrounded by a protective
    atmosphere of mostly nitrogen and oxygen, and
    smaller amounts of other gases.

41
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of the Solid Earth, continued
  • The Earth formed as planetesimals in the solar
    system collided and combined.
  • From what scientists can tell, the Earth formed
    within the first 10 million years of the collapse
    of the solar nebula.

42
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of the Solid Earth, continued
  • The Effects of Gravity When a young planet is
    still small, it can have an irregular shape. As
    the planet gains more matter, the force of
    gravity increases.
  • When a rocky planet, such as Earth, reaches a
    diameter of about 350 km, the force of gravity
    becomes greater than the strength of the rock.
  • As the Earth grew to this size, the rock at its
    center was crushed by gravity and the planet
    started to become round.

43
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of the Solid Earth, continued
  • The Effects of Heat As the Earth was changing
    shape, it was also heating up. As planetesimals
    continued to collide with the Earth, the energy
    of their motion heated the planet.
  • Radioactive material, which was present in the
    Earth as it formed, also heated the young planet.

44
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of the Solid Earth, continued
  • After Earth reached a certain size, the
    temperature rose faster than the interior could
    cool, and the rocky material inside began to
    melt.
  • Today, the Earth is still cooling from the
    energy that was generated when it formed.
  • Volcanoes, earthquakes, and hot springs are
    effects of this energy trapped inside the Earth.

45
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
How the Earths Layers Formed
  • As the Earths layers formed, denser materials,
    such as nickel and iron, sank to the center of
    the Earth and formed the core.
  • Less dense materials floated to the surface and
    became the crust. This process is shown on the
    next slide.

46
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
47
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
How the Earths Layers Formed, continued
  • The crust is the thin and solid outermost layer
    of the Earth above the mantle. It is 5 to 100 km
    thick.
  • Crustal rock is made of materials that have low
    densities, such as oxygen, silicon, and aluminum.

48
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
How the Earths Layers Formed, continued
  • The mantle is the layer of rock between the
    Earths crust and core. It extends 2,900 km below
    the surface.
  • Mantel rock is made of materials such as
    magnesium and iron. It is denser than crustal
    rock.

49
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
How the Earths Layers Formed, continued
  • The core is the central part of the Earth below
    the mantle. It contains the densest materials,
    including nickel and iron.
  • The core extends to the center of the
    Earthalmost 6,400 km below the surface.

50
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of the Earths Atmosphere
  • Earths Early Atmosphere Scientists think that
    the Earths early atmosphere was a mixture of
    gases that were released as the Earth cooled.
  • During the final stages of the Earths
    formation, its surface was very hoteven molten
    in places. The molten rock released large amounts
    of carbon dioxide and water vapor.

51
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of Earths Atmosphere, continued
  • Earths Changing Atmosphere As the Earth cooled
    and its layers formed, the atmosphere changed
    again. This atmosphere probably formed from
    volcanic gases.
  • Volcanoes released chlorine, nitrogen, and
    sulfur, in addition to large amounts of carbon
    dioxide and water vapor. Some of this water vapor
    may have condensed to form the Earths first
    oceans.

52
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of Earths Atmosphere, continued
  • Comets, which are planetesimals made of ice, may
    have contributed to this change of Earths
    atmosphere.
  • As they crashed into the Earth, comets brought
    in a range of elements, such as carbon, hydrogen,
    oxygen, and nitrogen.
  • Comets also may have brought some of the water
    that helped form the oceans.

53
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
The Role of Life
  • Ultraviolet Radiation Scientists think that
    ultraviolet (UV) radiation helped produce the
    conditions necessary for life. UV light has a lot
    of energy and can break apart molecules.
  • Earths early atmosphere probably did not have
    the protection of the ozone layer that now
    shields our planet from most of the suns UV
    rays. So many of the molecules in the air and at
    the surface were broken apart by UV radiation.

54
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
The Role of Life, continued
  • Over time, broken down molecular material
    collected in the Earths waters, which offered
    protection from UV radiation.
  • In these sheltered pools of water, chemicals may
    have combined to form the complex molecules that
    made life possible.
  • The first life-forms were very simple and did
    not need oxygen to live.

55
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
The Role of Life, continued
  • The Source of Oxygen Sometime before 3.4
    billion years ago, organisms that produced food
    by photo-synthesis appeared. Photosynthesis is
    the process of absorbing energy from the sun and
    carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make food.
  • During the process of making food, these
    organisms released oxygena gas that was not
    abundant in the atmosphere at the time.

56
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
The Role of Life, continued
  • Photosynthetic organisms played a major role in
    changing Earths atmosphere to become the mixture
    of gases it is today.
  • Over the next hundreds of millions of years,
    more oxygen was added to the atmosphere while
    carbon dioxide was removed.

57
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
The Role of Life, continued
  • As oxygen levels increased, some of the oxygen
    formed a layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere.
  • The ozone blocked most of the UV radiation and
    made it possible for life, in the form of simple
    plants, to move onto land about 2.2 billion years
    ago.

58
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Formation of Oceans and Continents
  • Scientists think that the oceans probably formed
    during Earths second atmosphere, when the Earth
    was cool enough for rain to fall and remain on
    the surface.
  • After millions of years of rainfall, water began
    to cover the Earth. By 4 billion years ago, a
    global ocean covered the planet.

59
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Ocean Formation
Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
Visual Concept
60
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Oceans and Continents, continued
  • The Growth of Continents After a while, some of
    the rocks were light enough to pile up on the
    surface. These rocks were the beginning of the
    earliest continents.
  • The continents gradually thickened and slowly
    rose above the surface of the ocean. These
    continents did not stay in the same place, as the
    slow transfer of thermal energy in the mantle
    pushed them around.

61
Section 3 The Earth Takes Shape
Oceans and Continents, continued
  • About 2.5 billion years ago, continents really
    started to grow. By 1.5 billion years ago, the
    upper mantle had cooled and had become denser and
    heavier.
  • At this time, it was easier for the cooler parts
    of the mantle to sink. These conditions made it
    easier for the continents to move in the same way
    they do today.

62
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Bellringer
A mnemonic device is a phrase, rhyme, or anything
that helps you remember a fact. Create a
mnemonic device that will help you differentiate
between planetary rotation and revolution.
Record your mnemonic device in your science
journal.
63
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Objectives
  • Explain the difference between rotation and
    revolution.
  • Describe three laws of planetary motion.
  • Describe how distance and mass affect
    gravitational attraction.

64
Section 4 Planetary Motion
A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of
    a body, such a planet, on its axis is called
    rotation.
  • The orbit is the path that a body follows as it
    travels around another body in space.
  • A revolution is one complete trip along an
    orbit.

65
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Earths Rotation and Revolution
66
Section 4 Planetary Motion
A Revolution in Astronomy, continued
  • Johannes Kepler made careful observations of the
    planets that led to important discoveries about
    planetary motion.
  • Keplers First Law of Motion Kepler discovered
    that the planets move around the sun in
    elliptical orbits.

67
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Ellipse
68
Section 4 Planetary Motion
A Revolution in Astronomy, continued
  • Keplers Second Law of Motion Kepler noted that
    the planets seemed to move faster when they are
    close to the sun and slower when they are farther
    away.

69
Section 4 Planetary Motion
A Revolution in Astronomy, continued
  • Keplers Third Law of Motion Kepler observed
    that planets more distant from the sun, such as
    Saturn, take longer to orbit the sun.

70
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Newton to the Rescue!
  • Kepler did not understand what causes the plans
    farther from the sun to move slower than the
    closer planets.
  • Sir Isaac Newtons description of gravity
    provides an answer.

71
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Newton to the Rescue! continued
  • The Law of Universal Gravitation Newtons law
    of universal gravitation states that the force of
    gravity depends on the product of the masses of
    the objects divided by the square of the distance
    between the objects.
  • According to this law, if two objects are moved
    farther apart, there will be less gravitational
    attraction between them.

72
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Newton to the Rescue! continued
  • Orbits Falling Down and Around Inertia is an
    objects resistance to change in speed or
    direction until an outside force acts on the
    object.
  • Gravitational attraction keeps the planets in
    their orbits. Inertia keeps the planets moving
    along their orbits.

73
Section 4 Planetary Motion
Gravity and the Motion of the Moon
74
Formation of the Solar System
Concept Mapping
Use the terms below to complete the concept map
on the next slide. comets orbit planets solar
systems suns nuclear fusion solar
nebulas planetesimals
75
Formation of the Solar System
76
Formation of the Solar System
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